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Scarlet Fever

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1. Detecting spatio-temporal hotspots of scarlet fever in Taiwan with spatio-temporal Gi* statistic. (PubMed)

Detecting spatio-temporal hotspots of scarlet fever in Taiwan with spatio-temporal Gi* statistic. A resurgence of scarlet fever has caused many pediatric infections in East Asia and the United Kingdom. Although scarlet fever in Taiwan has not been a notifiable infectious disease since 2007, the comprehensive national health insurance data can still track its trend. Here, we used data from the open data portal of the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control. The scarlet fever trend was measured (...) by outpatient and hospitalization rates from 2009 to 2017. In order to elucidate the spatio-temporal hotspots, we developed a new method named the spatio-temporal Gi* statistic, and applied Joinpoint regression to compute the annual percentage change (APC). The overall APCs in outpatient and hospitalization were 15.1% (95% CI: 10.3%-20.2%) and 7.7% (95%CI: 4.5% -10.9%). The major two infected groups were children aged 5-9 (outpatient: 0.138 scarlet fever diagnoses per 1,000 visits; inpatient: 2.579 per

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2019 PLoS ONE

2. Increased Risk for Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease for Household Contacts of Scarlet Fever Cases, England, 2011-2016. (PubMed)

Increased Risk for Invasive Group A Streptococcus Disease for Household Contacts of Scarlet Fever Cases, England, 2011-2016. The incidence of scarlet fever in England and Wales is at its highest in 50 years. We estimated secondary household risk for invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) disease within 60 days after onset of scarlet fever. Reports of scarlet fever in England during 2011-2016 were matched by residential address to persons with laboratory-confirmed iGAS infections. We identified

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

3. Detection of epidemic scarlet fever group A Streptococcus in Australia. (PubMed)

Detection of epidemic scarlet fever group A Streptococcus in Australia. Sentinel hospital surveillance was instituted in Australia to detect the presence of pandemic group A Streptococcus strains causing scarlet fever. Genomic and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of an Australian GAS emm12 scarlet fever isolate related to UK outbreak strains. National surveillance to monitor this pandemic is recommended.

2019 Clinical Infectious Diseases

4. Emergence of dominant toxigenic M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes clone during increased scarlet fever activity in England: a population-based molecular epidemiological study. (PubMed)

Emergence of dominant toxigenic M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes clone during increased scarlet fever activity in England: a population-based molecular epidemiological study. Since 2014, England has seen increased scarlet fever activity unprecedented in modern times. In 2016, England's scarlet fever seasonal rise coincided with an unexpected elevation in invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections. We describe the molecular epidemiological investigation of these events.We analysed changes in S (...) pyogenes emm genotypes, and notifications of scarlet fever and invasive disease in 2014-16 using regional (northwest London) and national (England and Wales) data. Genomes of 135 non-invasive and 552 invasive emm1 isolates from 2009-16 were analysed and compared with 2800 global emm1 sequences. Transcript and protein expression of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA; also known as scarlet fever or erythrogenic toxin A) in sequenced, non-invasive emm1 isolates was quantified by real-time PCR

2019 Lancet infectious diseases

5. Resurgence of scarlet fever in China: a 13-year population-based surveillance study. (PubMed)

Resurgence of scarlet fever in China: a 13-year population-based surveillance study. A re-emergence of scarlet fever has been noted in Hong Kong, South Korea, and England, UK, since 2008. China also had a sudden increase in the incidence of the disease in 2011. In this study, we aimed to assess the epidemiological changes before and after the upsurge. We also aimed to explore the reasons for the upsurge in disease in 2011, the epidemiological factors that contributed to it, and assess how (...) these could be managed to prevent future epidemics.In this observational study, we extracted the epidemiological data for all cases of scarlet fever between 2004 and 2016 in China from the Chinese Public Health Science Data Center, the official website of National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, and the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System. These data had been collected from 31 provinces and regions in China and included geographical, seasonal, and patient

2018 Lancet infectious diseases

6. Scarlet Fever Epidemic in China Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M12: Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis (PubMed)

Scarlet Fever Epidemic in China Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M12: Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data (...) was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011-2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003-2010 prior this outbreak. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 32 emm12 scarlet fever isolates and 13 emm12 non-scarlet fever isolates collected from different geographic regions of China, and compared with 203 published emm12 S. pyogenes genomes

