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Sclera

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1. Humans do not perceive conspecifics with a greater exposed sclera as more trustworthy: a preliminary cross-ethnic study of the function of the overexposed human sclera (PubMed)

Humans do not perceive conspecifics with a greater exposed sclera as more trustworthy: a preliminary cross-ethnic study of the function of the overexposed human sclera Understanding the adaptive function of the unique morphology of the human eye, in particular its overexposed white sclera, may have profound implications for the fields of evolutionary behavioural science, and specifically the areas of human interaction and social cognition. Existing hypotheses, such as the cooperative eye (...) hypothesis, have attracted a lot of attention but remain untested. Here, we: (i) analysed variation in the visible sclera size in humans from different ethnic backgrounds and (ii) examined whether intraspecific variation of exposed sclera size is related to trust. We used 596 facial photographs of men and women, assessed for perceived trustworthiness, from four different self-declared racial backgrounds. The size of the exposed sclera was measured as the ratio between the width of the exposed eyeball

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2018 Acta Ethologica

2. Perilimbal sclera mechanical properties: Impact on intraocular pressure in porcine eyes. (PubMed)

Perilimbal sclera mechanical properties: Impact on intraocular pressure in porcine eyes. There is extensive knowledge on the relationship of posterior scleral biomechanics and intraocular pressure (IOP) load on glaucomatous optic neuropathy; however, the role for biomechanical influence of the perilimbal scleral tissue on the aqueous humor drainage pathway, including the distal venous outflow system, and IOP regulation is not fully understood. The purpose of this work is to study the outflow (...) characteristics of perfused porcine eyes relative to the biomechanical properties of the perilimbal sclera, the posterior sclera and the cornea. Enucleated porcine eyes from eleven different animals were perfused with surrogate aqueous at two fixed flow rates while monitoring their IOP. After perfusion, mechanical stress-strain and relaxation tests were conducted on specimens of perilimbal sclera, posterior sclera, and cornea from the same perfused eyes. Statistical analysis of the data demonstrated a strong

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2018 PLoS ONE

3. Efficacy of Phacotrabeculectomy Alone versus Phacotrabeculectomy Augmented with Autologous Anterior Capsule Implantation Beneath the Sclera Flap. (PubMed)

Efficacy of Phacotrabeculectomy Alone versus Phacotrabeculectomy Augmented with Autologous Anterior Capsule Implantation Beneath the Sclera Flap. To evaluate the efficacy of autologous anterior lens capsule (ALC) in phacotrabeculectomy.In this prospective, randomized case control study, after obtaining institutional ethical clearance and informed consent, 88 eyes posted for phacotrabeculectomy were divided into ALC and non-ALC groups. Combined phacoemulsification, with posterior chamber (...) intraocular lens implantation and trabeculectomy, was performed in both groups. Anterior lens capsule transplantation was done in the first group beneath the sclera flap. Follow-up of three months was carried out and the morphology of bleb, intraocular pressure (IOP), requirement for additional medications, and complications were compared between the two groups.Statistical difference favoring the ALC group was seen in IOP reduction (p < 0.05) at each follow-up, qualified success rate and failure rate

2018 Seminars in Ophthalmology

4. Posterior scleral reinforcement using genipin-cross-linked sclera for macular hole retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes. (PubMed)

Posterior scleral reinforcement using genipin-cross-linked sclera for macular hole retinal detachment in highly myopic eyes. To investigate the surgical outcomes of posterior scleral reinforcement (PSR) using genipin-cross-linked sclera to treat macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) in highly myopic eyes.Nineteen patients with high myopia (19 eyes) with MHRD were treated sequentially with genipin-cross-linked PSR and were followed at least for 1 year after the surgery. The best corrected (...) visual acuity (BCVA), axial length (AL), optical coherence tomography (OCT) outcomes and the complications were evaluated.Macular hole was closed in 73.7% of the eyes, foveal reattachment rate was 100%. The mean logMAR BCVA improved from 1.27±0.55 preoperatively to 0.88±0.55 postoperatively. The preoperative AL (29.88±1.97 mm) was decreased (27.73±1.84 mm) after the operation (p<0.001).For at least a 1-year period of follow-up, PSR with genipin-cross-linked sclera should be considered as a preferred

