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Retinal Anatomy

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1. Retinal Anatomy and Electrode Array Position in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients after Argus II Implantation: an International Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Retinal Anatomy and Electrode Array Position in Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients after Argus II Implantation: an International Study. To assess the retinal anatomy and array position in Argus II retinal prosthesis recipients.Prospective, noncomparative cohort study.Setting: International multicenter study.Argus II recipients enrolled in the Post-Market Surveillance Studies.Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography images collected for the Surveillance Studies (NCT01860092 and NCT01490827) were (...) reviewed. Baseline and postoperative macular thickness, electrode-retina distance (gap), optic disc-array overlap, and preretinal membrane presence were recorded at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months.Axial retinal thickness and axial gap along the array's long axis (a line between the tack and handle); maximal retinal thickness and maximal gap along a B-scan near the tack, midline, and handle.Thirty-three patients from 16 surgical sites in the United States and Germany were included. Mean axial retinal thickness

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

2. The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and the Intergeniculate Leaflet of the Flat-Faced Fruit-Eating Bat (Artibeus planirostris): Retinal Projections and Neurochemical Anatomy Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and the Intergeniculate Leaflet of the Flat-Faced Fruit-Eating Bat (Artibeus planirostris): Retinal Projections and Neurochemical Anatomy In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) are the main components of the circadian timing system. The SCN, classically known as the master circadian clock, generates rhythms and synchronizes them to environmental cues. The IGL is a key structure that modulates SCN activity. Strategies (...) on the use of time by animals can provide important clues about how some species are adapted to competitive process in nature. Few studies have provided information about temporal niche in bats with special attention on the neural substrate underlies circadian rhythms. The aim of this study was to investigate these circadian centers with respect to their cytoarchitecture, chemical content and retinal projections in the flat-faced fruit-eating bat (Artibeus planirostris), a chiropteran endemic to South

2018 Frontiers in neuroanatomy

3. Interindividual Variations in Foveal Anatomy and Artifacts Seen on Inner Retinal Probability Maps from Spectral Domain OCT Scans of the Macula Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interindividual Variations in Foveal Anatomy and Artifacts Seen on Inner Retinal Probability Maps from Spectral Domain OCT Scans of the Macula We tested the hypothesis that variations in foveal morphology can account for artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer probability maps.A total of 126 healthy subjects were tested with spectral domain (sd) OCT. Thickness and probability maps of the macular RGC plus inner plexiform layer (RGC+) were obtained (...) in the distribution of RGC+ thickness that are not reflected in our measures warrant further investigation as potential sources of artifacts.A small proportion of circumfoveal artifacts seen on RGC+ probability maps can be explained by variations in foveal anatomy.

2018 Translational vision science & technology

4. Change in retinal structural anatomy during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

Change in retinal structural anatomy during the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease We conducted a 27-month longitudinal study of mid-life adults with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), using spectral domain optical coherence tomography to compare changes in volume and thickness in all retinal neuronal layers to those of age-matched healthy control subjects.Fifty-six older adults (mean age = 65.36 years) with multiple risk factors for AD completed spectral domain optical coherence (...) tomography retinal imaging and cognitive testing at baseline. Twenty-seven months later, they completed the same examinations and an 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography imaging study.Compared to healthy control subjects, those in the preclinical stage of AD showed a significant decrease in macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL) volume, over a 27-month follow-up interval period, as well as a decrease in outer nuclear layer and inner plexiform layer volumes and thickness in the inferior

2018 Alzheimer's & dementia : diagnosis, assessment & disease monitoring

5. The aging rat retina: from function to anatomy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The aging rat retina: from function to anatomy. In healthy beings, age is the ultimate reason of cellular malfunction and death. In the rat retina, age causes a functional decline and loss of specific neuronal populations. In this regard, controversial conclusions have been reported for the innermost retina. Here, we have studied the albino and pigmented retina for the duration of the rat life-span. Independent of age (21 days-22 months), the electroretinographic recordings and the volume (...) of the retina and its layers are smaller in albinos. Functionally, aging causes in both strains a loss of cone- and rod-mediated responses. Anatomically, cell density decreases with age because the retina grows linearly with time; no cell loss is observed in the ganglion cell layer; and only in the pigmented rat, there is a decrease in cone photoreceptors. In old animals of both strains, there is gliosis in the superior colliculi and a diminution of the area innervated by retinal ganglion cells