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2018 EBioMedicine

7. The Comeback of Scarlet Fever (PubMed)

The Comeback of Scarlet Fever 29396303 2018 11 07 2018 11 13 2352-3964 28 2018 Feb EBioMedicine EBioMedicine The Comeback of Scarlet Fever. 7-8 S2352-3964(18)30034-3 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.01.030 Wong Samson S Y SSY Department of Microbiology, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, China. Yuen Kwok-Yung KY Department of Microbiology, Carol Yu Centre for Infection, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, China. Electronic address: kyyuen@hku.hk (...) . eng Journal Article 2018 01 31 Netherlands EBioMedicine 101647039 2352-3964 0 Antigens, Bacterial 3U02EL437C Clindamycin IM Antigens, Bacterial metabolism Clindamycin pharmacology Disease Outbreaks Drug Resistance, Bacterial drug effects Hong Kong epidemiology Humans Scarlet Fever drug therapy epidemiology microbiology Streptococcus pyogenes genetics metabolism pathogenicity Taiwan epidemiology United Kingdom epidemiology 2018 01 23 2018 01 23 2018 2 6 6 0 2018 11 8 6 0 2018 2 4 6 0 ppublish

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2018 EBioMedicine

8. Complete Genome Sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M12 Scarlet Fever Outbreak Isolate from China, Compiled Using Oxford Nanopore and Illumina Sequencing (PubMed)

Complete Genome Sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M12 Scarlet Fever Outbreak Isolate from China, Compiled Using Oxford Nanopore and Illumina Sequencing The incidence of scarlet fever cases remains high in China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus pyogenes isolate of serotype M12, which has been confirmed as the predominant serotype in recent outbreaks. Genome sequencing was achieved by a combination of Oxford Nanopore MinION and Illumina

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2018 Genome Announcements

9. Outbreak Investigation of Scarlet Fever in a Kindergarten (PubMed)

Outbreak Investigation of Scarlet Fever in a Kindergarten 29637758 2018 11 14 2093-2340 50 1 2018 03 Infection & chemotherapy Infect Chemother Outbreak Investigation of Scarlet Fever in a Kindergarten. 65-66 10.3947/ic.2018.50.1.65 Lee Hyunju H 0000-0003-0107-0724 Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongam, Korea. hyunjulee@snu.ac.kr. eng Editorial Comment Korea (South) Infect Chemother 101531537 1598-8112 Infect

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2018 Infection & chemotherapy

10. Investigation of Scarlet Fever Outbreak in a Kindergarten (PubMed)

Investigation of Scarlet Fever Outbreak in a Kindergarten Scarlet fever is caused by a group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. On April 3, 2017, an outbreak among children in a kindergarten was reported to the local health department. An epidemiologic investigation was conducted to identify the possible transmission route of this outbreak and to recommend appropriate control measures.A retrospective cohort study was conducted using questionnaires including age, sex, the classroom attended (...) at a kindergarten, and date and type of symptoms developed. A case-patient is defined as a child having sore throat, fever, skin rash, or strawberry tongue with or without laboratory confirmation of GAS infection between March 28 and April 28, 2017.The index case-patients developed symptoms on March 28, 2017, and this outbreak persisted over a period of 16 days. The outbreak affected 21 out of 158 children (13.3%) in the kindergarten, with the mean age of 4.2 (range 3-5) years; 12 (57.1%) of them were boys

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2018 Infection & chemotherapy

11. Increasing Number of Scarlet Fever Cases, South Korea, 2011-2016. (PubMed)

Increasing Number of Scarlet Fever Cases, South Korea, 2011-2016. The increasing number of reported scarlet fever cases during 2011‒2016 in the National Notifiable Infectious Disease database in South Korea occurred because of increased overall reporting and expanded reporting criteria rather than because of increasing scarlet fever incidence. Further increases are anticipated because of other expansions in reporting requirements.

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2018 Emerging Infectious Diseases

12. Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005-2015. (PubMed)

Epidemiology of Reemerging Scarlet Fever, Hong Kong, 2005-2015. Annual incidence of scarlet fever in Hong Kong remained elevated after an upsurge in 2011. Incidence increased from 3.3/10,000 children <5 years of age during 2005-2010 to 18.1/10,000 during 2012-2015. Incidence was higher among boys and was 32%-42% lower in the week following school holidays.

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

13. Resurgence of scarlet fever in England, 2014-16: a population-based surveillance study. (PubMed)

Resurgence of scarlet fever in England, 2014-16: a population-based surveillance study. After decades of decreasing scarlet fever incidence, a dramatic increase was seen in England beginning in 2014. Investigations were launched to assess clinical and epidemiological patterns and identify potential causes.In this population-based surveillance study, we analysed statutory scarlet fever notifications held by Public Health England from 1911 to 2016 in England and Wales to identify periods (...) of sudden escalation of scarlet fever. Characteristics of cases and outbreaks in England including frequency of complications and hospital admissions were assessed and compared with the pre-upsurge period. Isolates from throat swabs were obtained and were emm typed.Data were retrieved for our analysis between Jan 1, 1911, and Dec 31, 2016. Population rates of scarlet fever increased by a factor of three between 2013 and 2014 from 8·2 to 27·2 per 100 000 (rate ratio [RR] 3·34, 95% CI 3·23-3·45; p<0·0001

