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Rickettsiae

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1. Rickettsia japonica and Novel Rickettsia Species in Ticks, China. (PubMed)

Rickettsia japonica and Novel Rickettsia Species in Ticks, China. PCR amplification indicated the minimum infection rate of Rickettsia spp. was 0.66% in Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks collected from Shandong Province, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on the rrs, gltA, ompA, and ompB genes indicated that the ticks carried R. japonica, Candidatus Rickettsia longicornii, and a novel Rickettsia species related to R. canadensis.

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

2. Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Tick of the Amblyomma maculatum Group, Mexico. (PubMed)

Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in Tick of the Amblyomma maculatum Group, Mexico. We report Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae in ticks of the Amblyomma maculatum group collected from dogs in Sonora, Mexico. Molecular characterization of these bacteria was accomplished by DNA amplification and sequence analysis of portions of the rickettsial genes gltA, htrA, ompA, and ompB.

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2019 Emerging Infectious Diseases

3. Molecular evidence of Rickettsia raoultii, “Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae” and a novel Babesia genotype in marbled polecats (Vormela peregusna) at the China-Kazakhstan border (PubMed)

Molecular evidence of Rickettsia raoultii, “Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae” and a novel Babesia genotype in marbled polecats (Vormela peregusna) at the China-Kazakhstan border In this study, two road-killed marbled polecats (Vormela peregusna) were molecularly analysed for tick-borne pathogens. Rickettsia raoultii, "Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae" and a novel Babesia genotype have been identified, for the first time in marbled polecat. DNA of this Babesia sp. genotype was also present

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2018 Parasites & vectors

4. Molecular investigations of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) provide the first evidence of Rickettsia felis in Malta and Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis in Israel (PubMed)

Molecular investigations of cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) provide the first evidence of Rickettsia felis in Malta and Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis in Israel Rickettsia felis, the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever, occurs on all continents except Antarctica, owing to the cosmopolitan distribution of its cat flea vector. In this study, cat fleas were collected in two countries where the occurrence of R. felis was either unknown (Malta) or where accurate prevalence data were (...) lacking (Israel). Altogether 129 fleas were molecularly analysed for the presence of rickettsial DNA. On the basis of three genetic markers, R. felis was identified in 39.5% (15/38) of the cat fleas from Malta. Sequences showed 100% identity to each other and to relevant sequences in GenBank. Among the 91 cat fleas from Israel, two (2.2%) contained the DNA of Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis. Phylogenetically, the R. felis and Candidatus R. senegalensis identified here clustered separately

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2018 New Microbes and New Infections

5. Transmission of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia massiliae DNA by Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) ticks during artificial feeding (PubMed)

Transmission of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia massiliae DNA by Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) ticks during artificial feeding Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens are emerging worldwide and pose an increased health risk to both humans and animals. A plethora of rickettsial species has been identified in ticks recovered from human and animal patients. However, the detection of rickettsial DNA in ticks does not necessarily mean that these ticks can act as vectors (...) for these pathogens. Here, we used artificial feeding of ticks to confirm transmission of Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia raoultii by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato) and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, respectively. The speed of transmission was also determined.An artificial feeding system based on silicone membranes were used to feed adult R. sanguineus (s.l.) and D. reticulatus ticks. Blood samples from in vitro feeding units were analysed for the presence of rickettsial DNA using PCR and reverse line

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2018 Parasites & vectors

6. In vitro studies of Rickettsia-host cell interactions: Confocal laser scanning microscopy of Rickettsia helvetica-infected eukaryotic cell lines (PubMed)

In vitro studies of Rickettsia-host cell interactions: Confocal laser scanning microscopy of Rickettsia helvetica-infected eukaryotic cell lines Rickettsia (R.) helvetica is the most prevalent rickettsia found in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Germany. Several studies reported antibodies against R. helvetica up to 12.5% in humans investigated, however, fulminant clinical cases are rare indicating a rather low pathogenicity compared to other rickettsiae. We investigated growth characteristics of R (...) . helvetica isolate AS819 in two different eukaryotic cell lines with focus on ultra-structural changes of host cells during infection determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Further investigations included partially sequencing of rickA, sca4 and sca2 genes, which have been reported to encode proteins involved in cell-to-cell spread and virulence in some rickettsiae. R. helvetica grew constantly but slowly in both cell lines used. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

