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Review of Systems

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135541. Systemic complications after head injury: a clinical review. (PubMed)

Systemic complications after head injury: a clinical review. Non-neurological organ dysfunction is common after traumatic brain injury and is an independent contributor to morbidity and mortality. It represents a risk factor that is potentially amenable to treatment, and early recognition and prompt intervention may improve outcome. This article reviews the current evidence for the mechanisms and treatment of non-neurological organ dysfunction after head injury.

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2007 Anaesthesia

135542. Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel: a review with a modified meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Systemic contact dermatitis after oral exposure to nickel: a review with a modified meta-analysis. Systemic contact dermatitis can be elicited experimentally in nickel-sensitive individuals by oral nickel exposure. A crucial point interpreting such experiments has been the relevance of nickel exposure from drinking water and diet. The aim of this meta-analysis study on former nickel-exposure investigations was to provide the best possible estimation of threshold values of nickel doses that may (...) cause systemic contact dermatitis in nickel-sensitive patients. 17 relevant investigations were identified, and statistical analyses were performed in a stepwise procedure. 9 studies were included in the final dose-response analysis, which divided the studies into a homogenous middle group of 5 studies and 2 groups of 2 studies with a higher and lower response frequency, respectively, described by logistic dose-response curves shifted in parallel. On the basis of these curves, calculations were made

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2006 Contact Dermatitis

135543. Intraoperative awareness in a regional medical system: a review of 3 years' data. (PubMed)

Intraoperative awareness in a regional medical system: a review of 3 years' data. Intraoperative awareness in patients undergoing general anesthesia is an infrequent but well-described adverse outcome. The reported incidence of this phenomenon is between 0.1% and 0.9%.With institutional review board approval, the authors reviewed continuous quality improvement data from 3 yr (2002-2004) at the locations where the physician group provided anesthesia. Board-certified anesthesiologists supervising

2007 Anesthesiology

135544. Culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review. (PubMed)

Culturally competent healthcare systems. A systematic review. Culturally competent healthcare systems-those that provide culturally and linguistically appropriate services-have the potential to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities. When clients do not understand what their healthcare providers are telling them, and providers either do not speak the client's language or are insensitive to cultural differences, the quality of health care can be compromised. We reviewed five interventions (...) to improve cultural competence in healthcare systems-programs to recruit and retain staff members who reflect the cultural diversity of the community served, use of interpreter services or bilingual providers for clients with limited English proficiency, cultural competency training for healthcare providers, use of linguistically and culturally appropriate health education materials, and culturally specific healthcare settings. We could not determine the effectiveness of any of these interventions

2003 American journal of preventive medicine

135545. Neuro-cognitive impairment following acquired central nervous system infections in childhood: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Neuro-cognitive impairment following acquired central nervous system infections in childhood: a systematic review. The morbid consequences of central nervous system (CNS) infections are often overlooked in the face of high mortality rates. However, neurological impairments not only affect the child's development and future prospects but also place an economic and social burden on communities and countries that often have few resources to deal with such problems. We conducted a systematic review

2003 Brain research. Brain research reviews

135546. Sex hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus: review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Sex hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus: review and meta-analysis. 12905462 2003 08 29 2006 11 15 0004-3591 48 8 2003 Aug Arthritis and rheumatism Arthritis Rheum. Sex hormones and systemic lupus erythematosus: review and meta-analysis. 2100-10 McMurray Robert W RW G. V. (Sonny) Montgomery Veterans Affairs Hospital, and Division of Rheumatology and Molecular Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2500 North State Street, Jackson, MS 39216, USA. Robert.McMurray@med.va.gov (...) May Warren W eng Journal Article Meta-Analysis Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Review United States Arthritis Rheum 0370605 0004-3591 0 Gonadal Steroid Hormones AIM IM Female Gonadal Steroid Hormones physiology Humans Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic metabolism physiopathology Male Models, Statistical 99 2003 8 9 5 0 2003 8 30 5 0 2003 8 9 5 0 ppublish 12905462 10.1002/art.11105

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2003 Arthritis and rheumatism

135547. Point: From animal models to prevention of colon cancer. Systematic review of chemoprevention in min mice and choice of the model system. (PubMed)

Point: From animal models to prevention of colon cancer. Systematic review of chemoprevention in min mice and choice of the model system. The Apc(Min/+) mouse model and the azoxymethane (AOM) rat model are the main animal models used to study the effect of dietary agents on colorectal cancer. We reviewed recently the potency of chemopreventive agents in the AOM rat model (D. E. Corpet and S. Tache, Nutr. Cancer, 43: 1-21, 2002). Here we add the results of a systematic review of the effect (...) of dietary and chemopreventive agents on the tumor yield in Min mice. The review is based on the results of 179 studies from 71 articles and is displayed also on the internet http://corpet.net/min.(2) We compared the efficacy of agents in the Min mouse model and the AOM rat model, and found that they were correlated (r = 0.66; P < 0.001), although some agents that afford strong protection in the AOM rat and the Min mouse small bowel increase the tumor yield in the large bowel of mutant mice. The agents

