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Respiratory Syncytial Virus

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1. Immunoglobulin treatment for hospitalised infants and young children with respiratory syncytial virus infection. (Abstract)

Immunoglobulin treatment for hospitalised infants and young children with respiratory syncytial virus infection. Millions of children are hospitalised due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection every year. Treatment is supportive, and current therapies (e.g. inhaled bronchodilators, epinephrine, nebulised hypertonic saline, and corticosteroids) are ineffective or have limited effect. Respiratory syncytial virus immunoglobulin is sometimes used prophylactically to prevent hospital (...) admission from RSV-related illness. It may be considered for the treatment of established severe RSV infection or for treatment in an immunocompromised host, although it is not licenced for this purpose. It is unclear whether immunoglobulins improve outcomes when used as a treatment for established RSV infection in infants and young children admitted to hospital.  OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of immunoglobulins for the treatment of RSV-proven lower respiratory tract infections in children aged up

2019 Cochrane

2. Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Respiratory syncytial virus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of bronchiolitis; nearly every child has been infected by 2 years of age. Seasonal outbreaks occur worldwide during winter months (...) . Characterised by cough, wheeze, respiratory distress, and hypoxia. Most episodes are mild and self-limiting. Treatment is mostly supportive: supplemental oxygen, nasal and pulmonary toilet, respiratory support, nutritional support. High-risk groups for severe illness include infants with a history of prematurity, chronic lung disease, complex congenital heart disease, and immunocompromise. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab is available for high-risk groups. Definition Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial virus infection - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Respiratory syncytial virus infection Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2018 Summary Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of bronchiolitis; nearly every child has been infected by 2 years of age. Seasonal outbreaks occur worldwide during winter months (...) . Characterised by cough, wheeze, respiratory distress, and hypoxia. Most episodes are mild and self-limiting. Treatment is mostly supportive: supplemental oxygen, nasal and pulmonary toilet, respiratory support, nutritional support. High-risk groups for severe illness include infants with a history of prematurity, chronic lung disease, complex congenital heart disease, and immunocompromise. Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab is available for high-risk groups. Definition Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV

2018 BMJ Best Practice

5. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis in Neurologic and Muscular Disorders in the Canadian Respiratory Syncytial Virus Evaluation Study of Palivizumab. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prophylaxis in Neurologic and Muscular Disorders in the Canadian Respiratory Syncytial Virus Evaluation Study of Palivizumab. This study aimed to examine the risk of respiratory-related hospitalization in children with neurologic and muscular disorders (NMDs) who received respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis in the Canadian RSV Evaluation Study of Palivizumab.Canadian RSV Evaluation Study of Palivizumab is a prospective registry of children who received ≥1 (...) palivizumab injection among 32 Canadian sites. Demographic data were collected at enrollment, and respiratory events were documented monthly. Cox proportional hazard analyses were conducted to compare respiratory illness-related hospitalization (RIH) and RSV-related hospitalization (RSVH) among children with NMD and those prophylaxed for standard indications (SI) and complex medical disorders.Group differences were found in enrollment age and weight, birth weight, household crowding, neonatal stay

2019 Pediatric Infectious Dsease Journal

6. [Effect of palivizumab prophylaxis in reducing the complications associated with the respiratory syncytial virus in infants and young children]

[Effect of palivizumab prophylaxis in reducing the complications associated with the respiratory syncytial virus in infants and young children] Effet du palivizumab en prophylaxie sur la diminution des complications associées au virus respiratoire syncytial chez les enfants [Effect of palivizumab prophylaxis in reducing the complications associated with the respiratory syncytial virus in infants and young children] Effet du palivizumab en prophylaxie sur la diminution des complications (...) associées au virus respiratoire syncytial chez les enfants [Effect of palivizumab prophylaxis in reducing the complications associated with the respiratory syncytial virus in infants and young children] Breton M-C, Rossignol M, Fansi A, Jehanno C Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Breton M-C, Rossignol M, Fansi A, Jehanno C. Effet du

2017 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

7. Late therapeutic intervention with a respiratory syncytial virus L‐protein polymerase inhibitor, PC786, on respiratory syncytial virus infection in human airway epithelium Full Text available with Trip Pro

