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Schirmers Test

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1. Effect of intramuscular administration of medetomidine and xylazine on tear flow measured by the Schirmer tear test I in healthy cats. (PubMed)

Effect of intramuscular administration of medetomidine and xylazine on tear flow measured by the Schirmer tear test I in healthy cats. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effects of intramuscular medetomidine and xylazine on tear flow in healthy cats. Methods Five cats each received medetomidine 10, 20, 40 and 80 µg/kg IM; xylazine 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg IM; and physiological saline (2.0 ml IM) in a randomised order separated by intervals of at least 1 week. The Schirmer tear (...) test (STT) I was performed in both eyes before and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 24 h after each dose. Results The STT I value decreased significantly at 0.5 and 1.0 h and at 0.75 and 1.0 h in both eyes after administration of medetomidine at 10 or 40 µg/kg. After administration of medetomidine 80 µg/kg, there was a significant decrease in the STT I reading at 0.75, 2 and 3 h in the left eye and 0.75, 1, 2 and 3 h in the right eye. The STT I value decreased significantly at: 0.5, 0.75

2018 Journal of feline medicine and surgery

2. Schirmer tear test I in dogs: results comparing placement in the ventral vs. dorsal conjunctival fornix. (PubMed)

Schirmer tear test I in dogs: results comparing placement in the ventral vs. dorsal conjunctival fornix. To compare Schirmer tear test I (STT I) values obtained from placement of tear strips in the ventral and dorsal conjunctival fornices in dogs.Schirmer tear test I was performed on each eye of 16 clinically normal dogs (32 eyes) in a crossover study. Initial tear strip placement site was randomized for each eye. Alternative placement site measurements were obtained after 1 week.The mean (...) (± standard deviation, SD) STT I for dorsal and ventral conjunctival fornices was 20.44 (±4.46) mm/min and 23.56 (±3.98) mm/min, respectively. STT I values obtained from the ventral conjunctival fornix were significantly greater than those obtained from the dorsal conjunctival fornix (P = 0.004).Schirmer tear test I values were significantly greater with tear strips placed in the ventral conjunctival fornix.© 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

2018 Veterinary ophthalmology

3. The Impact of Septal Deviation on Intranasal Schirmer Test Values (PubMed)

The Impact of Septal Deviation on Intranasal Schirmer Test Values Intranasal Schirmer test serves as an objective measurement for evaluation of nasal secretion and humidity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of septal deviation on nasal secretion and humidity by measuring the intranasal Schirmer test values in patients who had septal deviation and compare it to the values of our healthy volunteers.The study included 52 patients with nasal septum deviation and 52 volunteers without any (...) rhinologic complaints or deviated nasal septum. Intranasal Schirmer test was performed to all patients and volunteers for both nasal cavities.The intranasal Schirmer test values of the convex (deviated) side were lower than that of the concave (non-deviated) side (20.71 and 23.35 respectively); although this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.054,). After excluding the four patients with equal Schirmer test results on both sides, 70% (34/48) of our patients had lower intranasal Schirmer

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2018 Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology

4. Results of the Schirmer tear test performed with open and closed eyes in clinically normal horses (PubMed)

Results of the Schirmer tear test performed with open and closed eyes in clinically normal horses The Schirmer tear test (STT) is widely used in both human and veterinary ophthalmology. Two types of STTs have been developed: STT I and SST II. The STT I measures the basal and reflex tear production and is the most widely used STT. However, several factors influence the STT results such as the person performing the test and the location of the strip placement within the conjunctival sac. The aim (...) of this study was to measure the basal and reflex tear production (STT I) in clinically normal horses with open versus closed eyes.Forty clinically healthy horses without any ocular diseases were included. On day 1, the STT I was first performed on all the horses with the eyes open followed by an STT I with closed eyes performed 30 min later. On day 2, all horses had their eyes closed during the first STT and the eyes open during the second test performed 30 min later. The mean value of the STTs performed

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2017 Acta veterinaria Scandinavica

