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Review of Systems

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125301. The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system Full Text available with Trip Pro

The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system Ethanol is a chemically simple compound that produces many well-known effects in humans. The prevailing idea for many years was that ethanol and other alcohols exerted their effects on the central nervous system (CNS) by non-selectively disrupting the lipid bilayers of neurons. However, in recent years, there has been an accumulation of evidence pointing to the importance of ligand-gated ion channels (...) (LGICs) in mediating the effects of ethanol. Of these LGICs, gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors appear to occupy a central role in mediating the effects of ethanol in the CNS. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, and activation of GABAA receptors by GABA tends to decrease neuronal excitability. This article reviews several aspects of GABAA receptor and ethanol interactions, including the evidence for short- and long-term modulation of GABAA receptors

2003 Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience

125302. The separation of parallel visual systems by disease processes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The separation of parallel visual systems by disease processes. 9440173 1998 02 05 2018 11 13 0065-9533 95 1997 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc The separation of parallel visual systems by disease processes. 249-60 Arden G B GB Centre for Applied Vision Research, City University, London, UK. Wolf J E JE eng Journal Article Review United States Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 7506106 0065-9533 IM Animals Color Perception physiology Contrast Sensitivity

1997 Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society

125303. Measures for detecting systemic bioactivity with inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids Full Text available with Trip Pro

Measures for detecting systemic bioactivity with inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids 9176542 1997 06 23 2018 11 13 0040-6376 52 5 1997 May Thorax Thorax Measures for detecting systemic bioactivity with inhaled and intranasal corticosteroids. 476-82 Lipworth B J BJ Department of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, UK. Seckl J R JR eng Journal Article Review England Thorax 0417353 0040-6376 0 Adrenal Cortex Hormones IM Administration, Inhalation (...) Administration, Intranasal Adrenal Cortex Hormones administration & dosage metabolism pharmacology Biological Availability Bone and Bones drug effects metabolism Dose-Response Relationship, Drug Humans Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System drug effects Pituitary-Adrenal System drug effects Sensitivity and Specificity 49 1997 5 1 1997 5 1 0 1 1997 5 1 0 0 ppublish 9176542 PMC1758571 Acta Paediatr Scand. 1981 Sep;70(5):683-8 7324918 Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1996 Dec;42(6):697-705 8971424 Arch Dis Child. 1986 Nov;61(11

1997 Thorax

125304. The impact of a picture archiving and communication system on nuclear medicine examination interpretation Full Text available with Trip Pro

The impact of a picture archiving and communication system on nuclear medicine examination interpretation Radiographic correlation is essential for many of the examinations performed in nuclear medicine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) on the function and efficiency of a nuclear medicine department at a tertiary care institution. We evaluated 250 consecutive noncardiac nuclear medicine imaging examinations and asked (...) the interpreting physician the following questions: (1) Was PACS used in the interpretation of the study? (2) Did the use of PACS expedite examination completion or aid in study interpretation? And (3) Did the use of PACS permit a definitive diagnosis to be made? PACS was accessed for correlative radiographic images in 155 of the 250 (62%) nuclear medicine examinations. Images available on PACS for review aided in study interpretation in 74% (115 of 155) of cases. The use of PACS was thought to expedite

1997 Journal of Digital Imaging

125305. Racial and ethnic identification practices in public health data systems in New England. Full Text available with Trip Pro

public health officials responsible for ongoing individual-level data systems and reviewed relevant documents.Information was obtained on 169 of 170 identified data systems. Ninety-one systems (54%) conformed to the federal standard in having separate "race" and "ethnicity" fields, yet many of these did not conform to the standard in other respects. Fifty-five systems had only a race field; of these, 20 included no identifiers corresponding to Hispanic and/or Latino ethnicity. Three systems used only (...) Racial and ethnic identification practices in public health data systems in New England. Efforts are underway to standardize "racial" and "ethnic" identification in public health data systems under the Revised Minimum Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity issued in 1997. This study analyzed the racial and ethnic constructs and labels used in public health data systems maintained by the six New England states in light of these standards.The authors surveyed