2017 Neurobiology of Aging

6. Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Full Text available with Trip Pro

Detailed Vascular Anatomy of the Human Retina by Projection-Resolved Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a noninvasive method of 3D imaging of the retinal and choroidal circulations. However, vascular depth discrimination is limited by superficial vessels projecting flow signal artifact onto deeper layers. The projection-resolved (PR) OCTA algorithm improves depth resolution by removing projection artifact while retaining in-situ flow (...) signal from real blood vessels in deeper layers. This novel technology allowed us to study the normal retinal vasculature in vivo with better depth resolution than previously possible. Our investigation in normal human volunteers revealed the presence of 2 to 4 distinct vascular plexuses in the retina, depending on location relative to the optic disc and fovea. The vascular pattern in these retinal plexuses and interconnecting layers are consistent with previous histologic studies. Based

2017 Scientific reports

7. Anatomy and spatial organization of Müller glia in mouse retina Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anatomy and spatial organization of Müller glia in mouse retina Müller glia, the most abundant glia of vertebrate retina, have an elaborate morphology characterized by a vertical stalk that spans the retina and branches in each retinal layer. Müller glia play diverse, critical roles in retinal homeostasis, which are presumably enabled by their complex anatomy. However, much remains unknown, particularly in mouse, about the anatomical arrangement of Müller cells and their arbors, and how (...) these features arise in development. Here we use membrane-targeted fluorescent proteins to reveal the fine structure of mouse Müller arbors. We find sublayer-specific arbor specializations within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) that occur consistently at defined laminar locations. We then characterize Müller glia spatial patterning, revealing how individual cells collaborate to form a pan-retinal network. Müller cells, unlike neurons, are spread across the retina with homogenous density, and their arbor

2017 The Journal of comparative neurology

8. Retinal Anatomy

, Retina Anatomy , Retina , Macula , Fovea II. Anatomy Retina Lines the globe inner surface and contains light sensitive s that transmit signals to the Photoreceptors (rods and cones) comprise the inner, sensory layer of the Retina Macula Retinal region responsible for central vision Lies two disc diameters lateral to the optic disc Fovea Subpart of the Macula with highest (and highest cone density) Images Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (...) (in at or ) Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in at or ) Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Retinal Anatomy." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Structure of fovea centralis (C0016622) Definition (NCI) Area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing only cones and where vision is most acute. Definition (MSH

2018 FP Notebook

9. Central retinal vein occlusion resulting from anomalous retinal vascular anatomy in a 24-year-old man Full Text available with Trip Pro

Central retinal vein occlusion resulting from anomalous retinal vascular anatomy in a 24-year-old man An otherwise healthy 24-year-old man presented with a painless decrease of vision in the left eye for 2 days. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/80 in the left eye. Anterior exam was unremarkable and funduscopic exam in the left eye revealed retinal hemorrhages in all four quadrants with venous dilation and tortuosity consistent with central retinal vein occlusion (...) . Fluorescein angiography revealed delayed venous filling with neither leakage nor vasculitis. A comprehensive work-up that included infectious, inflammatory, and hypercoagulability studies was unremarkable, and magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits was unrevealing. After 2 months, best-corrected visual acuity returned to 20/20-2 in the left eye. Upon closer review of the vascular anatomy in the left eye, a bifurcation of the central retinal artery at the level of the optic disc was tightly intertwined

