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181. Gene expression profiling in a mouse model of retinal vein occlusion induced by laser treatment reveals a predominant inflammatory and tissue damage response. (PubMed)

), and even choroid and sclera at the laser site was observed in histological sections. Genes associated with inflammation or cell damage were highly up-regulated in all laser-treated eyes as detected by RNAseq and qPCR. Retinal hypoxia was observed by hypoxyprobe staining in all RVO eyes for up to 5 days with a maximal extension at days 2 and 3, but no significant RVO-dependent changes in gene expression were detected for angiogenesis- or hypoxia-related genes.The laser-induced RVO mouse model

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2018 PLoS ONE

182. Eponymythology: Graves orbitopathy

of 40 eye signs have been described over the past two centuries. The most enduring of these are outlined. Dalrymple sign (1803–1852) [ ] The most common clinical sign in Graves orbitopathy, is eyelid retraction. Dalrymple is associated with the description of ‘ a widened lid opening in exophthalmus with sclera revealed above the upper margin of the cornea ‘ better known as lid retraction. 1849 – The first published description was by (1816-1886) in ‘ On protrusion of the eyes in connexion (...) denuded of the protection of the upper lid by a constant and powerful spasm of the levator palpebrae *superioris, which drew the lids, so far upwards and backwards, that much of the sclera above the cornea was visible.’ 1852 – The eponym ‘ Dalrymple sign ‘ may have originated after the publication of his book, ‘ The Pathology of the Human Eye ‘ in 1852. Cooper does not specifically use the eponym, suggesting it manifested later, probably posthumously. No separate accounts or case reports were

2018 Life in the Fast Lane Blog

183. Amphiregulin and ocular axial length. (PubMed)

showed reduced axial elongation in a dose-dependent manner (dose: 5 μg: side difference: 0.14 ± 0.05 mm;10 μg: 0.22 ± 0.06 mm; 20 μg: 0.32 ± 0.06 mm; p < 0.001), thicker sclera (all p < 0.05) and higher cell density in the retinal nuclear layers and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) (all p < 0.05). In animals without lens-induced myopia, the right eyes with amphiregulin antibody application (20 μg) showed reduced axial elongation (p = 0.04), and the right eyes with amphiregulin injections experienced

2019 Acta ophthalmologica


) and after the introduction of the SN technique (post-SN; November 2017 to January 2018) was conducted. The SN technique was implemented as an alternative to suturing, using a 30-gauge needle inserted perpendicularly through the full thickness of the sclera adjacent to the scleral opening, with the needle then immediately removed and sclerotomy closure confirmed.A total of 203 eyes, 105 from pre-SN and 98 from post-SN, were included in the study. The number of eyes requiring suture closure

2019 Retina

185. Partial thickness cornea tissue from small incision lenticule extraction: A novel patch graft in glaucoma drainage implant surgery. (PubMed)

implantation surgery from August 2015 to January 2017 at the Xiamen Eye Center were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group A (corneal group) included 131 cases (135 eyes), receiving the 3 layers of allogeneic cornea slices as graft. Group B (scleral group) included 124 cases (127 eyes), using the sclera as allograft. The appearance, graft, conjunctiva melting, and tube exposure were the primary observation points.After followed up for 6 to 20 months, a thinner appearance was seen in 3 eyes (2.2 (...) %) in the corneal graft group and 7 eyes (5.5%) in the scleral group. Conjunctiva melted and drainage tube exposed in 0 eyes (0%) in the corneal graft group and 2 eyes (1.6%) in the scleral group. One eye needed repair surgery. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P > .05). After surgery, the intraocular pressure was reduced significantly in both groups (P < .05). The white sclera slice could be seen under the conjunctiva, thereby affecting the cosmetic appearance.The cornea slice acquired

2019 Medicine

186. High myopia induced by form deprivation is associated with altered corneal biomechanical properties in chicks. (PubMed)

High myopia induced by form deprivation is associated with altered corneal biomechanical properties in chicks. The cornea is a soft, transparent, composite organic tissue, which forms the anterior outer coat of the eyeball. Although high myopia is increasing in prevalence worldwide and is known to alter the structure and biomechanical properties of the sclera, remarkably little is known about its impact on the biomechanics of the cornea. We developed and validated a novel optical-coherence