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

5. Donor sclera versus bovine pericardium as patch graft material in glaucoma implant surgery and the impact of a drainage suture. (PubMed)

Donor sclera versus bovine pericardium as patch graft material in glaucoma implant surgery and the impact of a drainage suture. To compare the use of human donor sclera with bovine pericardium as patch graft material for a glaucoma drainage device (GDD), with respect to the incidence of tube exposure, and to study the role of a drainage suture.All GDD surgeries between 2010 and 2014 performed at the VU Medical Center were examined in this comparative, retrospective cohort study. A total of 244 (...) cases were included; 163 in the human donor sclera cohort and 81 in the bovine pericardium cohort with a median follow-up of 31 and 36 months, respectively. The primary outcome measure was occurrence of tube exposure. Survival analysis for tube exposure was carried out and Kaplan-Meier curves compared. Secondary outcomes were postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications and the effect of a drainage suture.In the bovine pericardium cohort, eleven (13.6%) eyes developed

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2018 Acta ophthalmologica

6. Gene Expression and Pathways Underlying Form Deprivation Myopia in the Guinea Pig Sclera. (PubMed)

Gene Expression and Pathways Underlying Form Deprivation Myopia in the Guinea Pig Sclera. Posterior scleral remodeling accompanies myopia. In guinea pigs developing myopia, the region around the optic nerve (peripapillary zone, PPZ) rapidly expands followed by inhibition in eye size in the periphery. We studied the differential gene expression in the sclera that accompanies these changes.Guinea pigs were form-deprived (FD) for 2 weeks to induce myopia, while the fellow eye served as a control (...) . After 2 weeks, the PPZ and the peripheral temporal sclera were isolated in representative animals to extract the RNA. RNA sequencing was undertaken using an Illumina HiSeq 2000, with differential expression analyzed using Voom and pathways analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool. RNA from additional PPZ and peripheral temporal sclera in FD and fellow eyes was used for validation of gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR).In myopic sclera, 348 genes were differentially

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

7. A novel surgical technique employing donor sclera in strabismus surgery. (PubMed)

A novel surgical technique employing donor sclera in strabismus surgery. We describe a novel surgical technique employing donor sclera as a spacer to solve the problem encountered in complicated cases of restrictive strabismus surgery when no more muscle or tendon is available for surgical extension of the eye muscle to correct the angle of deviation. This is often the case in patients who have previously undergone extensive surgery and in patients with mechanical restrictions, such as thyroid

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

8. Real-Time Sclera Force Feedback for Enabling Safe Robot-Assisted Vitreoretinal Surgery (PubMed)

Real-Time Sclera Force Feedback for Enabling Safe Robot-Assisted Vitreoretinal Surgery One of the major yet little recognized challenges in robotic vitreoretinal surgery is the matter of tool forces applied to the sclera. Tissue safety, coordinated tool use and interactions between tool tip and shaft forces are little studied. The introduction of robotic assist has further diminished the surgeon's ability to perceive scleral forces. Microsurgical tools capable of measuring such small forces (...) integrated with robotmanipulators may therefore improve functionality and safety by providing sclera force feedback to the surgeon. In this paper, using a force-sensing tool, we have conducted robotassisted eye manipulation experiments to evaluate the utility of providing scleral force feedback. The work assesses 1) passive audio feedback and 2) active haptic feedback and evaluates the impact of these feedbacks on scleral forces in excess of aboundary. The results show that in presence of passive

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2018 Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference

9. Photokinetic Drug Delivery: Near infrared (NIR) Induced Permeation Enhancement of Bevacizumab, Ranibizumab and Aflibercept through Human Sclera (PubMed)

Photokinetic Drug Delivery: Near infrared (NIR) Induced Permeation Enhancement of Bevacizumab, Ranibizumab and Aflibercept through Human Sclera Permeation studies, with near infrared (NIR) light and anti-aggregation antibody formulation, were used to investigate the in vitro permeation of bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept through human sclera.A vertical, spherical Franz cell diffusion apparatus was used for this scleral tissue permeation model. A photokinetic ocular drug delivery (PODD

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2018 Pharmaceutical research

