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Review of Systems

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125481. The renal medullary endothelin system in control of sodium and water excretion and systemic blood pressure. (Abstract)

The renal medullary endothelin system in control of sodium and water excretion and systemic blood pressure. Endothelin-1 is a multifunctional peptide that is produced by the kidney and may regulate a variety of renal functions. This review discusses recent developments in understanding the role of the medullary endothelin-1 system in regulating renal salt and water excretion and systemic blood pressure.The renal medulla is the major site of endothelin-1 synthesis and receptor expression (...) , the medullary collecting duct is important in this process, but the medullary endothelin system involves complex interactions, through autocrine and paracrine pathways, between most cell types in the region. Medullary endothelin-1 is fundamentally important in physiologic regulation of renal sodium and water excretion and maintenance of normal systemic blood pressure.

2006 Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension

125482. A Modified No-fault Malpractice System Can Resolve Multiple Healthcare System Deficiencies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The proposed system would guarantee a substantial decrease in, but not elimination of, litigation. The system would lower professional liability premiums. Injured patients would ordinarily be compensated with no-fault disability and life insurance proceeds. To the extent individual physicians pose a recurrent danger, their care would be reviewed on an administrative level. Savings would be invested in health information technology and purchase of insurance coverage for the uninsured. We propose a financial (...) A Modified No-fault Malpractice System Can Resolve Multiple Healthcare System Deficiencies. Medical professional liability in the United States, as measured by total premiums paid by physicians and healthcare facilities, costs approximately $30 billion a year in direct expenses, less than 2% of the entire annual healthcare expenditures. Only a fraction of those dollars reach patients who are negligently injured. Nonetheless, the tort system has far-reaching effects that create substantial

2008 Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research

125483. Defining Systems Expertise: Effective Simulation at the Organizational Level-Implications for Patient Safety, Disaster Surge Capacity, and Facilitating the Systems Interface. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-physician encounters to that of the interfaces between larger systems and agencies. As part of the 2008 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on the Science of Simulation, our group sought to identify key research questions that would inform our understanding of simulation's impact at the organizational level. We combined an online discussion group of emergency physicians, an extensive review of the literature, and a "public hearing" of the questions at the Consensus Conference to establish (...) Defining Systems Expertise: Effective Simulation at the Organizational Level-Implications for Patient Safety, Disaster Surge Capacity, and Facilitating the Systems Interface. The Institute of Medicine's report "To Err is Human" identified simulation as a means to enhance safety in the medical field, just as flight simulation is used to improve the aviation industry. Yet, while there is evidence that simulation may improve task performance, there is little evidence that simulation actually

2008 Academic Emergency Medicine

125484. Serum cardiac troponins and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide: a staging system for primary systemic amyloidosis. (Abstract)

-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a valuable prognostic marker. We sought to develop a staging system for patients with AL.Two hundred forty-two patients with newly diagnosed AL who were seen at the Mayo Clinic between April 1979 and November 2000, and who had echocardiograms and stored serum samples at presentation were eligible for this retrospective review. NT-proBNP measurements were performed on 242 patients in whom cTnT and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) had been previously run (...) Serum cardiac troponins and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide: a staging system for primary systemic amyloidosis. Primary systemic amyloidosis (AL) is a multisystemic disorder resulting from an underlying plasma cell dyscrasia. There is no formal staging system for AL, making comparisons between studies and treatment centers difficult. Our group previously identified elevated serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) as the most powerful predictor of overall survival. Others have reported that N

2004 Journal of Clinical Oncology

125485. Interactions between the sympathetic nervous system and the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interactions between the sympathetic nervous system and the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the cardiac natriuretic peptide system (NPS) are fundamentally important neurohumoral systems for cardiovascular regulation. Their mutual interactions have been subject to numerous experimental and human studies. In the current manuscript, results from in vivo and in vitro studies will be reviewed with a focus on sympathetic outflow on the control

2004 Cardiovascular Research

125486. Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, and systemic vasculitis: relationship to disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, calcium intake, and exercise. (Abstract)

Bone mineral density in children and adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus, juvenile dermatomyositis, and systemic vasculitis: relationship to disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, calcium intake, and exercise. To describe the frequency of abnormal bone mineralization in a population of children with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE), juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), and systemic vasculitis; and to investigate the relationship of bone mineral density (BMD (...) ) to cumulative corticosteroid dose, disease duration, Tanner stage, calcium intake, and exercise in these patients.A retrospective chart review of children attending the pediatric rheumatology clinic at British Columbia's Children's Hospital was conducted to obtain demographic data (sex, ethnicity, disease duration, cumulative corticosteroid dose, and mean daily corticosteroid dose). All patients had at least one BMD measurement by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) at lumbar spine, hip, and total body

2005 Journal of Rheumatology

125487. A comparison of prospective and retrospective evaluations of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for systemic lupus erythematosus. (Abstract)