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2018 PLoS ONE

187. Histopathological evaluation of scleritis. (PubMed)

Histopathological evaluation of scleritis. The sclera is an uncommon site of primary inflammation. Biopsy is infrequently employed in the evaluation of scleritis, but familiarity with its differential diagnosis is instrumental in ensuring efficient histological evaluation. This review provides a clinical overview of scleritis and describes the context in which scleral biopsy might arise. Most cases are associated with systemic autoimmune disease, but a sizeable proportion occur as an isolated

2019 Journal of Clinical Pathology

188. Suprachoroidally injected pharmacological agents for the treatment of chorio-retinal diseases: a targeted approach. (PubMed)

of dosing, achievable pharmaceutical concentrations within posterior segment structures versus elsewhere in the eye or the body, invasiveness of the procedure and the inherent challenges with some administration methods. The use of the suprachoroidal space (SCS), which is the region between the sclera and the choroid, is being explored as a potential approach to target pharmacotherapies to the posterior segment via a minimally invasive injection procedure. Preclinical data on agents such as vascular (...) endothelial growth factor inhibitors and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) indicate that administration via suprachoroidal injection results in more posterior distribution of the pharmacologic agent, with higher exposure to the sclera, choroid, retinal pigment epithelium cells and retina, and lesser exposure to the anterior segment, than observed with IVT administration. Based in part on these findings, clinical trials have explored the efficacy and safety of suprachoroidal administration of pharmacologic

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

189. Ultra-widefield optical coherence tomographic imaging of posterior vitreous in eyes with high myopia. (PubMed)

in the non-HM eyes (94% vs 44%, P<.001). The area of the PVD corresponded with the area where the sclera protruded posteriorly. A thickened vitreous was observed to adhere to the retinal vessels at multiple points and to be accompanied with paravascular abnormalities including lamellar holes in HM eyes. Fifty-four of the 167 HM eyes had macular retinoschisis (MRS), and the eyes commonly had vitreal traction onto retinal vessels compared to HM eyes without MRS (P=.031).PVD progressed with asymmetrically

2019 American Journal of Ophthalmology

190. Early Changes of Ocular Biological Parameters in Rhesus Monkeys After Scleral Cross-linking With Riboflavin/Ultraviolet-A. (PubMed)

was randomly selected to receive riboflavin/ultraviolet-A CXL in the temporal quadrant of the equatorial sclera and the contralateral eye served as an intra-individual control. The ocular biological parameters were repeatedly measured in both eyes of the monkeys before scleral CXL and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively.The intraocular pressure, refractive state, total axial length, and axial dimensions of the anterior chamber, crystalline lens, vitreous chamber, and central corneal thickness

2019 Journal of Refractive Surgery

191. Acute liver failure associated with Fructus Psoraleae: a case report and literature review. (PubMed)

liver toxicity.A 53-year-old woman who was diagnosed with vitiligo in September 2017 was treated with Qubaibabuqi tablets. After approximately 7 months of treatment, the patient developed a severe, diffuse yellow staining of the skin and sclera in March 2018. On admission, she was diagnosed with acute cholestatic hepatitis associated with Fructus Psoraleae. Despite receiving active treatment, her condition rapidly deteriorated and she died 5 days later due to acute liver failure and multiple organ

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2019 BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

192. A Rare Cause of Acute Epigastric Pain During Late Pregnancy. (PubMed)

A Rare Cause of Acute Epigastric Pain During Late Pregnancy. A 20-year-old woman with 36 weeks of gestation presented with acute persistent epigastric pain for two days. Physical examination demonstrated skin jaundice, sclera icterus and upper abdominal tenderness without rebound tenderness. Laboratory examinations showed the serum concentration of hemoglobin, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin were 86.0 g/L, 60.9 μmol/L and 42.1 μmol/L, respectively. Results of fetal monitoring

2019 Liver International

193. Scleral patch grafting for scleral wound thinning after pars plana phacoemulsification and aspiration: A case report. (PubMed)

on the superior temporal side.Subsequent removal of the trocar from the patient's right eye left an approximately 3-mm-wide oval-shaped gap at the trocar insertion site due to extreme thinning of the sclera in that area; that is, the location where the PPPEA was performed. Since suture fixation failed to stop intraocular fluid leakage, an inferior free half-thickness scleral flap was created to patch the scleral wound. Postsurgery, the leakage in that eye stopped and the intraocular pressure was stable