10. Rotation asymmetry of the human sclera. (PubMed)

Rotation asymmetry of the human sclera. To characterize the mean topographical shape of the human sclera of a normal eye.Forty-five participants aged from 19 to 45 years and with no previous ocular surgeries were included in this study. Four three-dimensional (3D) corneo-scleral maps from both eyes were acquired using a corneo-scleral topographer (Eye Surface Profiler). For each 3D map, the sclera (maximum diameter of 16 mm) and cornea were automatically separated at the level of the limbus (...) . The remaining 3D scleral ring was further fit to a quadratic function. The elevation difference between the original and fit data was calculated. For statistical analysis, sclera was divided into eight sectors: nasal, temporal, superior, inferior, supero-nasal, supero-temporal, inferior-nasal and inferior-temporal. In addition, sclera was separated as inner sclera (inner ring of 6-7-mm radius) and outer sclera (external ring of 7-8-mm radius).Horizontally, the nasal area of the sclera showed less elevation

2018 Acta ophthalmologica

11. Regional Deformation of the Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Sclera During IOP Elevation. (PubMed)

Regional Deformation of the Optic Nerve Head and Peripapillary Sclera During IOP Elevation. To measure the deformation of the porcine optic nerve head (ONH) and peripapillary sclera (PPS) in response to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation.High-frequency ultrasound was used to image the ONH and PPS of 12 porcine eyes during ex vivo inflation testing from 5 to 30 mm Hg. A speckle tracking algorithm was used to compute tissue displacements in the anterior-posterior direction and expansion

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

12. Genipin-Crosslinked Donor Sclera for Posterior Scleral Contraction/Reinforcement to Fight Progressive Myopia. (PubMed)

Genipin-Crosslinked Donor Sclera for Posterior Scleral Contraction/Reinforcement to Fight Progressive Myopia. Myopia has become a global public health problem, particularly in East Asia where myopic retinopathy has become one of the leading causes of blindness and visual impairment in the elderly population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of posterior scleral contraction/reinforcement (PSCR) surgery on controlling the progressive elongation of axial length of highly (...) postsurgical visit.PSCR with genipin-crosslinked sclera is safe and effective to restrain eye globe elongation in young patients within a 2- to 3-year follow-up period.

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

13. Spatial Patterns and Age-Related Changes of the Collagen Crimp in the Human Cornea and Sclera. (PubMed)

Spatial Patterns and Age-Related Changes of the Collagen Crimp in the Human Cornea and Sclera. Collagen is the main load-bearing component of the eye, and collagen crimp is a critical determinant of tissue mechanical behavior. We test the hypothesis that collagen crimp morphology varies over the human cornea and sclera and with age.We analyzed 42 axial whole-globe sections from 20 normal eyes of 20 human donors, ranging in age from 0.08 (1 month) to 97 years. The sections were imaged using (...) -related decreases between regions. The crimp morphology of the limbus changed the most drastically with age, such that it had the largest crimp in neonates, and among the smallest in the elderly.Age-related decreases in crimp parameters are likely one of the mechanisms underlying age-related stiffening of the sclera and cornea, potentially influencing sensitivity to IOP. Further work is needed to determine the biomechanical implications of the crimp patterns observed. The comparatively large changes

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

14. Clinical evidence supporting the use of donor sclera as spacer material in complicated cases of strabismus surgery - retrospective evaluation of surgical results in 117 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy or congenital strabismus. (PubMed)

Clinical evidence supporting the use of donor sclera as spacer material in complicated cases of strabismus surgery - retrospective evaluation of surgical results in 117 patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy or congenital strabismus. To examine the outcome of the use of donor sclera as spacer material in complicated cases of strabismus surgery.A retrospective cohort study on patients with complicated thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) (n = 42) or congenital strabismus (n = 75 (...) study on the use of donor sclera as spacer material in complicated cases of strabismus surgery. The surgical results were good in terms of the reduction in the angle of deviation, the need for re-operation, complications and patient satisfaction, supporting the use of donor sclera for strabismus surgery.© 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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2018 Acta ophthalmologica

15. Age-Related Changes in Quantitative Strain of Mouse Astrocytic Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Sclera Using Confocal Microscopy in an Explant Model. (PubMed)