A comparison of prospective and retrospective evaluations of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for systemic lupus erythematosus. To evaluate the comparability of prospective and retrospective evaluations of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR DI).Consecutive patients meeting ACR criteria for SLE were enrolled prospectively in our cohort. Prospective (...) SLICC/ACR DI scores were collected on the 134 cohort members who were observed in the cohort between 1993-1999. The last available prospective SLICC/ACR DI scores were compared to scores that were retrospectively assigned (for the corresponding time point) from chart review by a research nurse blinded to the prospective values. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was assessed. Kappa coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined.The kappa correlation coefficient for agreement

2005 Journal of Rheumatology

125488. Central nervous system infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (Abstract)

Central nervous system infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. To evaluate the clinical profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system (CNS) infections.We retrospectively reviewed patients with SLE with CNS infections from January 1983 to June 2003. The clinical features, laboratory data, and prognoses of these patients were recorded.During the 20-year review period, 17 SLE patients with CNS infections were identified. The mean age

2005 Journal of Rheumatology

125489. Respiratory system involvement in ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides. (Abstract)

Respiratory system involvement in ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides. The respiratory system may be involved in all systemic vasculitides (SV), although with a variable frequency. Lung disease is a very common and important feature of the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated SV (AASV), such as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). The aim of the work is to review the clinical findings, as well as the radiological (...) and pathological features of respiratory system involvement in AASV.A detailed search via the PubMed index from the National Library of Medicine, covering the period from 1980 to December 2004, was accomplished.In WG, almost all patients have either upper airway or lower respiratory tract disease. Solitary or multiple nodules and masses are the most common findings on chest radiograph. Asthma is a main symptom of CSS, often preceded by allergic rhinitis, frequently complicated by nasal polyposis and sinusitis

2005 Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases

125490. The immune system in sport: getting the balance right Full Text available with Trip Pro

The immune system in sport: getting the balance right 10854013 2000 09 21 2018 11 13 0306-3674 34 3 2000 Jun British journal of sports medicine Br J Sports Med The immune system in sport: getting the balance right. 161 O'Kennedy R R School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Republic of Ireland. eng Journal Article Review England Br J Sports Med 0432520 0306-3674 IM Exercise physiology Humans Immune System physiology Sports physiology 10 2000 6 15 9 0 2000 9 23 11 1 2000 6 15 9 0 ppublish

2000 British Journal of Sports Medicine

125491. Development of an Audio-Tape Review System for Supporting Adherence to an Evidence-Based Treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Development of an Audio-Tape Review System for Supporting Adherence to an Evidence-Based Treatment. In bridging the science to service gap, effective, yet practical, strategies are needed for supporting practitioner implementation of evidence-based treatments. The development and preliminary evaluation of an adherence monitoring system to support clinician fidelity to an evidence-based treatment for substance-abusing adolescents was tested for community-based practitioners. Session tapes were (...) monitored for adherence to a family-based approach to CM (CM/FB) for 27 practitioners during baseline, post-workshop, and follow-up periods. Approximately half of the practitioners were randomized to receive intensive quality assurance following a CM/FB workshop as part of a larger study. Findings supported the clinical feasibility of the developed system as well as the face and content validity, reliability, and concurrent validity. Future directions are discussed in light of these results, including

2008 Professional psychology, research and practice Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125492. Radiopharmaceuticals for the palliation of painful bone metastasis-a systemic review. (Abstract)

Radiopharmaceuticals for the palliation of painful bone metastasis-a systemic review. The purpose was to develop a systematic review that would address the following question: what is the role of radiopharmaceuticals in the palliation of metastatic bone pain in adults with uncomplicated, multifocal painful bone metastases whose pain is not controlled with conventional analgesic regimens? The outcomes of interest are pain response, analgesic consumption, overall survival, adverse effects (...) and quality of life.A systematic review of the English published literature was undertaken to provide evidence relevant to the above outcomes.Six randomized phase III trials, two randomized phase II trials and one randomized crossover trial of strontium-89 were reviewed. A randomized phase III trial comparing strontium-89 plus cisplatin with strontium-89 plus placebo reported a significantly higher proportion of patients experiencing pain relief for a significantly longer duration with strontium-89 plus

2005 Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology

125493. A review of the renal system and diurnal variations of renal activity in livestock Full Text available with Trip Pro

A review of the renal system and diurnal variations of renal activity in livestock Kidneys are the main organs regulating water-electrolyte homeostasis in the body. They are responsible for maintaining the total volume of water and its distribution in particular water spaces, for electrolyte composition of systemic fluids and also for maintaining acid-base balance. These functions are performed by the plasma filtration process in renal glomeruli and the processes of active absorption (...) and secretion in renal tubules, all adjusted to an 'activity-rest' rhythm. These diurnal changes are influenced by a 24-hour cycle of activity of hormones engaged in the regulation of renal activity. Studies on spontaneous rhythms of renal activity have been carried out mainly on humans and laboratory animals, but few studies have been carried out on livestock animals. Moreover, those results cover only some aspects of renal physiology. This review gives an overview of current knowledge concerning renal