5. Effects of two concentrations of topical tropicamide on the Schirmer tear test in clinically normal cats. (PubMed)

Effects of two concentrations of topical tropicamide on the Schirmer tear test in clinically normal cats. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical tropicamide at two concentrations (0.5% and 1.0%) on the Schirmer tear test (STT) results in clinically normal cats.Twenty-four adult domestic shorthair cats were randomly assigned to three groups. In all three groups, ophthalmic solutions were instilled in a randomly selected eye and the opposite eye served as the control (...) . In groups 1, 2 and 3 one drop of 0.5% tropicamide, 1.0% tropicamide and distilled water was used, respectively. Tear production in both eyes was tested 30 and 60 mins after instillation in all three groups.Baseline mean ± SEM STT values for the treated eyes in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 13.37 ± 2.91 mm/min, 10.87 ± 1.39 mm/min and 11.37 ± 1.65 mm/min, respectively. Thirty minutes after the drug instillation in the treated eye, mean ± SEM STT values in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 4.87 ± 3.05 mm/min, 2.00 ± 0.84

2017 Journal of feline medicine and surgery

6. Effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on Schirmer tear test I results of clinically normal cats. (PubMed)

Effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on Schirmer tear test I results of clinically normal cats. To evaluate the effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on tear production of clinically normal cats by use of the Schirmer tear test (STT) 1 before and during anesthesia and after reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole.40 client-owned crossbred domestic shorthair cats (23 males and 17 females; age range, 6 to 24 months).A complete physical examination, CBC, and ophthalmic

2016 American journal of veterinary research

7. Temporal effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine hydrochloride or xylazine hydrochloride to healthy dogs on tear flow measured by use of a Schirmer tear test I. (PubMed)

Temporal effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine hydrochloride or xylazine hydrochloride to healthy dogs on tear flow measured by use of a Schirmer tear test I. To determine the temporal effects on tear flow measurements obtained by use of a Schirmer tear test (STT) I after IM administration of various doses of medetomidine or xylazine to healthy dogs.5 healthy purpose-bred male Beagles.Each dog received IM injections of 2.0 mL of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control

2016 American journal of veterinary research

8. The effects of hormone replacement therapy on dry eye syndromes evaluated by Schirmer test depend on patient age. (PubMed)

The effects of hormone replacement therapy on dry eye syndromes evaluated by Schirmer test depend on patient age. This study was performed to explore the effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on aqueous tear production and tear quality in dry eye syndrome (DES) patients of different ages.Eighty-eight women with DES at least one year after spontaneous menopause were randomly divided into the HRT group that were treated with orally estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate or a control (...) group that did not receive any treatment. The aqueous tear production and tear quality were measured by Schirmer test and tear film break up time (TBUT) before and after one month of treatment. The subjects were subdivided according to age; the HRT group was divided into groups A (age range: 44-49 years) and B (age range: 50-57 years), and the controls were divided into groups C (age range: 46-49 years) and D (age range: 50-55 years). The changes in results of Schirmer test and TBUT before and after

2016 Contact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association

9. Tear volume estimation using a modified Schirmer test: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial comparing 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution and artificial tears in dry eye patients. (PubMed)

Tear volume estimation using a modified Schirmer test: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial comparing 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution and artificial tears in dry eye patients. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a modified Schirmer test to determine the increase in tear volume after administration of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution (diquafosol 3%) in dry eye patients.A randomized, multicenter, prospective, double-blind clinical study recruited 50 qualified subjects (...) . They received diquafosol 3% in one eye and artificial tears in the other eye. The study protocol comprised a screening and treatment procedure completed within 1 day. The Schirmer test was performed on closed eyes three times a day. The primary efficacy end points were the second Schirmer test scores 10 minutes after the single dose. Secondary end points were the third Schirmer test scores 3 hours and 40 minutes after the single dose and the symptom scores prior to the second and third Schirmer

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2016 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

10. Schirmer's Test

Schirmer's Test Schirmers Test Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Schirmer's Test Schirmer's Test Aka: Schirmer's Test (...) , Schirmer Test II. Indication: Dry Eye evaluation ( ) III. Technique Do not use topical anesthetic for test Strip of filter paper placed inside lateral canthus Folded at palpebral margin and draped below eye IV. Interpretation: Positive Test Filter paper remains dry Less than 5 mm of wetting after 5 minutes or Less than 10 mm of wetting after 15 minutes Suggests diagnosis of Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Schirmers