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2003 Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology

135548. Is medical informatics a mature science? A review of measurement practice in outcome studies of clinical systems. (PubMed)

Is medical informatics a mature science? A review of measurement practice in outcome studies of clinical systems. To determine the extent of explicit attention to formal issues of 'measurement' in studies examining outcomes of the deployment of clinical information systems.A structured literature review identified 27 published studies reporting quantitative outcomes including attitudes, clinician behavior, quality of care, and cost of care. These studies were analyzed for types of outcome (...) of which represented reuse within a single research group. Reliability indices were reported in three studies. There were no reported validity indices.Based on this sample of studies, specific attention to issues of measurement is sparse in outcome studies of deployed clinical information systems. As such, medical informatics does not appear to be on a par with more mature sciences in its approaches to measurement of key outcome variables.

2003 International journal of medical informatics

135549. Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD.A systematic review was conducted of studies which (...) reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model.Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP

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2004 Thorax

135550. Systematic review: surveillance systems for early detection of bioterrorism-related diseases. (PubMed)

Systematic review: surveillance systems for early detection of bioterrorism-related diseases. Given the threat of bioterrorism and the increasing availability of electronic data for surveillance, surveillance systems for the early detection of illnesses and syndromes potentially related to bioterrorism have proliferated.To critically evaluate the potential utility of existing surveillance systems for illnesses and syndromes related to bioterrorism.Databases of peer-reviewed articles (...) of the system.17,510 article citations and 8088 government and nongovernmental Web sites were reviewed. From these, the authors included 115 systems that collect various surveillance reports, including 9 syndromic surveillance systems, 20 systems collecting bioterrorism detector data, 13 systems collecting influenza-related data, and 23 systems collecting laboratory and antimicrobial resistance data. Only the systems collecting syndromic surveillance data and detection system data were designed, at least

2004 Annals of internal medicine

135551. Salivary dysfunction associated with systemic diseases: systematic review and clinical management recommendations. (PubMed)

Salivary dysfunction associated with systemic diseases: systematic review and clinical management recommendations. The objective of this study was to identify systemic diseases associated with hyposalivation and xerostomia and develop evidence-based management recommendations for hyposalivation/xerostomia.Literature searches covered the English language medical literature from 1966 to 2005. An evidence-based review process was applied to management studies published from 2002 to 2005.Several (...) systemic diseases were identified. From studies published 2002 to 2005, 15 were identified as high-quality studies and were used to support management recommendations: pilocarpine and cevimeline are recommended for treating hyposalivation and xerostomia in primary and secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). IFN-alpha lozenges may enhance saliva flow in primary SS patients. Anti-TNF-alpha agents, such as infliximab or etanercept, are not recommended to treat hyposalivation in SS. Dehydroepiandrosterone

2007 Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics

135552. Drug treatment aftercare in the criminal justice system: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Drug treatment aftercare in the criminal justice system: a systematic review. Drug treatment aftercare is frequently cited as necessary for individuals served within the criminal justice system. The purposes of this article are to review how much is actually known about aftercare and to highlight issues in studying the role of aftercare. We begin with a review of the literature, looking at how aftercare is defined within the criminal justice system outcome literature and the findings (...) on aftercare for offenders who received initial treatment from in-prison substance use treatment programs. We continue with a discussion of how substance use treatment provided within the federal system, drug use patterns, and responses to drug use create methodological difficulties in adequately assessing the effectiveness of aftercare services. Taking into account both the previous research on aftercare and the issues encountered in attempting to evaluate the federal aftercare services, we concluded

2007 Journal of substance abuse treatment

135553. Neoadjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer: an overview and review of recent clinical trials. (PubMed)

Neoadjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer: an overview and review of recent clinical trials. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is long established as part of the multi-modality management of locally advanced breast cancer or inflammatory breast cancer, leading to significantly improved outcome. Numerous recent studies have compared the use of anthracycline-based NAC with adjuvant chemotherapy in earlier-stage disease, and have shown equivalent disease-free and overall survival rates (...) with increased breast conservation rates. These studies have also shown that a pathological complete response after NAC is associated with improved long-term outcome. More recently, the taxanes have been introduced into clinical trials of NAC with increased overall and pCR rates. However, there is no evidence that the addition of taxanes to neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy significantly improves long-term disease free survival or overall survival. This paper reviews these trials, as well