2007 Irish veterinary journal

125494. A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Comprehensive Review of Rollover Accidents Involving Vehicles Equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Systems This study investigated 478 police accident reports from 9 states to examine and characterize rollover crashes involving ESC-equipped vehicles. The focus was on the sequence of critical events leading to loss of control and rollover, and the interactions between the accident, driver, and environment. Results show that, while ESC is effective in reducing loss of control

2008 Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine / Annual Scientific Conference

125495. Listeria monocytogenes following orthotopic liver transplantation: Central nervous system involvement and review of the literature Full Text available with Trip Pro

Listeria monocytogenes following orthotopic liver transplantation: Central nervous system involvement and review of the literature Listeria monocytogene is a well-recognized cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised individuals, including solid organ transplant recipients, but has been rarely reported following orthotopic liver transplantation. We describe a case of listeria meningitis that occurred within a week after liver transplantation. The patient developed a severe headache that mimicked

2007 World journal of gastroenterology : WJG

125496. Catalytic nucleic acid enzymes for the study and development of therapies in the central nervous system: Review Article Full Text available with Trip Pro

Catalytic nucleic acid enzymes for the study and development of therapies in the central nervous system: Review Article Nucleic acid enzymes have been used with great success for studying natural processes in the central nervous system (CNS). We first provide information on the structural and enzymatic differences of various ribozymes and DNAzymes. We then discuss how they have been used to explore new therapeutic approaches for treating diseases of the CNS. They have been tested in various (...) systems modeling retinitis pigmentosum, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, Alzheimer's disease, and malignant brain tumors. For these models, effective targets for nucleic acid enzymes have been readily identified and the rules for selecting cleavage sites have been well established. The bulk of studies, including those from our laboratory, have emphasized their use for gliomas. With the availability of multiple excellent animal models to test glioma treatments, good progress has been made

2005 Gene therapy & molecular biology

125497. Lecithin organogels as a potential phospholipid-structured system for topical drug delivery: A review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Lecithin organogels as a potential phospholipid-structured system for topical drug delivery: A review The purpose of this review is to give an insight into the considerable potential of lecithin organogels (LOs) in the applications meant for topical drug delivery. LOs are clear, thermodynamically stable, viscoelastic, and biocompatible jelly-like phases, chiefly composed of hydrated phospholipids and appropriate organic liquid. These systems are currently of interest to the pharmaceutical (...) emulsification and therefore possess prolonged shelf life. The utility of this novel matrix as a topical vehicle has further increased owing to its very low skin irritancy potential. Varied aspects of LOs viz formation, composition, phase behavior, and characterization have been elaborated, including a general discussion on the developmental background. Besides a comprehensive update on the topical applications of lecithin organogels, the review also includes a detailed account on the mechanistics

2005 AAPS PharmSciTech

125498. Floating drug delivery systems: A review Full Text available with Trip Pro

Floating drug delivery systems: A review The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS including the physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects are covered in detail (...) . This review also summarizes the in vitro techniques, in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems, and applications of these systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of a pharmaceutical dosage form.

2005 AAPS PharmSciTech

125499. How useful is satellite positioning system (GPS) to track gait parameters? A review Full Text available with Trip Pro

How useful is satellite positioning system (GPS) to track gait parameters? A review Over the last century, numerous techniques have been developed to analyze the movement of humans while walking and running. The combined use of kinematics and kinetics methods, mainly based on high speed video analysis and forceplate, have permitted a comprehensive description of locomotion process in terms of energetics and biomechanics. While the different phases of a single gait cycle are well understood (...) , there is an increasing interest to know how the neuro-motor system controls gait form stride to stride. Indeed, it was observed that neurodegenerative diseases and aging could impact gait stability and gait parameters steadiness. From both clinical and fundamental research perspectives, there is therefore a need to develop techniques to accurately track gait parameters stride-by-stride over a long period with minimal constraints to patients. In this context, high accuracy satellite positioning can provide

2005 Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation

125500. Microfluidics and photonics for Bio-System-on-a-Chip: A review of advancements in technology towards a microfluidic flow cytometry chip Full Text available with Trip Pro

Microfluidics and photonics for Bio-System-on-a-Chip: A review of advancements in technology towards a microfluidic flow cytometry chip Microfluidics and photonics come together to form a field commonly referred to as 'optofluidics'. Flow cytometry provides the field with a technology base from which both microfluidic and photonic components be developed and integrated into a useful device. This article reviews some of the more recent developments to familiarize a reader with the current state

2008 Journal of biophotonics

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