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261. Ultrasound in the assessment of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis. A systematic literature review by the OMERACT Ultrasound Group. (Abstract)

Ultrasound in the assessment of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis. A systematic literature review by the OMERACT Ultrasound Group. To provide an overview of the role of lung ultrasound (LUS) in the assessment of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to discuss the state of validation supporting its clinical relevance and application in daily clinical practice.Original articles, published between January 1997 and October 2017 were included. To identify all (...) available studies, a detailed research pertaining to the topic of review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. A systematic research was performed in PubMed and EMBASE. The Quality assessment of retrieved articles was performed according the Oxford Center for Evidence-based Medicine. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and QUADAS-2 tool.From 300 papers identified, 12 were included for the analysis. LUS passed the filter

2019 Journal of Rheumatology

262. Bed rest and accelerated aging in relation to the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems and frailty biomarkers: A review. (Abstract)

Bed rest and accelerated aging in relation to the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems and frailty biomarkers: A review. Prolonged bed rest and lifelong physical inactivity cause deleterious effects to multiple physiological systems that appear to hasten aging processes. Many such changes are similar to those seen with microgravity in space, but at a much faster rate. Head down tilt bed rest models are used to study whole-body changes that occur with spaceflight. We propose that bed rest (...) can be used to quantify accelerated human aging in relation to frailty. In particular, frailty as a measure of the accumulation of deficits estimates the variability in aging across systems, and moves away from the traditional single-system approach. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of bed rest on the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems as well as frailty-related biological markers and inflammatory cytokines. We also propose future inquiries to study the accumulation of deficits

2019 Experimental Gerontology

263. Renal Denervation Update From the International Sympathetic Nervous System Summit: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renal Denervation Update From the International Sympathetic Nervous System Summit: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Three recent renal denervation studies in both drug-naïve and drug-treated hypertensive patients demonstrated a significant reduction of ambulatory blood pressure compared with respective sham control groups. Improved trial design, selection of relevant patient cohorts, and optimized interventional procedures have likely contributed to these positive findings. However, substantial (...) variability in the blood pressure response to renal denervation can still be observed and remains a challenging and important problem. The International Sympathetic Nervous System Summit was convened to bring together experts in both experimental and clinical medicine to discuss the current evidence base, novel developments in our understanding of neural interplay, procedural aspects, monitoring of technical success, and others. Identification of relevant trends in the field and initiation of tailored

2019 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

264. The association between schizophrenia and the immune system: Review of the evidence from unbiased 'omic-studies'. (Abstract)

The association between schizophrenia and the immune system: Review of the evidence from unbiased 'omic-studies'. A role for immune processes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been suggested by genetic and epidemiological studies, as well as cross-sectional studies on blood and brain samples. However, results are heterogeneous, which is likely caused by low samples sizes, insufficient control of confounders that influence immune processes, and potentially publication bias. Large (...) hypothesis-free 'omic' studies partially circumvent these problems and could provide further evidence for a role of immune pathways in schizophrenia. In this review we assessed whether the largest genome, transcriptome and methylome studies in schizophrenia to date support a link with the immune system. We constructed an overview of the schizophrenia-associated genes and transcripts that were identified in these large 'omic' studies. We then performed a hypothesis-driven analysis to examine

2019 Schizophrenia Research

265. Strategizing health technology assessment for containment of cancer drug costs in a universal health care system: Case of the pan-Canadian oncology drug review. (Abstract)

Strategizing health technology assessment for containment of cancer drug costs in a universal health care system: Case of the pan-Canadian oncology drug review. A universal health care system has been a source of both identity and pride for Canadians for the last 6 decades. Currently, Canada actively negotiates the prices of cancer drugs but is not immune to their overwhelming financial toxicities. Prices of cancer drugs are set to ensure maximal profit based on what the market will bear rather (...) than by the value they offer or solely because of the cost of research and development, as often is claimed by the manufacturers. The pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) is mandated to provide funding recommendations to Canada's provinces and territories. For the most part, the pCODR has been crucial in assessing the cost-effectiveness and feasibility of new drugs in the Canadian context but it could assist more in safeguarding payers against extreme drug costs. Herein, the author suggests