2018 FP Notebook

11. Photorefractive keratectomy for patients with preoperative low Schirmer test value (PubMed)

Photorefractive keratectomy for patients with preoperative low Schirmer test value To compare dry eye signs and symptoms between patients with preoperative low and normal Schirmer test after Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).In this prospective, nonrandomized, comparative case series, 76 eyes of 76 patients were preoperatively categorized into two groups according to selected criteria for characterization of tear film status: the low Schirmer test value (STV) group and the normal STV group (...) . For the tear function assessment, we performed a Schirmer test with and without anesthesia, tear break-up time (TBUT) test, and measurement dry eye symptoms using the Farsi translation of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire pre- and 3 months post-operation.Postoperatively, the Schirmer and TBUT values were significantly lower in both groups than preoperatively (all p < 0.05). Deterioration in tear secretion was significantly greater in the low STV group (p = 0.012), but tear stability

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2016 Journal of current ophthalmology

12. Detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in a Spanish population using the Schirmer strip test: pathogenic potential, molecular classification and evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine and voriconazole of the isolated Acanthamoeba strains. (PubMed)

Detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in a Spanish population using the Schirmer strip test: pathogenic potential, molecular classification and evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine and voriconazole of the isolated Acanthamoeba strains. Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is often associated with the misuse of contact lenses. However, there is still a question remaining (...) to be answered, which is whether these micro-organisms are present on the ocular surface of healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in healthy patients and also in those with other ocular surface infections. Sterile Schirmer test strips were used to collect samples from a group of patients who attended an ophthalmology consultation at the Hospital del Norte, Icod de los Vinos, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Most of the patients (46

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2015 Journal of Medical Microbiology

13. The Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Dry Eye Syndrome Evaluated with Schirmer Test and Break-Up Time (PubMed)

The Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy on Dry Eye Syndrome Evaluated with Schirmer Test and Break-Up Time Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for dry eye syndrome (DES) is controversial in clinical practice. The goal of this study was to review relevant studies and analyze the pooled data to determine whether HRT is effective for DES. In this study, a literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to May 2015 was performed, with the search restricted to English language (...) publications. The studies were screened after reading the abstract and full text. Only studies related to the effect of HRT on DES were included in the meta-analysis. Results of Schirmer tests with and without anesthetics and tear break-up time (BUT) values data were extracted and entered into RevMan software to meta-analyze the overall effect of HRT on DES. A total of 43 studies were identified, and 21 of these studies were found to be related to the effect of HRT on DES. Ultimately, 5 studies were

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2015 Journal of ophthalmology

14. Influence of eye position on the Schirmer tear test. (PubMed)

Influence of eye position on the Schirmer tear test. The Schirmer test (ST) evaluates the volume of tears in potential dry eye candidates via a strip placed in the lower tear lake. Previously reported inconsistencies in the results may be in part due to the lack of standardization as to the methodology, e.g. the eye position during the test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of eye position on the ST score.. A ST was performed in a randomized fashion with and without

2014 Contact lens & anterior eye : the journal of the British Contact Lens Association

15. Correlations among ocular surface temperature difference value, the tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and fluorescein tear film break up time. (PubMed)

Correlations among ocular surface temperature difference value, the tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and fluorescein tear film break up time. To report the use of a thermographer for measuring ocular surface temperature, and to evaluate the correlation among the obtained temperature difference values (TDVs) and dry eye parameters (tear meniscus height (TMH); Schirmer's test results; fluorescent tear breakup time (FTBUT)).Forty-three participants (age 40.2±14.7 years; range 21-67 years (...) ) from Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taiwan were recruited for the study. The surface temperature was measured at the centre of the ocular surface for 4 s after blinking. TDV was defined as the change in corneal surface temperature relative to that of the preceding eye opening, where TDV01, TDV02, TDV03, and TDV04 represent the values obtained 1, 2, 3, and 4 s after blinking, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was employed to measure the lower TMH. Schirmer's test

2014 British Journal of Ophthalmology

16. Sialometry of Upper Labial Minor Glands: A Clinical Approach by the Use of Weighing Method Schirmer's Test Strips Paper (PubMed)