2017 Lancet infectious diseases

14. Spatiotemporal epidemiology of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province, China, 2005-2015. (PubMed)

Spatiotemporal epidemiology of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province, China, 2005-2015. A marked increase in the incidence rate of scarlet fever imposed a considerable burden on the health of children aged 5 to 15 years. The main purpose of this study was to depict the spatiotemporal epidemiological characteristics of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province, China in order to develop and implement effective scientific prevention and control strategies.Smoothed map was used to demonstrate the spatial (...) distribution of scarlet fever in Jiangsu Province. In addition, a retrospective space-time analysis based on a discrete Poisson model was utilized to detect clusters of scarlet fever from 2005 to 2015.During the years 2005-2015, a total of 15,873 scarlet fever cases occurred in Jiangsu Province, with an average annual incidence rate of 1.87 per 100,000. A majority of the cases (83.67%) occurred in children aged 3 to 9 years. Each year, two seasonal incidence peaks were observed, the higher occurring

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2017 BMC Infectious Diseases

15. Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008-2015. (PubMed)

Incidence and Characteristics of Scarlet Fever, South Korea, 2008-2015. The incidence rate for scarlet fever in South Korea is rising. During 2008-2015, we collected group A Streptococcus isolates and performed emm and exotoxin genotyping and disk-diffusion antimicrobial tests. Scarlet fever in South Korea was most closely associated with emm types emm4, emm28, emm1, and emm3. In 2015, tetracycline resistance started increasing.

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2017 Emerging Infectious Diseases

16. Far East Scarlet-like Fever Masquerading as Adult-onset Kawasaki Disease (PubMed)

Far East Scarlet-like Fever Masquerading as Adult-onset Kawasaki Disease A previously healthy 31-year-old man was referred to us with refractory septic shock accompanied by bilateral conjunctival congestion and erythema of his right lower limb. Nine days after admission, he had bilateral desquamation of the fingertips, and his presentation satisfied the criteria for Kawasaki disease. A serological examination was positive for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and he was diagnosed with Far East (...) scarlet-like fever (FESLF). Interestingly, his 11-month-old baby boy had similar symptoms around the same time, indicating the intrafamilial transmission of the pathogen. We should consider FESLF when we encounter a familial occurrence of systemic manifestations of Kawasaki disease.

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2017 Internal Medicine

17. Genome analysis following a national increase in Scarlet Fever in England 2014 (PubMed)

Genome analysis following a national increase in Scarlet Fever in England 2014 During a substantial elevation in scarlet fever (SF) notifications in 2014 a national genomic study was undertaken of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococci, GAS) isolates from patients with SF with comparison to isolates from patients with invasive disease (iGAS) to test the hypotheses that the increase in SF was due to either the introduction of one or more new/emerging strains in the population in England

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2017 BMC genomics

18. Scarlet fever: a guide for general practitioners (PubMed)

Scarlet fever: a guide for general practitioners There has been an increase in the incidence of scarlet fever with most cases presenting in General Practice and Emergency Departments. Cases present with a distinctive macro-papular rash, usually in children. This article aims to increase awareness of scarlet fever by highlighting key symptoms and stating potential complications if untreated. In patients who have the typical symptoms, a prescription of a suitable antibiotic

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2017 London journal of primary care

19. Asthma/ scarlet fever/measles Inside Health 15/3/16

Asthma/ scarlet fever/measles Inside Health 15/3/16 Asthma/ scarlet fever/measles Inside Health 15/3/16 | Margaret McCartney's Blog ASTHMA Dutch study in question http://bjgp.org/content/66/644/e152 SIGN guidelines on asthma http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/pat141_CHILDREN.pdf In children with mild, intermittent wheeze and other respiratory symptoms which occur only with viral upper respiratory infections (colds), it is often reasonable to give no specific treatment and to plan a review of the child (...) with the BTS/SIGN treatment steps. The diagnosis is not a one time event and may need to be reviewed, particularly in younger children. DIFFICULT CONSULTATIONS http://qualitysafety.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjqs-2015-005065 http://qualitysafety.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjqs-2015-005150 http://qualitysafety.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjqs-2015-005150 ASTHMA/SCARLET FEVER http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Scarlet-fever/Pages/Introduction.aspxhttp://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Measles/Pages/Symptoms.aspx https

2016 Margaret McCartney's Blog

20. Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia. (PubMed)

Far East Scarlet-Like Fever Caused by a Few Related Genotypes of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Russia. We used multivirulence locus sequence typing to analyze 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolates from patients in Russia during 1973-2014, including 41 isolates from patients with Far East scarlet-like fever. Four genotypes were found responsible, with 1 being especially prevalent. Evolutionary analysis suggests that epidemiologic advantages could cause this genotype's dominance.

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2016 Emerging Infectious Diseases

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