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Renin-Angiotensin System

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81. Resveratrol ameliorates maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via renin-angiotensin system Full Text available with Trip Pro

Resveratrol ameliorates maternal and post-weaning high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via renin-angiotensin system Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) can develop in prenatal stages and can be exacerbated by exposure to a postnatal high-fat (HF) diet. We investigated the protective effects of resveratrol on prenatal and postnatal HF diet-induced NAFLD.Male Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were placed in five experimental groups (n = 10-12 per group): normal diet (VNF (...) by regulating lipid metabolism, reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis, restoring nutrient-sensing pathways by increasing Sirt1 and leptin expression, and mediating the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) to decrease angiotensinogen, renin, ACE1, and AT1R levels and increased ACE2, AT2R and MAS1 levels compared to those in the OHF group.Our results suggest that a maternal and post-weaning HF diet increases liver steatosis and apoptosis via the RAS. Resveratrol might serve as a therapeutic target by mediating

2018 Lipids in health and disease

82. Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate hyperoxia-induced lung injury through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in newborn rats Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate hyperoxia-induced lung injury through inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system in newborn rats Hyperoxia induces activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in newborn rat lungs. This study investigated the therapeutic effects of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on lung development and RAS expression in neonatal rats exposed to hyperoxia. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were exposed to either room air (RA) or oxygen-enriched atmosphere (O2) treatment

2018 American journal of translational research

83. Hyperglycemia activates the renin-angiotensin system and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidneys Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hyperglycemia activates the renin-angiotensin system and induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in streptozotocin-induced diabetic kidneys The renin-angiotensin system and epithelial-mesenchymal transition play crucial roles in the development of kidney fibrosis. The connection between the renin-angiotensin system and transforming growth factor-β in epithelial-mesenchymal transition remains largely unknown.We assessed oxidative stress, cytokine levels, renal morphology, profibrotic growth (...) factor and renin-angiotensin system component expression, and cell-specific E- and N-cadherin expression in the kidneys of gerbils with streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.Animals in the experimental group received an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to induce diabetes. The diabetic gerbil kidneys presented kidney injury, which was manifested as distorted glomeruli, necrosis of tubular cells, dilated tubular lumen, and brush border loss. Additionally, the diabetic gerbil kidneys

2018 Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: JRAAS

84. Effect of Ivabradine on a Hypertensive Heart and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in L-NAME-Induced Hypertension Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of Ivabradine on a Hypertensive Heart and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in L-NAME-Induced Hypertension Ivabradine, the selective inhibitor of the If current in the sinoatrial node, exerts cardiovascular protection by its bradycardic effect and potentially pleiotropic actions. However, there is a shortage of data regarding ivabradine's interaction with the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). This study investigated whether ivabradine is able to protect a hypertensive

2018 International journal of molecular sciences

85. Interactions between the Cyclooxygenase Metabolic Pathway and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Systems: Their Effect on Cardiovascular Risk, from Theory to the Clinical Practice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interactions between the Cyclooxygenase Metabolic Pathway and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Systems: Their Effect on Cardiovascular Risk, from Theory to the Clinical Practice Coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke are the most common and serious long-term complications of hypertension. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) significantly reduces their incidence and cardiovascular mortality. The RAAS activation plays an important role in pathogenesis of CVD, resulting in increased vascular resistance (...) , proliferation of vascular-smooth-muscle-cells, and cardiac hypertrophy. Drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular events in population with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The cyclooxygenase inhibitors limit the beneficial effect of RAAS-inhibitors, which in turn may be important in subjects with hypertension, CAD, and congestive heart failure. These observations apply to most of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ASA at high doses

2018 BioMed research international

86. Inflammation as a Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Blood Pressure Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inflammation as a Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System and Blood Pressure Mechanisms facilitating progression of hypertension via cross stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and inflammation have been proposed. Accordingly, we review and update evidence for regulation of RAS components by pro-inflammatory factors.Angiotensin II (Ang II), which is produced by RAS, induces vasoconstriction and consequent blood pressure elevation. In addition to this direct action, chronically (...) elevated Ang II stimulates several pathophysiological mechanisms including generation of oxidative stress, stimulation of the nervous system, alterations in renal hemodynamics, and activation of the immune system. In particular, an activated immune system has been shown to contribute to the development of hypertension. Recent studies have demonstrated that immune cell-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate RAS components, further accelerating systemic and local Ang II formation. Specifically