Late therapeutic intervention with a respiratory syncytial virus L‐protein polymerase inhibitor, PC786, on respiratory syncytial virus infection in human airway epithelium Effective anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) agents are still not available for clinical use. Current major targets are virus surface proteins, such as a fusion protein involved in viral entry, but agents effective after RSV infection is established are required. Here we have investigated the effects of late therapeutic (...) intervention with a novel inhaled RSV polymerase inhibitor, PC786, on RSV infection in human airway epithelium.Air liquid interface-cultured bronchial or small airway epithelium was infected with RSVA2. PC786 was applied apically or basolaterally once daily following peak virus load on Day 3 post inoculation. Apical wash was collected daily for determination of viral burden by PCR and plaque assay (primary endpoints) and biomarker analyses. The effects were compared with those of ALS-8112, an anti-RSV

2018 British journal of pharmacology

8. Palivizumab for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with cystic fibrosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Palivizumab for prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus infection in children with cystic fibrosis. Respiratory syncytial virus infection causes acute lung infection in infants and young children worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Children with cystic fibrosis are prone to recurrent lung inflammation, bacterial colonisation and subsequent chronic airway disease, putting them at risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus infections requiring intensive care (...) and respiratory support. No treatment currently exists, hence prevention is important. Palivizumab is effective in reducing respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisation rates and is recommended for prophylaxis in high-risk children with other conditions. It is unclear if palivizumab can prevent respiratory syncytial virus hospitalisations and intensive care unit admissions in children with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review.To determine the efficacy and safety of palivizumab

2016 Cochrane

9. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) belongs to the recently defined Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. It is a negative sense, single stranded RNA virus that results in epidemics of respiratory infections that typically peak in the winter in temperate climates and during the rainy season in tropical climates. Generally, one of the two genotypes (A and B) predominates in a single season, alternating annually, although regional (...) variation occurs. RSV is a cause of disease and death in children, older people, and immunocompromised patients, and its clinical effect on adults admitted to hospital is clarified with expanded use of multiplex molecular assays. Among adults, RSV produces a wide range of clinical symptoms including upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and exacerbations of underlying disease. Here we discuss the latest evidence on the burden of RSV related disease in adults

2019 BMJ

10. Cost-effectiveness of Palivizumab for Respiratory Syncytial Virus: A Systematic Review (Abstract)

Cost-effectiveness of Palivizumab for Respiratory Syncytial Virus: A Systematic Review Palivizumab prophylaxis is used as passive immunization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, because of its high cost, the value of this intervention is unclear.To systematically review the cost-effectiveness of palivizumab prophylaxis compared with no prophylaxis in infants <24 months of age.Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library up to August 2018.Two reviewers independently screened results

2019 EvidenceUpdates

11. The significance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in children from Ghana with acute lower respiratory tract infection: A molecular epidemiological analysis, 2006 and 2013-2014. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The significance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in children from Ghana with acute lower respiratory tract infection: A molecular epidemiological analysis, 2006 and 2013-2014. Acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Globally, human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common pathogen of ALRI in infants and children. However, age-stratified HRSV disease burden data are largely absent (...) from Africa, which is a key gap in informing an evidence-based recommendation for the introduction of an HRSV vaccine by the WHO.This study investigated the presence of HRSV in respiratory specimens from 552 children <5 years old with ALRI from Accra, Ghana in 2006 and 2013-2014 by real-time PCR. Of HRSV-positive samples the second hypervariable region of the viral G protein gene was sequenced and analyzed for phylogeny, characteristic amino acid substitutions, and potential glycosylation patterns

2018 PLoS ONE

12. Engystol reduces onset of experimental respiratory syncytial virus-induced respiratory inflammation in mice by modulating macrophage phagocytic capacity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Engystol reduces onset of experimental respiratory syncytial virus-induced respiratory inflammation in mice by modulating macrophage phagocytic capacity. Respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus are one of the major causes for respiratory tract infections causing common cold disease. Respiratory viral infections range from mild symptoms in adults to serious illness especially in the very young or elderly as well as patients suffering from lung diseases (...) or being immunocompromised due to other reasons. Engystol (EGY-2) is a multicomponent, multitarget preparation consisting of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria and Sulfur in various dilutions. The study objective was to test the effect of EGY-2 on the innate immune response during the early onset of respiratory viral infection in vivo as exemplified in a mouse model of RSV-induced respiratory inflammation.Naïve BALB/c mice were infected with 1x106 infectious units RSV A2 intranasally to cause a mild respiratory