2019 Cancer

266. Molecular mechanisms of action of systemic lidocaine in acute and chronic pain: a narrative review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular mechanisms of action of systemic lidocaine in acute and chronic pain: a narrative review. Systemic administration of the local anaesthetic lidocaine is antinociceptive in both acute and chronic pain states, especially in acute postoperative and chronic neuropathic pain. These effects cannot be explained by its voltage-gated sodium channel blocking properties alone, but the responsible mechanisms are still elusive. This narrative review focuses on available experimental evidence (...) of the molecular mechanisms by which systemic lidocaine exerts its clinically documented analgesic effects. These include effects on the peripheral nervous system and CNS, where lidocaine acts via silencing ectopic discharges, suppression of inflammatory processes, and modulation of inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. We highlight promising objectives for future research to further unravel these antinociceptive mechanisms, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new analgesic strategies

2019 British Journal of Anaesthesia

267. The State of the Evidence for Whole-System, Multi-Modality Naturopathic Medicine: A Systematic Scoping Review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The State of the Evidence for Whole-System, Multi-Modality Naturopathic Medicine: A Systematic Scoping Review. To summarize the current state of the research evidence for whole-system, multi-modality naturopathic medicine.A systematic search for research articles from around the world was undertaken using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and WHO regional indexes. Naturopathic journals and gray literature were hand searched. No language restrictions were imposed.All human research evaluating (...) the effectiveness of naturopathic medicine, where two or more naturopathic modalities are delivered by naturopathic clinicians, were included in the review. Case studies of five or more cases were included.Thirty-three published studies (n = 9859) met inclusion criteria (11 American; 4 Canadian; 6 German; 7 Indian; 3 Australian; 1 United Kingdom; and 1 Japanese) across a range of mainly chronic clinical conditions. The studies predominantly showed evidence for the efficacy of naturopathic medicine

2019 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

268. Impact of patient's health-related quality of life on physicians' therapy and perceived benefit in acute coronary syndromes: protocol for a systemic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impact of patient's health-related quality of life on physicians' therapy and perceived benefit in acute coronary syndromes: protocol for a systemic review of quantitative and qualitative studies. Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and coronary angiography are two of the treatments administered to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. However, whether and how patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) influences treatment decisions and subsequent risk benefit analyses is unclear (...) . In this study, we will review the available evidence on the impact of patients' HRQoL on physicians' prescribing or treatment decisions and on the estimation of mortality and bleeding risk in ACS patients.We will undertake a systematic review of all quantitative and qualitative studies. The search will include studies that describe the impact of HRQoL on prescribing PCIs or angiography, and impact of HRQoL on perceived risks in terms of mortality and bleeding events. We will conduct an initial search

2019 BMJ open

269. Review: Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques to explore the microstructure and connectivity of subcortical white matter tracts in the human auditory system. (Abstract)

Review: Using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging techniques to explore the microstructure and connectivity of subcortical white matter tracts in the human auditory system. Since its inception 30 years ago, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has advanced to become a common component of routine clinical MRI examinations. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance offers a way to measure anisotropic diffusion in-vivo, which has led to the development of techniques capable (...) of characterising the orientation of diffusion within living tissue. These modelling techniques can be used to investigate the microstructure and connectivity of white matter tracts within the human brain. Such techniques have been used to study many neural networks within the human body. There is, however, a notable paucity of research utilising dMRI techniques to investigate the white matter tracts of the auditory brainstem. In this review we provide a brief introduction to the basic principles of dMRI

2019 Hearing Research

270. The Relevance of the Judet and Letournel Acetabular Fracture Classification System in the Modern Era: A Review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Relevance of the Judet and Letournel Acetabular Fracture Classification System in the Modern Era: A Review. The Judet and Letournel acetabular fracture classification system, based on the idea of bicolumnar support of the acetabulum, was first described in a landmark article published in the 1960s. It has stood the test of time and continues to be the preferred method for describing acetabular fractures for the majority of orthopaedic trauma surgeons. Still, there have been attempts (...) to modify or replace Letournel system since its introduction for a variety of reasons, chief among them a perceived inability of the classification system to account for a number of transitional fracture patterns and injury modifiers that may affect surgical decision making and patient outcomes. In this review, we present the literature related to the Judet and Letournel acetabular fracture classification system, over 50 years after its first formal description. We summarize its strengths, weaknesses