Age-Related Changes in Quantitative Strain of Mouse Astrocytic Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Sclera Using Confocal Microscopy in an Explant Model. The purpose of this study was to measure the full-field deformation response to IOP change in the peripapillary sclera (PPS) and astrocytic lamina cribrosa (ALC) of young and old mouse eyes ex vivo.Thirty-eight transgenic reporter mice with green fluorescent protein-expressing astrocytes were studied at 2 to 4 months and 13 to 15 months old

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

16. Radial and Circumferential Collagen Fibers Are a Feature of the Peripapillary Sclera of Human, Monkey, Pig, Cow, Goat, and Sheep. (PubMed)

Radial and Circumferential Collagen Fibers Are a Feature of the Peripapillary Sclera of Human, Monkey, Pig, Cow, Goat, and Sheep. To test the hypothesis that human, monkey, pig, sheep, cow, and goat eyes exhibit circumferential, radial, and interweaving collagen architecture in the posterior sclera.We analyzed 1,327 cryosections from the posterior poles of 4 human, 4 monkey, 5 pig, 8 sheep, 1 goat, and 2 cow eyes. Images were acquired using polarized light microscopy and processed to obtain (...) polar fiber orientations relative to the center of the canal. Circumferential, radial, and interweaving regions were identified and analyzed for mean fiber orientation and anisotropy and region width and thickness.Every eye exhibited circumferential, radial, and interweaving fibers in consistent locations. Radial fibers extended out from near the canal into the peripapillary and peripheral sclera in the innermost sclera. Circumferential fibers were directly adjacent to the canal and most prevalent

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

17. Evaluation of Therapeutic Tissue Crosslinking (TXL) for Myopia Using Second Harmonic Generation Signal Microscopy in Rabbit Sclera. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Therapeutic Tissue Crosslinking (TXL) for Myopia Using Second Harmonic Generation Signal Microscopy in Rabbit Sclera. Second harmonic generation signals (SHG) are emitted preferentially from collagenous tissue structures and have been used to evaluate photochemically-induced (CXL) crosslinking changes in the cornea. Since therapeutic tissue crosslinking (TXL) using sodium hydroxymethylglycinate (SMG) of the sclera is a potential treatment for high myopia, we explored the use

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

18. Protective effects of biodegradable collagen implants on thinned sclera after strabismus surgery: a paired-eye study. (PubMed)

Protective effects of biodegradable collagen implants on thinned sclera after strabismus surgery: a paired-eye study. To determine the efficacy of a biodegradable Ologen (Aeon Astron Europe BV, Leiden, The Netherlands) collagen matrix in reducing the blue color change due to exposed thinned sclera after strabismus surgery.Fourteen patients with intermittent exotropia undergoing symmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession surgery were included in this prospective, randomized, paired-eye (...) (CLAHE), Canny edge, and the RGB (red-green-blue) model. Secondary outcomes were conjunctival and sclera thickness 3 months postoperatively determined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.Immediately and 1 week postoperatively all color models showed no significant differences between Ologen-implanted and control eyes. Three months postoperatively, Ologen-implanted eyes exhibited significantly lower CLAHE (P = 0.041) and RGB model blue color (P = 0.008) values than control eyes. Canny

2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

19. Racial Differences in the Extracellular Matrix and Histone Acetylation of the Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Sclera. (PubMed)

Racial Differences in the Extracellular Matrix and Histone Acetylation of the Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Sclera. We investigated the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and peripapillary sclera (PPS) and compared histone acetylation and related enzymes to identify racial differences between Korean and Caucasian donor eyes.Posterior segment tissues were obtained from 30 Caucasian donors and 42 age and axial length-matched Korean donors. Histone modification was assessed

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

20. Microstructural Crimp of the Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Sclera Collagen Fibers. (PubMed)

Microstructural Crimp of the Lamina Cribrosa and Peripapillary Sclera Collagen Fibers. Although collagen microstructural crimp is a major determinant of ocular biomechanics, no direct measurements of optic nerve head (ONH) crimp have been reported. Our goal was to characterize the crimp period of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and peripapillary sclera (PPS) at low and normal IOPs.ONHs from 11 sheep eyes were fixed at 10-, 5-, or 0-mm Hg IOP and crimp periods measured manually from coronal

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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