7. Immunogenicity of OmpA and OmpB antigens from <i>Rickettsia rickettsii</i> on mononuclear cells from <i>Rickettsia</i> positive Mexican patients. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity of OmpA and OmpB antigens from Rickettsia rickettsii on mononuclear cells from Rickettsia positive Mexican patients. The nature of the rickettsial antigens and the immune response generated by them, have been the subject of exhaustive research so that a suitable vaccine can be developed. Till date evaluations of Rickettsia rickettsii antigens that induce both humoral and cellular responses in animal models have only shown partial protection and short-term

2017 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

8. Detection of causative agents of tick-borne rickettsioses in Western Siberia, Russia: identification of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia sibirica DNA in clinical samples. (PubMed)

Detection of causative agents of tick-borne rickettsioses in Western Siberia, Russia: identification of Rickettsia raoultii and Rickettsia sibirica DNA in clinical samples. The main causative agent of tick-borne rickettsioses in Siberia is considered to be Rickettsia sibirica; however, only a few cases have been genetically confirmed. Other pathogenic species of Rickettsia have been detected in ixodid ticks in Western Siberia. The aim of this study was to detect the aetiological agents of tick (...) -borne rickettsioses in Western Siberia and compare their clinical manifestations.A total of 273 blood and 44 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 273 patients hospitalized because of tick-transmitted infection in April-September 2016 were examined for the presence of Rickettsia spp., using nested PCR with subsequent sequencing.DNA of Rickettsia spp. was found in samples from 10 patients. The gltA gene fragment sequence analysis revealed R. sibirica DNA in seven patients (blood samples

2017 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

9. A 10-year surveillance of Rickettsiales (Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) in the city of Hanover, Germany, reveals Rickettsia spp. as emerging pathogens in ticks (PubMed)

A 10-year surveillance of Rickettsiales (Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) in the city of Hanover, Germany, reveals Rickettsia spp. as emerging pathogens in ticks Rickettsiales (Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) transmitted by ticks are considered (re-)emerging pathogens posing a risk to public health. Nevertheless, year-long monitoring studies on prevalences of these pathogens in questing ticks to contribute to public health risk assessment are rare.The current study (...) extends previous prevalence surveillances (2005 and 2010) by 2015 to a 10-year monitoring. Therefore, 2100 questing Ixodes ricinus were collected from April to October 2015 at ten different recreation sites in the city of Hanover, Germany, to determine potential changes in tick infection rates with Rickettsiales.Of the collected ticks, 288 were adult females, 285 adult males and 1527 nymphs. Overall, 3.8% (79/2100) of ticks were infected with A. phagocytophilum, 50.8% (1066/2100) with Rickettsia spp

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2017 Parasites & vectors

10. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Australian veterinarians (PubMed)

Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi in Australian veterinarians Rickettsia felis and Rickettsia typhi are emerging arthropod-borne zoonoses causing fever and flu-like symptoms. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with exposure to these organisms was explored in Australian veterinarians.One hundred and thirty-one veterinarians from across Australia were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Veterinarians provided a single blood sample

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2017 Parasites & vectors

11. Phylogenetic Variants of Rickettsia africae, and Incidental Identification of "Candidatus Rickettsia Moyalensis" in Kenya (PubMed)