2002 Public Health Reports

125306. Making the most of rodent tumour systems in cancer drug discovery Full Text available with Trip Pro

Making the most of rodent tumour systems in cancer drug discovery 10206270 1999 05 06 2018 11 13 0007-0920 79 11-12 1999 Apr British journal of cancer Br. J. Cancer Making the most of rodent tumour systems in cancer drug discovery. 1633-40 Bibby M C MC Clinical Oncology Unit, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK. eng Journal Article Review England Br J Cancer 0370635 0007-0920 0 Antineoplastic Agents IM Animals Antineoplastic Agents pharmacokinetics therapeutic use Cell-Free System drug

1999 British journal of cancer

125307. Molecular Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in the Central Nervous System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Article Review United States J Clin Microbiol 7505564 0095-1137 0 DNA, Viral IM J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Feb;38(2):940 10722323 Central Nervous System Infections diagnosis therapy virology DNA, Viral cerebrospinal fluid Herpes Simplex diagnosis therapy Herpesviridae isolation & purification Humans Polymerase Chain Reaction 108 1999 6 12 10 0 2000 5 20 9 0 1999 6 12 10 0 ppublish 10364574 PMC85100 N Engl J Med. 1986 Jan 16;314(3):144-9 3001520 J Infect Dis. 1986 Apr;153(4):732-5 3005433 Ann Clin Lab Sci (...) Molecular Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in the Central Nervous System 10364574 1999 07 09 2018 11 13 0095-1137 37 7 1999 Jul Journal of clinical microbiology J. Clin. Microbiol. Molecular diagnosis of herpes simplex virus infections in the central nervous system. 2127-36 Tang Y W YW Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. Mitchell P S PS Espy M J MJ Smith T F TF Persing D H DH eng Journal

1999 Journal of clinical microbiology

125308. The structure and mechanism of neurotransmitter receptors. Implications for the structure and function of the central nervous system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The structure and mechanism of neurotransmitter receptors. Implications for the structure and function of the central nervous system. 2893605 1988 03 23 2018 11 13 0264-6021 249 2 1988 Jan 15 The Biochemical journal Biochem. J. The structure and mechanism of neurotransmitter receptors. Implications for the structure and function of the central nervous system. 309-18 Strange P G PG Biological Laboratory, University, Canterbury, Kent, U.K. eng Journal Article Review England Biochem J 2984726R (...) 0264-6021 0 Neurotransmitter Agents 0 Receptors, Neurotransmitter IM Alzheimer Disease metabolism Animals Central Nervous System metabolism Humans Neurotransmitter Agents metabolism Parkinson Disease metabolism Receptors, Neurotransmitter metabolism 162 1988 1 15 1988 1 15 0 1 1988 1 15 0 0 ppublish 2893605 PMC1148704 Nature. 1987 Apr 30-May 6;326(6116):824-5 3574457 Nature. 1987 May 7-13;327(6117):67-70 3033513 Science. 1987 May 1;236(4801):600-5 3107123 Brain Res. 1987 Apr 21;409(2):403-8 2884017

1988 Biochemical Journal

125309. Exposure reduction in cephalography with a digital photostimulable phosphor imaging system. (Abstract)

Exposure reduction in cephalography with a digital photostimulable phosphor imaging system. The effect on the determination of the cephalometric landmarks of exposure reduction using computed radiography with a photostimulable storage phosphor was evaluated. Forty patients attending for regular review were divided into four groups of 10. The first group was exposed to the same amount of radiation as that required for a conventional calcium tungstate screen-film combination. The other three (...) groups were exposed to approximately 50, 20 and 10% respectively of the radiation dose of the first group. Ten dentists determined the landmarks. The coordinates of the points were recorded to measure the consistency of landmark identification. It was found that in comparison with the conventional screen-film system, a substantial reduction of exposure could be achieved with computed radiography for cephalography without clinical detriment.

1993 Dento maxillo facial radiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125310. Diazepam's effect on systemic vascular resistance during cardiopulmonary bypass is not caused by its vehicle (alcohol-propylene glycol). (Abstract)

Diazepam's effect on systemic vascular resistance during cardiopulmonary bypass is not caused by its vehicle (alcohol-propylene glycol). Control of hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a desirable goal of the anesthesiologist. Diazepam is known to reduce systemic vascular resistance (SVR) during CPB. This study tested the hypothesis that diazepam reduces SVR during CPB through the action of its vehicle, alcohol-propylene glycol (APG). The study protocol was approved (...) by the Institution's Human Experimentation Review Board and all patients gave informed consent. Premedication, induction, and maintenance of anesthesia were standardized. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing nonemergent cardiac surgical procedures were randomized to receive a standardized amount of diazepam, diazemuls, or alcohol-propylene glycol during stable CPB. SVR in the diazepam group decreased significantly (1,242 to 968 dyne.s.cm-5, P < 0.05) compared to baseline; whereas there was no significant change