2005 Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy

135554. Peripheral nervous system injuries in sport and recreation: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Peripheral nervous system injuries in sport and recreation: a systematic review. Many sports are associated with a variety of peripheral nervous system (PNS) injuries specific to that sport. A systematic review of sport-specific PNS injuries has not been attempted previously, and will assist in the understanding of morbidities and mortality associated with particular sporting activities, either professional or amateur. A systematic review of the literature using PubMed (1965-2003) was performed (...) examining all known sports and a range of possible PNS injuries attributable to that sport. Numerous sporting activities (53) were found to have associated PNS injuries. The sports most commonly reported with injuries were football, hockey, soccer, baseball and winter activities. There are a number of sporting activities with injuries unique to the individual sport. This review should be of assistance for the neurologist, neurosurgeon, orthopaedic surgeon, physiatrist, sports medicine doctor, athletic

2005 Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)

135555. Central nervous system injuries in sport and recreation: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Central nervous system injuries in sport and recreation: a systematic review. Many sports have been associated with a variety of neurological injuries affecting the central nervous system (CNS), with some injuries specific to that sport. A systematic review of sport-specific CNS injuries has not been attempted previously, and could assist in the understanding of morbidity and mortality associated with particular sporting activities, either professional or amateur. A systematic review

2005 Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.)

135556. Central nervous system aspergillosis in children: a systematic review of reported cases. (PubMed)

Central nervous system aspergillosis in children: a systematic review of reported cases. Central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis is a life-threatening disease that has had a published mortality of >80%. Little is known about this serious infection in the pediatric population. We conducted this study to analyze characteristics of CNS aspergillosis in infants and children.The English literature was reviewed and all CNS aspergillosis cases in patients younger than 18 years of age were (...) analysis, surgical treatment was independently associated with survival.CNS aspergillosis in infants and children predominantly presents as brain abscess(es) and has significantly better outcome compared to published adult data. The findings of this systematic review could assist future investigations for improved outcome of this life-threatening infection in pediatric patients.

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2007 International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases

135557. A systematic review of the neurobehavioural and physiological effects of shiftwork systems. (PubMed)

A systematic review of the neurobehavioural and physiological effects of shiftwork systems. Shiftwork is a common experience for many workers. There are a wide range of shift systems in use, with a number of general approaches and myriad variations of each one. Many aspects of shift systems have been studied, but attempts to reach definitive conclusions about appropriate designs have been hampered by a number of methodological issues. The aim of this systematic review was to provide evidence (...) issues. Overall, the review found there is insufficient evidence to support definitive conclusions regarding any of these factors. However, the analysis provides support for the use of forward rotating shift systems in preference to backward rotating shift systems, at last as far as 8-h shifts are concerned. There are many unanswered questions in shift design. For these questions to be answered, it is important that the methodological shortcomings present in most of the studies published to date

2007 Sleep medicine reviews

135558. How close have universal health systems come to achieving equity in use of curative services? A systematic review. (PubMed)

How close have universal health systems come to achieving equity in use of curative services? A systematic review. Most governments in established market economies have developed universal systems of health care, but these are being increasingly threatened by widespread health sector reforms. Hence, it is more important than ever to monitor the effects of policy changes on the ability of universal systems to achieve their equity goals. This article provides evidence for such monitoring (...) . The authors present the results of a systematic review of equity in use of curative health services in universal systems, together with a critical appraisal of the essential components of studies to address this question. Of the 79 studies identified that addressed the review question, only 26 met the inclusion criteria and adjusted for differential health need across socioeconomic groups. The authors found a pro-rich bias in use of specialist hospital services and a reasonably equitable access to primary

2007 International journal of health services : planning, administration, evaluation

135559. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: center case review. (PubMed)

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: center case review. To retrospectively analyze nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) cases at our center, to determine prior gadolinium based contrast agent (GBCA) administration and to evaluate possible common risk factors for the development of NSF by reviewing laboratory data and concurrent medications.A total of four data bases (pathology, MRI, dialysis, and medical records) were cross-referenced for identification and evaluation of NSF patients. Medical history

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2007 Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI

135560. Systemic fungal infection is associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a meta-review. (PubMed)

Systemic fungal infection is associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants: a meta-review. To study the association between systemic fungal infection (SFI) and the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and severe ROP in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants by systematic review and meta-analysis.A meta-review was performed using a fixed effects model. The exposure and outcomes studied were SFI and all ROP/severe ROP, respectively in VLBW (...) infants. Results and effect sizes analyzed with Review Manager 4.2 software are expressed as relative risk (RR), odds ratio (OR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to harm (NNH) with 95% confidence intervals.Data for severe ROP were available from eight studies and on all ROP from seven of those eight studies. Estimated gestational age ranged from 24.7+/-1.6 to 28.6+/-4 weeks and birth weight from 673 (median) (range 426 to 995) to 1108+/-266 g (mean+/-s.d.). A total of 261 of 303 babies with SFI

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2007 Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association

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