2018 Current Hypertension Reports

87. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation in long-standing type 1 diabetes Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation in long-standing type 1 diabetes In type 1 diabetes (T1D), adjuvant treatment with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which dilate the efferent arteriole, is associated with prevention of progressive albuminuria and renal dysfunction. Uncertainty still exists as to why some individuals with long-standing T1D develop diabetic kidney disease (DKD) while others do not (DKD resistors). We hypothesized that those with DKD (...) would be distinguished from DKD resistors by the presence of RAAS activation.Renal and systemic hemodynamic function was measured before and after exogenous RAAS stimulation by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II (ANGII) in 75 patients with prolonged T1D durations and in equal numbers of nondiabetic controls. The primary outcome was change in renal vascular resistance (RVR) in response to RAAS stimulation, a measure of endogenous RAAS activation.Those with DKD had less change in RVR following

2018 JCI insight

88. Interaction of renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms with hypertension in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes and retinopathy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Interaction of renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms with hypertension in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes and retinopathy The objective of this research was to investigate the interaction of RAS gene polymorphisms in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR).Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and genotyping for the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene I/D and angiotensinogen (AGT) gene M/T polymorphisms

2018 Oncotarget

89. Determinants of Progression in Early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease – Is it Blood Pressure or Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System Blockade? Full Text available with Trip Pro

Determinants of Progression in Early Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease – Is it Blood Pressure or Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System Blockade? The HALT PKD trial in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure to 95-110 mmHg was associated with a 14% slower rate of kidney volume growth compared to standard control. It is unclear whether this result was due to greater blockade of the renin-angiotensin (...) -aldosterone system (RAAS) by allowing the use of higher drug doses in the low blood pressure arm, or due to the lower blood pressure per se.In this secondary analysis of HALT PKD Study A, we categorized participants into high and low dose groups based on the median daily equivalent dose of RAAS blocking drugs used after the initial dose titration period. Using linear mixed models, we compared the percent change in total kidney volume and the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between

2018 Current hypertension reviews

90. Effects of Olmesartan and Azilsartan on Albuminuria and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of Olmesartan and Azilsartan on Albuminuria and the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System Olmesartan and azilsartan decrease blood pressure more effectively than other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ARBs additionally decrease the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), a urinary albumin marker, and urinary angiotensinogen (u-AGT), an intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activity marker. We examined the effects of these ARBs on blood pressure, UACR, and u-AGT in patients

2018 World journal of research and review Controlled trial quality: uncertain

91. Circadian Differences in the Contribution of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Genetically Hypertensive Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Circadian Differences in the Contribution of the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Genetically Hypertensive Mice Objective: Genetically hypertensive BPH/2J mice are recognized as a neurogenic model of hypertension, primarily based on sympathetic overactivity and greater neuronal activity in cardiovascular regulatory brain regions. Greater activity of the central renin angiotensin system (RAS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reportedly contribute to other models of hypertension. Importantly

2018 Frontiers in physiology

92. A randomized intervention study to evaluate the effect of calcitriol therapy on the renin-angiotensin system in diabetes Full Text available with Trip Pro

A randomized intervention study to evaluate the effect of calcitriol therapy on the renin-angiotensin system in diabetes Prior studies suggest that vitamin D therapy may decrease cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by lowering renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity. However, randomized human intervention studies to evaluate the effect of vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists on RAS activity are lacking.The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of direct VDR

2018 Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: JRAAS Controlled trial quality: uncertain

93. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of the renin-angiotensin system in hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important regulator of cirrhosis and portal hypertension. As hepatic fibrosis progresses, levels of the RAS components angiotensin (Ang) II, Ang-(1-7), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) are increased. The primary effector Ang II regulates vasoconstriction, sodium homoeostasis, fibrosis, cell proliferation, and inflammation in various

2018 The Korean journal of internal medicine

94. The renin angiotensin system in liver and lung: impact and therapeutic potential in organ fibrosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