Phylogenetic Variants of Rickettsia africae, and Incidental Identification of "Candidatus Rickettsia Moyalensis" in Kenya Rickettsia africae, the etiological agent of African tick bite fever, is widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa. Contrary to reports of its homogeneity, a localized study in Asembo, Kenya recently reported high genetic diversity. The present study aims to elucidate the extent of this heterogeneity by examining archived Rickettsia africae DNA samples collected from (...) DNA samples, three were determined to be R. aeschlimanii and not R. africae. One sample turned out to be a novel rickettsiae and an interim name of "Candidatus Rickettsia moyalensis" is proposed. The bonafide R. africae formed two distinct clades. Clade I contained 9% of the samples and branched with the validated R. africae str ESF-5, while clade II (two samples) formed a distinct sub-lineage.This data supports the use of multiple genes for phylogenetic inferences. It is determined that, despite

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2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

12. Rickettsia amblyommatis sp. nov., a spotted fever group Rickettsia associated with multiple species of Amblyomma ticks in North, Central and South America (PubMed)

Rickettsia amblyommatis sp. nov., a spotted fever group Rickettsia associated with multiple species of Amblyomma ticks in North, Central and South America In 1973, investigators isolated a rickettsial organism, designated strain WB-8-2T, from an adult Amblyomma americanum tick collected at Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, TN, USA. This organism is now recognized as highly prevalent in A. americanum, as well as several other Amblyomma species found throughout the Western (...) hemisphere. It has been suggested that cross-reactivity to WB-8-2T and similar strains contributes to the increasing number of spotted fever cases reported in the USA. In 1995, investigators provided preliminary evidence that this strain, as well as another strain from Missouri, represented a distinct taxonomic unit within the genus Rickettsia by evaluating sequences of the 16S rRNA and 17 kDa protein genes. However, the bacterium was never formally named, despite the use of the designation 'Rickettsia

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2016 International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology

13. New Foci of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Including Rickettsia honei in Western Australia (PubMed)

New Foci of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae Including Rickettsia honei in Western Australia We describe the first reported case of spotted fever group rickettsiosis in Western Australia, and two cases of probable Rickettsia honei from a new geographic focus. These findings highlight the need to raise awareness of ricksettsial infection among local clinicians as well as those treating visitors to this region, important for outdoor recreation.

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2016 Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease

14. Rickettsia parkeri and “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” in Questing Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) From Mississippi (PubMed)

Rickettsia parkeri and “Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae” in Questing Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae) From Mississippi Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, may also be infected with a rickettsia of unknown pathogenicity, "Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae." Infection rates with these rickettsiae vary geographically, and coinfected ticks have been reported. In this study, infection rates of R. parkeri and "Ca. R. andeanae" were evaluated (...) anticipate that understanding temporal changes will improve our awareness of human risk for spotted fever rickettsioses. Further, these data may lead to additional studies to evaluate potential interactions among sympatric Rickettsia species in A. maculatum at the population level.© The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

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2016 Journal of medical entomology

15. Fluorescent Protein Expressing Rickettsia buchneri and Rickettsia peacockii for Tracking Symbiont-Tick Cell Interactions (PubMed)

Fluorescent Protein Expressing Rickettsia buchneri and Rickettsia peacockii for Tracking Symbiont-Tick Cell Interactions Rickettsiae of indeterminate pathogenicity are widely associated with ticks. The presence of these endosymbionts can confound a One Health approach to combatting tick-borne diseases. Genomic analyses of symbiotic rickettsiae have revealed that they harbor mutations in gene coding for proteins involved in rickettsial pathogenicity and motility. We have isolated (...) and characterized two rickettsial symbionts-Rickettsia peacockii and R. buchneri-both from ticks using tick cell cultures. To better track these enigmatic rickettsiae in ticks and at the tick-mammal interface we transformed the rickettsiae to express fluorescent proteins using shuttle vectors based on rickettsial plasmids or a transposition system driving insertional mutagenesis. Fluorescent protein expressing R. buchneri and R. peacockii will enable us to elucidate their interactions with tick and mammalian

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2016 Veterinary Sciences

16. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid screening of ticks and fleas for spotted fever group rickettsia. (PubMed)