2015 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

10. Surgically Induced Focal Retinal Detachment Does Not Cause Detectable SD-OCT Retinal Changes in Normal Human Retina. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surgically Induced Focal Retinal Detachment Does Not Cause Detectable SD-OCT Retinal Changes in Normal Human Retina. Induction of focal retinal detachment (RD) for subretinal delivery of stem cells and gene therapy is increasingly common. In order to determine if this procedure has an adverse impact on the retina, we use spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to evaluate the pre- and postoperative retinal anatomy of the incidentally detached normal retina surrounding large (...) submacular hemorrhages (SMH) during surgical displacement procedures.Retrospective, observational study of human subjects with monocular SMH evaluated before and after surgical displacement using clinical exam, fundus photography, and SD-OCT. Manual measurements of the inner retinal thickness (IRT), outer retinal thickness (ORT), and full retinal thickness (FRT) were made in regions involving the SMH and surrounding normal retina. Comparison of retinal thickness measurements was made using the Wilcoxon

2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

11. Morphological changes in the diseased retina on a healthy choroid-retinal pigment epithelial complex after full macular translocation for exudative age-related macular degeneration. (Abstract)

fluid (OR = 0.28) and the mixed choroidal neovascularization type (OR = -0.47), whereas nonresponders (OR = 0.41) and fibrotic lesions (OR = 0.35) were less likely to have a good visual function after surgery.Full macular translocation (FMT), that permits to relocate the diseased macula onto an area of unaffected retinal pigment epithelial and choroid, can restore the anatomy and visual function in some patients with AMD when the outer retina layers are not irreversibly damaged. The presence (...) Morphological changes in the diseased retina on a healthy choroid-retinal pigment epithelial complex after full macular translocation for exudative age-related macular degeneration. To describe the change in the retinal morphology after full macular translocation (FMT) for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and identify predictive factors for the visual outcome.All patients who underwent FMT from December 2008 through July 2013 were selected. Exclusion criteria were FMT for other

2018 Acta ophthalmologica

12. Thinner Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Very Preterm versus Term Infants and Relationship to Brain Anatomy and Neurodevelopment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Thinner Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer in Very Preterm versus Term Infants and Relationship to Brain Anatomy and Neurodevelopment. To assess retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness at term-equivalent age in very preterm (<32 weeks gestational age) vs term-born infant cohorts, and compare very preterm infant RNFL thickness with brain anatomy and neurodevelopment.Cohort study.RNFL was semi-automatically segmented (1 eye per infant) in 57 very preterm and 50 term infants with adequate images from

2015 American Journal of Ophthalmology

13. The anatomy of the foveola reinvestigated Full Text available with Trip Pro

The anatomy of the foveola reinvestigated In the foveola of the eye, photoreceptors and Müller cells with a unique morphology have been described, but little is known about their 3D structure and orientation. Considering that there is an angle-dependent change in the foveolar photoreceptor response for the same light beam, known as the Stiles Crawford Effect of the first kind (SCE I), which is still not fully understood, a detailed analysis of the anatomy of the foveolar cells might help (...) beam is changed to 10°, less light is measured after transpasssing through the retina, the foveolar center becomes darker and the SCE-like phenomenon is directly visible. Measurements of the intensities of light transmission through the central foveola for the incident angles 0 and 10° resemble the relative luminance efficiency for narrow light bundles as a function of the location where the beam enters the pupil as reported by Stiles and Crawford. The effect persisted after carefully brushing away

2018 PeerJ

14. Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human Parafoveal Capillary Vascular Anatomy and Connectivity Revealed by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. To assess the connection among arterioles, venules, and capillaries in three retinal capillary plexuses using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA).This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational study including 20 eyes of 10 healthy subjects. En face and cross-sectional OCTA images were segmented to study the superficial (SCP), middle (MCP), and deep capillary (...) ). We found capillaries in the DCP crossed the horizontal raphe.Our findings show that each of the three capillary plexuses in the parafovea has its own feeding arteriolar supply and draining venules, supporting a physiologic model in which each plexus controls its own oxygenated blood supply to match the metabolic needs of each distinct retinal neurovascular unit.