2018 PLoS ONE

13. Protection induced by virus-like particle vaccine containing tandem repeat gene of respiratory syncytial virus G protein. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Protection induced by virus-like particle vaccine containing tandem repeat gene of respiratory syncytial virus G protein. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children and the elderly. However, there is no licensed vaccine available against RSV infection. In this study, we generated virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine and investigated the vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. For VLP vaccines, tandem gene (1-780 bp) for V1 VLPs (...) and tandem repeat gene (repeated 450-780 bp) for V5 VLPs were constructed in pFastBacTM vectors, respectively. Influenza matrix protein 1 (M1) was used as a core protein in the VLPs. Notably, upon challenge infection, significantly lower virus loads were measured in the lung of mice immunized with V1 or V5 VLPs compared to those of naïve mice and formalin-inactivated RSV immunized control mice. In particular, V5 VLPs immunization showed significantly lower virus titers than V1 VLPs immunization

2018 PLoS ONE

14. Evidence of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza-3 virus in Mexican sheep Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evidence of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza-3 virus in Mexican sheep This is a first report in Mexico of the presence of antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza-3 virus in Mexican sheep in different productive stages. We determine the association of serological positivity with age and production system, and obtain molecular evidence of infection by both virus. RSV prevalence in adult sheep was 47% (49/105) at the tropic and 64% (63/99) at the uplands

2017 Virusdisease

15. Surveillance for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus among patients hospitalized with pneumonia in Sarawak, Malaysia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Surveillance for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus among patients hospitalized with pneumonia in Sarawak, Malaysia. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenza virus (PIV) are frequent causes of pneumonia and death among children at Sibu and Kapit Hospitals in Sarawak, Malaysia.To determine the prevalence and risk factors for RSV subtypes A and B and PIV types 1-4 among patients hospitalized with pneumonia.In a cross-sectional, pilot study nasopharyngeal swabs were

2018 PLoS ONE

16. Preventing hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus infection

Preventing hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial virus infection is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Palivizumab has minimal impact on RSV hospitilization rates as it is only practical to offer it to the highest risk groups. The present statement reviews the published literature and provides updated recommendations regarding palivizumab use in children in Canada. Key Words: At-risk infants; Chronic lung disease

2015 Canadian Paediatric Society

17. Reappraisal of respiratory syncytial virus as an aetiology of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections in children younger than 5 years in Nigeria. (Abstract)

Reappraisal of respiratory syncytial virus as an aetiology of severe acute lower respiratory tract infections in children younger than 5 years in Nigeria. Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRIs) especially severe ALRIs, constitute a global high burden of morbidity and mortality in children <5 y of age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been documented to a play a major aetiological role. However, Nigerian reports on severe childhood RSV ALRIs are rare and most reports are old

2019 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

18. Association Between Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Early Life and Recurrent Wheeze and Asthma in Later Childhood. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association Between Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in Early Life and Recurrent Wheeze and Asthma in Later Childhood. Recurrent wheeze and asthma in childhood are commons causes of chronic respiratory morbidity globally. We aimed to explore the association between respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in early life and subsequent respiratory sequelae up to age 12 years.We estimated the strength of association by 3 control groups and 3 follow-up age (...) groups, with data from studies published between January 1995 and May 2018. We also estimated associations by diagnostic criteria, age at infection, and high-risk population.Overall, we included 41 studies. A statistically significant association was observed between early life RSV infection and subsequent childhood recurrent wheeze, in comparison to those who were healthy or those without respiratory symptoms: OR 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50-3.71) for 0 to <36 months follow-up age

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

19. Acute Lower Respiratory Infections Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children With Underlying Congenital Heart Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Acute Lower Respiratory Infections Associated With Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Children With Underlying Congenital Heart Disease: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common viral pathogen associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs), with significant childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. Estimates reporting RSV-associated ALRI (RSV-ALRI) severity in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are lacking, thus warranting

2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

20. [Does heliox administered by low-flow nasal cannula improve respiratory distress in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis? A randomized controlled trial]. Full Text available with Trip Pro

[Does heliox administered by low-flow nasal cannula improve respiratory distress in infants with respiratory syncytial virus acute bronchiolitis? A randomized controlled trial]. The aim of our study is to evaluate whether the use of heliox (79:21) delivered through a low flow nasal cannula would improve respiratory distress in infants with acute bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus.We have conducted a prospective randomized controlled study. All patients fulfilled inclusion (...) and 0.89) (P= 1.0, .77 and .73). There was no notable reduction in length of treatment in Heliox group 2.42 days vs. 2.79 days in air group P =.65. The in oxygen saturation, PaO2, and PaCO2 did not to have any statistical difference between the two studied groups after 2hours and 24hours of treatment.Our data showed absence of any beneficial effect of heliox in a concentration (79:21) delivered through low flow nasal cannula in terms of respiratory distress improvement in infants with RSV acute

2019 Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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