1993 Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125311. Prevalence of systemic and ocular disease in infantile exotropia: comparison with infantile esotropia. (Abstract)

series.Medical records of 70 patients diagnosed with exotropia in the first year of life were reviewed and compared with records of 136 patients diagnosed with esotropia before 1 year of age.Patients with no disorders (other than latent nystagmus, dissociated vertical deviation, or oblique muscle overaction) were grouped as "simple" strabismus. Patients with systemic disorders (including prematurity, neurologic disease, and genetic disease) and patients with ocular disorders (including congenital nystagmus (...) Prevalence of systemic and ocular disease in infantile exotropia: comparison with infantile esotropia. Exotropia in infancy is believed to be associated with an increased prevalence of neurologic, ocular, and craniofacial abnormalities; however, the prevalence of coexisting ocular and systemic disease in these patients is unknown. In this study, the prevalence of ocular disease and systemic illness was determined in patients diagnosed with exotropia in infancy.Observational comparative case

1999 Ophthalmology

125312. Use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer. Provincial Systemic Treatment Disease Site Group. (Abstract)

receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.Clinical outcomes reflecting events that may affect quality of life and/or resource utilization (e.g., rates and duration of hospitalization, antibiotic use); outcomes reflecting the effect of treatment on infection rates, tumour response and survival and those related to the biological effect of G-CSF.Evidence was selected, reviewed and synthesized by members of the Provincial Systemic Treatment Disease Site Group (DSG) of the Cancer (...) Care Ontario Practice Guidelines Initiative. Drafts of this document have been circulated and reviewed by members of the Systemic Treatment DSG. The DSG comprises medical oncologists, pharmacists, supportive care personnel and administrators. Evaluation by clinicians was considered in the final practice guideline. Community representatives did not participate in the development of this report but will in future reports. Guidelines approval does require participation by community representatives.Two

1998 Cancer prevention & control : CPC = Prévention & contrôle en cancérologie : PCC Controlled trial quality: predicted high

125313. PACS in sonography: accuracy of interpretation using film compared with monitor display. Picture archiving and communication systems. (Abstract)

PACS in sonography: accuracy of interpretation using film compared with monitor display. Picture archiving and communication systems. The goal of this study was to determine the relative accuracy of interpretation of sonography when viewed on a monitor or on film.Four radiologists twice interpreted a series of 440 sonograms using the following sequences of display formats for initial and second interpretations: film-film, film-monitor, monitor-film, and monitor-monitor. Reporting discrepancies (...) between the initial and subsequent interpretation were reviewed by an arbitration panel unaware of the display mode. Results were analyzed for differences in error rate attributable to film versus monitor display format, chronology of interpretation, individual observer, and observer seniority.We found no statistically significant difference in the error rate for film (10.3%) versus monitor display format (14.6%) (p = .09). Likewise, we found no significant differences in the error rates attributable

1999 AJR. American journal of roentgenology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125314. A new objective digital computerized vision screening system. (Abstract)

A new objective digital computerized vision screening system. Fewer than 40% of children in the crucial younger-than-4 age group are evaluated for visual problems by pediatricians. This is due to impracticality from either a clinical or practice efficiency standpoint. Current photoscreening methods require trained readers and suffer from significant subjectivity and interobserver variability. We report a cross-sectional, double-masked study using new digital imaging with objective, automated (...) , computerized image analysis.Two-hundred six children aged 9 months to 16 years were prospectively studied in a University-based pediatric ophthalmology practice. Images were taken by volunteers with a modified digital camera which, when downloaded, were analyzed within 35 seconds by new image analysis software. The analysis was compared to a masked review of a complete pediatric ophthalmic exam.Overall agreement between physician and the objective computerized analysis was 86.9%. Positive predictive value

1999 Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125315. A clinical comparison of the safety and efficacy of MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine) and Omniscan (Gadodiamide) in magnetic resonance imaging in patients with central nervous system pathology. (Abstract)