2019 Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma

271. Pulmonary vascular involvement of IgG4-related disease: Case series with a PRISMA-compliant systemic review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pulmonary vascular involvement of IgG4-related disease: Case series with a PRISMA-compliant systemic review. Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized, immune-mediated chronic fibrotic inflammation that can involve almost all organs, causing tumefaction and dysfunction. Its presence in pulmonary circulation is underestimated and has not yet been investigated.We describe a representative IgG4-RD patient with pulmonary artery stenosis and pulmonary embolism, leading (...) to reversible pulmonary hypertension. Literature review of IgG4-RD with pulmonary circulation involvement was conducted.References for this review were identified through searches via PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science for published articles before November 2016.There were 15 published cases of IgG4-RD with pulmonary vascular involvement, 3 with pulmonary arteritis, 2 with pulmonary artery aneurysm, 3 with pulmonary artery stenosis, 1 with obliterative phlebitis, and 1 with pulmonary embolism. Possible

2019 Medicine

272. Review article: shared disease mechanisms between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome - translating knowledge from systems biology to the bedside. (Abstract)

Review article: shared disease mechanisms between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome - translating knowledge from systems biology to the bedside. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Characterised by abnormal fat accumulation in the liver, NAFLD presents high degree of comorbidity with disorders of the metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. These comorbidities have (...) strong negative impact on the natural course of NAFLD and vice versa, whereby the presence of NAFLD substantially modifies the course and prognosis of metabolic syndrome-associated diseases.To use systems biology strategies to interrogate disease mechanisms that are common to NAFLD and metabolic syndrome.We mapped shared gene/protein-disease interaction networks, we performed gene-disease enrichment analysis to assess pleiotropy, and we created a gene-drug connectivity network.We found that a shared

2019 Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

273. Biologic TNF-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: a systemic review. (Abstract)

Biologic TNF-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: a systemic review. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS-TEN) is one of severe cutaneous adverse reactions with low morbidity but high mortality. Different systemic immunomodulating treatments are proposed but still remain controversial. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is long thought to be a vital mediator of epithelial cell death in SJS-TEN, indicating (...) a potential target for therapy.The aim of this systemic review is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of biologic TNF-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of SJS-TEN.We reviewed the published literature by searching from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and ClinicalTrial.gov. A total of 27 articles fulfilling our inclusion criteria were found and analyzed.There were 21 case reports, four case series and two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the biologic TNF-alpha inhibitors for SJS-TEN therapy, comprising

2019 Journal of Dermatological Treatment

274. Roseomonas mucosa infective endocarditis in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of literature. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Roseomonas mucosa infective endocarditis in patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of literature. Roseomonas mucosa, as a Gram-negative coccobacilli, is an opportunistic pathogen that has rarely been reported in human infections. Here we describe a case of bacteremia in an infective endocarditis patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).A 44-year-old female patient with SLE suffered bacteremia caused by Roseomonas mucosa complicated with infective endocarditis

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

275. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system presenting as "lymphomatosis cerebri" and dementia in elderly man: Case report and review of the literature. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system presenting as "lymphomatosis cerebri" and dementia in elderly man: Case report and review of the literature. Lymphomatosis cerebri is a rare form of PCNSL, characterized by diffuse infiltration of lymphoma cells in cerebral parenchyma, without mass-formation and mild or no contrast enhancement on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. There are less than 50 cases described in the literature under the term Lymphomatosis cerebri.A 74-year-old

2019 Medicine

276. Rituximab therapy for primary central nervous system vasculitis: A 6 patient experience and review of the literature. (Abstract)