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid screening of ticks and fleas for spotted fever group rickettsia. The importance of tick and flea-borne rickettsia infections is increasingly recognized worldwide. While increased focus has shifted in recent years to the development of point-of-care diagnostics for various vector-borne diseases in humans and animals, little research effort has been devoted to their integration into vector surveillance and control (...) programs, particularly in resource-challenged countries. One technology which may be helpful for large scale vector surveillance initiatives is loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The aim of this study was to develop a LAMP assay to detect spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia DNA from field-collected ticks and fleas and compare with published end-point PCR results.A Spotted Fever Group rickettsia-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (SFGR-LAMP) assay was developed using primers

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2018 PLoS ONE

17. Approaches for the successful isolation and cell culture of American <i>Rickettsia</i> species. (PubMed)

Approaches for the successful isolation and cell culture of American Rickettsia species. Rickettsia are intracellular vector-borne bacteria, which are the etiologic agent of severe infections that could inflict death to their host. The intracellular behaviour of Rickettsia makes the study of its genetics, proteomics and cellular processes very difficult. Hence, isolation remains an important experimental technique that permits the obtention of important yields of bacteria, useful (...) for a broad range of experiments. Isolation of Rickettsia using passages in animals or embryonated eggs has been described for long time; however, it was until the 1990s that faster and more feasible approaches for cell culture were developed. Current isolation approaches are mainly based on shell vial culture, that varies according to the media, atmosphere or temperature conditions. These variations have allowed the establishment of isolates from different pathogenic and non-pathogenic Rickettsia species

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2019 Journal of Vector Borne Disease

18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for <i>Rickettsia</i> and <i>Leptospira</i> Infection in Four Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru. (PubMed)

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Rickettsia and Leptospira Infection in Four Ecologically Distinct Regions of Peru. Rickettsia and Leptospira spp. are under-recognized causes of acute febrile disease worldwide. Rickettsia species are often placed into the spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR). We explored the antibody prevalence among humans for these two groups of rickettsiae in four regions of Peru (Lima, Cusco, Puerto Maldonado, and Tumbes (...) association with keeping animals in the household. We tested animal sera for Leptospira and conducted PCR to detect Rickettsia species among ectoparasites collected from domestic animals in 63 households of seropositive participants and controls. We did not find any association between animal infection and human serostatus.

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

19. Evaluation of changes to the Rickettsia rickettsii transcriptome during mammalian infection. (PubMed)

Evaluation of changes to the Rickettsia rickettsii transcriptome during mammalian infection. The lifecycle of Rickettsia rickettsii includes infection of both mammalian and arthropod hosts, with each environment presenting distinct challenges to survival. As such, these pathogens likely have distinctive transcriptional strategies for infection of each host. Herein, we report the utilization of next generation sequencing (RNAseq) and bioinformatic analysis techniques to examine the global

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2017 PLoS ONE

20. Molecular characterization of novel mosquito-borne Rickettsia spp. from mosquitoes collected at the Demilitarized Zone of the Republic of Korea. (PubMed)

Molecular characterization of novel mosquito-borne Rickettsia spp. from mosquitoes collected at the Demilitarized Zone of the Republic of Korea. Rickettsiae are associated with a diverse range of invertebrate hosts. Of these, mosquitoes could emerge as one of the most important vectors because of their ability to transmit significant numbers of pathogens and parasites throughout the world. Recent studies have implicated Anopheles gambiae as a potential vector of Rickettsia felis. Herein we (...) report that a metagenome sequencing study identified rickettsial sequence reads in culicine mosquitoes from the Republic of Korea. The detected rickettsiae were characterized by a genus-specific quantitative real-time PCR assay and sequencing of rrs, gltA, 17kDa, ompB, and sca4 genes. Three novel rickettsial genotypes were detected (Rickettsia sp. A12.2646, Rickettsia sp. A12.2638 and Rickettsia sp. A12.3271), from Mansonia uniformis, Culex pipiens, and Aedes esoensis, respectively. The results

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2017 PLoS ONE

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