The renin angiotensin system in liver and lung: impact and therapeutic potential in organ fibrosis Liver and lung fibrosis are two main organ diseases that are of particular importance in both Egypt and the US. Hepatitis C Virus "HCV" infection and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are fibrotic diseases of the liver and lung respectively. The liver and lung are reported in literature to share many immune/inflammatory responses to damage through the lung-liver axis. Most importantly, HCV (...) was shown to enhance the development of IPF and is considered one of the risk factors for IPF. The renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the fibrogenesis and inflammation damage of many organs including liver and lung. The relatively recently identified component of RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), has shown a promising therapeutic potential in models of liver and pulmonary fibrosis. This article reviews the role of RAS in organ fibrosis with focus on role of ACE-2

2018 Journal of lung, pulmonary & respiratory research

95. Liver Protective Effects of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition Have No Survival Benefits in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced By Repetitive Administration of Diethylnitrosamine in Mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

Liver Protective Effects of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition Have No Survival Benefits in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced By Repetitive Administration of Diethylnitrosamine in Mice Preclinical studies have demonstrated that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) signalling has strong tumour-promoting effects and RAS inhibition was associated with improvement in the overall survival in some cancer types including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).We aimed to investigate the effect of angiotensin

2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

96. Intestinal dysbiosis activates renal renin-angiotensin system contributing to incipient diabetic nephropathy Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intestinal dysbiosis activates renal renin-angiotensin system contributing to incipient diabetic nephropathy Considerable interest nowadays has focused on gut microbiota owing to their pleiotropic roles in human health and diseases. This intestinal community can arouse a variety of activities in the host and function as "a microbial organ" by generating bioactive metabolites and participating in a series of metabolism-dependent pathways. Alternations in the composition of gut microbiota (...) , referred to as intestinal dysbiosis, are reportedly associated with several diseases, especially diabetes mellitus and its complications. Here we focus on the relationship between gut microbiota and diabetic nephropathy (DN), as the latter is one of the major causes of chronic kidney diseases. The activation of renin angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical factor to the onset of DN, and emerging data has demonstrated a provoking and mediating role of gut microbiota for this system in the context

2018 International journal of medical sciences

97. Role of Lipotoxicity and Contribution of the Renin-Angiotensin System in the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

Role of Lipotoxicity and Contribution of the Renin-Angiotensin System in the Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common and significant condition associated with hyperandrogenism, infertility, low quality of life, and metabolic comorbidities. One possible explanation of PCOS development is cellular dysfunction induced by nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), that is, lipotoxicity, which could explain both the hyperandrogenemia and insulin resistance (...) and of the RAS system as a new target for the treatment of PCOS.

2018 International journal of endocrinology

98. Exposure to fine particulate matter in the air alters placental structure and the renin-angiotensin system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Exposure to fine particulate matter in the air alters placental structure and the renin-angiotensin system. Female Wistar rats were exposed to filtered air (F) or to concentrated fine particulate matter (P) for 15 days. After mating, the rats were divided into four groups and again exposed to F or P (FF, FP, PF, PP) beginning on day 6 of pregnancy. At embryonic day 19, the placenta was collected. The placental structure, the protein and gene expression of TGFβ1, VEGF-A, and its receptor Flk-1

2017 PLoS ONE

99. Excessively low salt diet damages the heart through activation of cardiac (pro) renin receptor, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and sympatho-adrenal systems in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Excessively low salt diet damages the heart through activation of cardiac (pro) renin receptor, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and sympatho-adrenal systems in spontaneously hypertensive rats. A high salt intake causes hypertension and leads to cardiovascular disease. Therefore, a low salt diet is now recommended to prevent hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, it is still unknown whether an excessively low salt diet is beneficial or harmful for the heart.Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs (...) ) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) received normal salt chow (0.9% salt diet) and excessively low salt chow (0.01% salt diet referred to as saltless diet) for 8 weeks from 8 to 16 weeks of age. The effects of the excessively low salt diet on the cardiac (pro) renin receptor, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and sympatho-adrenal systems were investigated.The excessively low salt diet did not affect the systolic blood pressure but significantly increased the heart rate both in WKYs and SHRs. The excessively

2017 PLoS ONE

100. Angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with lower mortality than ACE inhibitors in predialytic stage 5 chronic kidney disease: A nationwide study of therapy with renin-angiotensin system blockade. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with lower mortality than ACE inhibitors in predialytic stage 5 chronic kidney disease: A nationwide study of therapy with renin-angiotensin system blockade. Dual renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockade using angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) in combination with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is reported to improve proteinuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, its renoprotective effect and safety remain

2017 PLoS ONE

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