2019 Medicine

194. Compromised Exercise Capacity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Murine (oim) Mouse Model. (PubMed)

Compromised Exercise Capacity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in the Osteogenesis Imperfecta Murine (oim) Mouse Model. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable connective tissue disorder that most often arises from type I collagen-COL1A1 and COL1A2-gene defects leading to skeletal fragility, short stature, blue-gray sclera, and muscle weakness. Relative to the skeletal fragility, muscle weakness is much less understood. Recent investigations into OI muscle weakness in both patients and mouse

2019 Journal of Bone and Mineral Research

195. Scleral and conjunctival features in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment undergoing scleral buckling: an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and in vivo confocal microscopy study. (PubMed)

was performed at RRD diagnosis (RRD-D) and day 1, week 1, month 1 and month 6 after SB to evaluate the sclera, in the affected and unaffected quadrants (AQ, UQ). IVCM was performed at RRD-D, and at month 1 and month 6, to evaluate the conjunctiva in AQ and UQ. The main outcomes were as follows: mean intra-scleral hypo-reflective spaces area (MIHSA) at AS-OCT; mean density and area of microcysts (MMD, MMA) at IVCM; and intra-ocular pressure (IOP). The relations between MIHSA, MMA, MMD and IOP were

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

196. The eye in systemic inflammatory diseases. (PubMed)

The eye in systemic inflammatory diseases. Systemic inflammatory diseases commonly affect the sclera, cornea, retina, and orbit, and can pose a serious threat to sight. They encompass both primary and secondary vasculitic disorders and specific granulomatous inflammatory conditions. As well as direct eye involvement from the systemic inflammatory process, there can be signs of ocular ischaemia due to carotid or ophthalmic arteritis, hypertensive retinopathy, and ocular complications

2017 Lancet


, and 174 (82.9%) PAs showed a Bruch membrane defect on the available scans. In 101 (82.8%) of 122 PAs with clearly detectable borders of the retinal pigment epithelium and Bruch membrane defect, the Bruch membrane defects were smaller than the retinal pigment epithelium defects. A dome-shape inward bulging of the sclera was observed in 10 PAs.These morphological findings may provide a basis for exploring the biomechanical etiology of the PAs as part of the development of pathologic myopia.

2019 Retina

198. Sutureless intrascleral fixation of intraocular lens through self-sealing sclerotomy wounds using haptic externalization and reinternalization technique. (PubMed)

Sutureless intrascleral fixation of intraocular lens through self-sealing sclerotomy wounds using haptic externalization and reinternalization technique. In eyes with absent or insufficient capsule support, three-piece posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL) may be fixed to the sclera. Previous techniques involve the use of sutures, flaps, glue, needles, trocars, or intrascleral tunnels to fixate the distal tips of the haptics intrasclerally. Herein we describe a modified technique

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

199. Bruck syndrome 2 variant lacking congenital contractures and involving a novel compound heterozygous PLOD2 mutation. (PubMed)

-year-old girl was referred with blue sclera, osteopenia, poorly-healing fragility fractures, Wormian skull bones, cleft soft palate, congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, progressive scoliosis, bell-shaped thorax, restrictive and reactive pulmonary disease, protrusio acetabuli, short stature, and additional dysmorphic features without joint contractures. Iliac crest biopsy after alendronate treatment that improved her bone density revealed low trabecular connectivity, abundant patchy osteoid

2019 Bone

200. Repairing iridodialysis by riveting with a double-flanged polypropylene suture. (PubMed)

Repairing iridodialysis by riveting with a double-flanged polypropylene suture. Three patients with iridodialysis were recruited. A 6-0 polypropylene suture was cut to the proper length and flanged by cautery. A long (19.0 mm), ultrathin 30-gauge needle was inserted in the anterior chamber from the sclera around the iris and penetrated in the dialyzed iris, then exited through the cornea on the contralateral side. The flanged polypropylene suture was inserted in the needle from the unflanged (...) side. After the 30-gauge needle was withdrawn, the flanged suture remained, passing the dialyzed iris and sclera. The unflanged ends of the polypropylene sutures were cut and flanged until each flange reached the sclera. It was easy to place multiple sutures. There were no cases of extrusion of the suture nor of the recurrence of iridodialysis up to 1 year. This technique is a good alternative to repair iridodialysis.Copyright © 2019 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

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