A clinical comparison of the safety and efficacy of MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine) and Omniscan (Gadodiamide) in magnetic resonance imaging in patients with central nervous system pathology. The safety and diagnostic efficacy of MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine) in the central nervous system (CNS) were evaluated in a double-blind, multicenter, phase III clinical trial.Two hundred five patients highly suspected of having a CNS lesion (by previous imaging exam) were enrolled at 16 sites (...) of lesions detected, and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements. The level of diagnostic information from gadobenate dimeglumine at 0.1 mmol/kg was equivalent to that with gadodiamide at the same dose. One of the two blinded reviewers found equivalence between the gadobenate dimeglumine 0.05 mmol/kg dose and gadodiamide at 0.1 mmol/kg. Both reviewers found the level of diagnostic information to be equivalent after the second dose of contrast for all three dosing regimens. The cumulative doses of gadobenate

2001 Investigative radiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125316. Impact of the Edmonton Labeled Visual Information System on physician recall of metastatic cancer patient histories. a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

Impact of the Edmonton Labeled Visual Information System on physician recall of metastatic cancer patient histories. a randomized controlled trial. The Edmonton Labeled Visual Information System (ELVIS) is a novel method of documenting clinical information because it is a pictorial method of representing cancer burden and treatment. This randomized, crossover, multiperiod trial involved 16 physicians who each reviewed two ELVIS and two control (text) cancer patient cases (total 32 ELVIS and 32

2001 Journal of pain and symptom management Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125317. Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Central nervous system stimulants and sport practice. Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants may be used to reduce tiredness and increase alertness, competitiveness, and aggression. They are more likely to be used in competition but may be used during training to increase the intensity of the training session. There are several potential dangers involving their misuse in contact sports. This paper reviews the three main CNS stimulants, ephedrine, amfetamine, and cocaine, in relation to misuse

2006 British Journal of Sports Medicine

125318. Supplements and the endocrine system in athletes. (Abstract)

Supplements and the endocrine system in athletes. In the world of athletes' nutrition, there are many ethical concerns, because there is the suspicion that in practice, large doses of supplements in athletes are not taken for nutritional purposes. It is beyond the scope of this article to highlight the possible roles of supplements or methods of supplementation in the improvement of athletic performance in elite athletes. Instead, the author briefly reviews some of the substances taken (...) by athletes, with particular attention to their mechanisms of action and the pathways involved. Very often, the effects of many supplements are hormone-related, or supplements influence hormone secretion. Examples of possible links between "supplements or ergogenic compounds" and the endocrine/metabolic system are addressed.

2008 Clinics in Sports Medicine

125319. Three year follow up of a self certification system for the assessment of fitness to dive in Scotland. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Three year follow up of a self certification system for the assessment of fitness to dive in Scotland. The need for routine medical examinations of sport divers in the Scottish Sub-Aqua Club (Scot-SAC) was revised in March 2000, and a new system using a self administered screening questionnaire was developed to allow divers to be assessed when necessary by doctors with diving medicine experience.To assess the effect of the new medical system on medical referee workload, diver exclusion rates (...) , and diving incident frequency.All divers were required to complete a questionnaire to screen for conditions that might affect fitness to dive. Divers answering "Yes" to any of the questions had their medical background assessed by a diving doctor, and, if necessary, received a clinical examination or investigation. The rate of diver exclusions based on the questionnaire response was recorded in conjunction with analysis of the incident reports.The number of forms requiring review by diving doctors

2004 British Journal of Sports Medicine

125320. Chiropractic consultation requests in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System: demographic characteristics of the initial 100 patients at the Western New York medical center. (Abstract)

Chiropractic consultation requests in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System: demographic characteristics of the initial 100 patients at the Western New York medical center. The objectives of this study were to review the demographic characteristics of Veterans Affairs (VA) chiropractic patients and to determine the level of appropriateness of chiropractic consultation requests within a VA chiropractic clinic. Information regarding the volume of requests and wait times for appointments were (...) obtained to provide insight on the demand for and access to VA chiropractic services.A purposive sample of the first 100 chiropractic consultation requests received through the Computerized Patient Record System at the VA of Western New York Health Care System was selected for data collection and analysis.The VA chiropractic patients in this study were primarily older men with chronic low-back pain that had not responded to medical management and other treatment modalities. More than half

2006 Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics

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