Sialometry of Upper Labial Minor Glands: A Clinical Approach by the Use of Weighing Method Schirmer's Test Strips Paper To establish referential values ranges of hyposalivation and normosalivation for the salivary flow rate (SFR) of upper labial (LS) and palatal (PS) mucosa using Schirmer's test strips paper and as a second goal to determine the values ranges of the SFR of palatal (PS) and upper labial (LS) mucosa in subjects with and without xerostomia.A cross-sectional study was conducted (...) ), and 2.44 (1.66 to 3.22) (P = 0.014). Xerostomia complainers presented lower rates of LS (5.17 (4.06 to 6.23)) than non-complainers (7.33 (6.4 to 8.27)) (P = 0.003).The test was reliable to provide referential values ranges for LS flow rate measurement and was shown to be valid to distinguish normosalivation from severe and mild hyposalivation and also to predict xerostomia.

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2014 The Scientific World Journal

17. Evaluation of Phenol Red Thread test versus Schirmer test in dry eyes: A comparative study (PubMed)

Evaluation of Phenol Red Thread test versus Schirmer test in dry eyes: A comparative study Dry eye is the most common ocular morbidity found in elderly patients. There is no gold standard/standard test for diagnosing dry eye.The present study was conducted to compare the potential of Phenol Red Thread (PRT) test versus Schirmer Test in diagnosing dry eye.The study was conducted on 50 patients, aged 40 years and above. History of dry eye symptoms was taken and the symptoms were graded. Six (...) -questions Bandeen Rosch questionnaire was administered to those having symptoms of dry eye. Patients whose response to any of the questions was often/all the time were included in the study. After performing standard clinical examination, Schirmer and PRT tests were done.PRT is equally sensitive in detecting dry eye, and in addition, it has many advantages as compared to Schirmer. PRT is simpler and more comfortable to the patient and can be done in children. It causes less reflex tearing. Most

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2011 International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research

18. Schirmer's Test

Schirmer's Test Schirmers Test Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Schirmer's Test Schirmer's Test Aka: Schirmer's Test (...) , Schirmer Test II. Indication: Dry Eye evaluation ( ) III. Technique Do not use topical anesthetic for test Strip of filter paper placed inside lateral canthus Folded at palpebral margin and draped below eye IV. Interpretation: Positive Test Filter paper remains dry Less than 5 mm of wetting after 5 minutes or Less than 10 mm of wetting after 15 minutes Suggests diagnosis of Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Schirmers

2015 FP Notebook

19. Combination between Schirmer I test and Phenol Red Thread as a rescue strategy for diagnosis of ocular dryness associated with Sjogren's syndrome. (PubMed)

Combination between Schirmer I test and Phenol Red Thread as a rescue strategy for diagnosis of ocular dryness associated with Sjogren's syndrome. To define a combination of the Schirmer I and phenol red thread (PRT) tests that improves the screening of patients with ocular sicca syndrome.The PRT test was performed before (PRT1) and after (PRT2) the Schirmer I test, in both eyes of 143 patients complaining of ocular dryness secondary to Sjögren's syndrome or sicca asthenia polyalgia syndrome (...) with the Schirmer I test. If PRT1 alone was ineffective to screen SGS from control patients, the comparison between PRT1 and PRT2 (so-called "DeltaPRT") was found as a good marker to detect patients with persistent tear reflex. Interestingly, the combination of positive Schirmer I, PRT 2, and/or ΔPRT tests was found to be highly predictive of severe ocular sicca syndrome.The combination of the Schirmer I and PRT tests strongly improves the screening procedure to detect patients with ocular dryness related

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2011 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

20. Schirmer's test (PubMed)

Schirmer's test 22389568 2012 08 23 2016 10 21 1993-7288 24 76 2011 Dec Community eye health Community Eye Health Schirmer's test. 45 Stevens Sue S Former Nurse Advisor, Community Eye Health Journal, International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK. eng Journal Article England Community Eye Health 8912615 0953-6833 2012 3 6 6 0 2012 3 6 6 0 2012 3 6 6 1 ppublish 22389568 PMC3284761

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2011 Community Eye Health

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