2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

15. The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss We quantified the interrelationship between retinal blood vessel (BV) anatomical variation, spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error, and functional diagnostic parameters in glaucoma to identify optimal parameters for the improvement of optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) norms.A trained observer marked the intersections of the main superior (...) relationship to SE (Bayesian information criterion difference to null model, 11.9). SE and BV parameters are unrelated to functional parameters, including mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation, and glaucoma hemifield test results.BV locations outside the ONH are sufficiently stable over glaucoma severity to represent individual eye anatomy, and the IAA at 1.73 mm eccentricity is the optimal parameter to be considered for novel OCT RNFLT norms.Among a large set of BV location parameters

2018 Translational vision science & technology

16. Anatomy of cornea and ocular surface Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anatomy of cornea and ocular surface Important functions of cornea in the eye include protecting the structures inside the eye, contributing to the refractive power of the eye, and focusing light rays on the retina with minimum scatter and optical degradation. Considerable advances have taken place in understanding the organization of collagen in the corneal stroma and its clinical significance. In this review, the structure and function of various components of cornea and ocular surface

2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

17. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery to restore normal anatomy and to stabilize or improve vision. PVR usually occurs in association with recurrent RD (that is, after initial retinal re-attachment surgery) but occasionally may be associated with primary RD. Either way, a tamponade agent (gas or silicone oil) is needed during surgery to reduce the rate (...) of postoperative recurrent RD.The objective of this review was to assess the relative safety and effectiveness of various tamponade agents used with surgery for retinal detachment (RD) complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR).We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2013), EMBASE (January

2014 Cochrane

18. <b>Retinal vessel oxygen saturation is affected in uveitis associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada</b> disease. (Abstract)

).In healthy controls, mean arteriolar oxygen saturation (%) was 93.8±5.9 and venular saturation was 60.1±5.8. In acute VKH uveitic phase associated with exudative retinal detachment (n=12), arteriolar and venular oxygen saturation values were 104.7±7.8 and 67.9±7.7, respectively, and both are significantly higher than the healthy group (p<0.001; p=0.001, respectively). In patients with VKH disease who recovered after immunosuppressive therapy and restored normal anatomy without 'sunset glow fundus' (n=13 (...) Retinal vessel oxygen saturation is affected in uveitis associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease. To discover whether retinal vessel oxygen metabolism is affected in uveitis associated with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease.41 patients with VKH disease (82 eyes) and 12 healthy subjects (24 eyes) matched in age and gender were prospectively evaluated. Retinal oxygen saturation and vessel calibre were measured with a non-invasive spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1

2019 British Journal of Ophthalmology

19. Suprachoroidally injected pharmacological agents for the treatment of chorio-retinal diseases: a targeted approach. (Abstract)

Suprachoroidally injected pharmacological agents for the treatment of chorio-retinal diseases: a targeted approach. Delivery of pharmaceuticals to the posterior segment presents challenges that arise from the anatomy and clearance pharmacokinetics of the eye. Systemic and several local administration options [topical, periocular, intravitreal (IVT) and subretinal] are in clinical use, each with a unique benefit to risk profile shaped by factors including the administered agent, frequency (...) endothelial growth factor inhibitors and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) indicate that administration via suprachoroidal injection results in more posterior distribution of the pharmacologic agent, with higher exposure to the sclera, choroid, retinal pigment epithelium cells and retina, and lesser exposure to the anterior segment, than observed with IVT administration. Based in part on these findings, clinical trials have explored the efficacy and safety of suprachoroidal administration of pharmacologic

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

20. Multimodal Retinal Imaging in the Detection and Follow-up of Alzheimer's Disease

Update Posted : March 15, 2018 See Sponsor: Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Information provided by (Responsible Party): Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Because of a shared ontogenic origin, the retina displays similarities to the brain and spinal cord in terms of anatomy, functionality, response to insult, and immunology. Hence, the retina can be approached as an integral part of the central nervous system. The occurence of ocular (...) organ to study the central nervous system (CNS). Many of the hallmark cerebral pathophysiological processes of AD have also been observed in the retina. Unlike the rest of the CNS, the retina can be visualized directly, with an imaging resolution up to 100x higher than PET and MRI scans. Using these high-resolution imaging tools such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), studies have demonstrated microvascular changes and neuro-retinal thinning in AD patients. Pilot data show that retinal Aβ can

2018 Clinical Trials

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