Rituximab therapy for primary central nervous system vasculitis: A 6 patient experience and review of the literature. To assess the efficacy and safety of Rituximab (RTX) in adult primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV).We retrospectively assessed the effect of RTX in 6 patients with PCNSV. Five of the 6 were refractory to high dose glucocorticoids (GCs) and/or conventional immunosuppressants (IS). The sixth was newly diagnosed and received RTX in combination with GCs. Clinical (...) evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging modalities were performed at initial RTX administration and during the follow-up. Treatment response was assessed using the treating physician's global opinion regarding response and the degree of disability using the modified Rankin scale (mRS). We also performed a literature review for previous use of RTX in PCNSV using PubMed, Ovid Medline, and the Cochrane library.The six patients (3 females) had a median age at diagnosis of 50.5 years (range 17-68 years

2019 Autoimmunity reviews

277. Mapping evidence on charitable food assistance system's compliance with safety and general hygiene requirements in Africa and the rest of the world: a systematic scoping review protocol. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Mapping evidence on charitable food assistance system's compliance with safety and general hygiene requirements in Africa and the rest of the world: a systematic scoping review protocol. The charitable food assistance system has an influential role in the larger effort to curtail the problem of food insecurity globally. They often play a crucial role in meeting the food security needs of the poor, particularly resource-limited settings where food security is a challenge. The aim of our study (...) is to compare evidence on the safety and general hygiene of charitable food assistance system in Africa and the rest of the world.This study will be conducted through a systematic scoping review. We will search for literature from the following electronic databases: African Index Medicus, PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost (MEDLINE with full text, Academic Search Complete, MEDLINE) and open access for unpublished theses and dissertations. Articles will also be searched through the 'Cited by' search as well

2019 Systematic reviews

278. Cataract grading systems: a review of past and present. (Abstract)

Cataract grading systems: a review of past and present. To provide a comprehensive summary of past cataract grading systems, how they have shaped current grading systems, and the developing technologies that are being used to assess and grade cataracts.This summary of cataract grading systems examines the development and limitations that existed in past grading systems and how they have shaped the grading systems of present time. The Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III) system (...) is currently used both clinically and for research purposes. Recent advancements in imaging technologies have allowed researchers to create automatic systems that can locate lens landmarks and provide cataract grading scores that correlate well with LOCS III clinical grades. Utilizing existing technologies, researchers demonstrate that fundus photography and optical coherence tomography can be used as cataract grading tools. Lastly, deep learning has proved to be a powerful tool that can provide objective

2019 Current opinion in ophthalmology

279. Identifying areas for improvement in paediatric trauma care in NSW Australia using a clinical, system and human factors peer-review tool. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Identifying areas for improvement in paediatric trauma care in NSW Australia using a clinical, system and human factors peer-review tool. There is known variability in the quality of care delivered to injured children. Identifying where care improvement can be made is critical. This study aimed to review paediatric trauma cases across the most populous Australian State to identify factors contributing to clinical incidents.Medical records from three New South Wales Paediatric Trauma Centres (...) 535 records were reviewed and 41 cases were peer-reviewed. The median (IQR) age was 7 (2-12) years, the median ISS was 25 (IQR 16-30). The peer-review identified a combination of clinical (85%), systems (51%) and communication (12%) problems that contributed to difficulties in care delivery. In 85% of records, staff actions were identified to contribute to events; with medical task failure the most frequently identified cause (89%).The peer-review of paediatric trauma cases assisted

2019 Injury

280. Whole Systems Research Methods in Health Care: A Scoping Review. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Whole Systems Research Methods in Health Care: A Scoping Review. This scoping review evaluates two decades of methodological advances made by "whole systems research" (WSR) pioneers in the fields of traditional, complementary, and integrative medicine (TCIM). Rooted in critiques of the classical randomized controlled trial (RCT)'s suitability for evaluating holistic, complex TCIM interventions, WSR centralizes the principle of "model validity," representing a "fit" between research design (...) and therapeutic paradigm.In consultation with field experts, 41 clinical research exemplars were selected for review from across 13 TCIM disciplines, with the aim of mapping the range and methodological characteristics of WSR studies. Using an analytic charting approach, these studies' primary and secondary features are characterized with reference to three focal areas: research method, intervention design, and outcome assessment.The reviewed WSR exemplars investigate a wide range of multimodal

2019 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

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