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Renin-Angiotensin System

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6961. Associations between hypertension and genes in the renin-angiotensin system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Associations between hypertension and genes in the renin-angiotensin system. The genes of the renin-angiotensin system have been subjected to intense molecular scrutiny in cardiovascular disease studies, but their contribution to risk is still uncertain. In this study, we sampled 192 African American and 153 European American families (602 and 608 individuals, respectively) to evaluate the contribution of variations in genes that encode renin-angiotensin system components of susceptibility (...) to hypertension. We genotyped 25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system genes ACE, AGT, AGTR1, and REN. The family-based transmission/disequilibrium test was performed with each single-nucleotide polymorphism and with the multilocus haplotypes. Two individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with hypertension among African Americans, and this result persisted when both groups were combined. The associations were confirmed in haplotype analysis for REN

2003 Hypertension

6962. Augmented diurnal variations of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system in hypertensive rats. (Abstract)

Augmented diurnal variations of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system in hypertensive rats. There are several controversies concerning the enhanced gene expression of cardiac renin-angiotensin system components in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared with their normotensive control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. We hypothesized that these discrepancies arise from circadian fluctuations in gene expression. We examined the circadian mRNA expression of renin, angiotensinogen, ACE (...) , and angiotensin type 1a (AT1a) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the hearts of SHR and WKY rats by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cardiac mRNA expression of the renin-angiotensin system components showed circadian oscillations in both SHR and WKY rats. The amplitudes of these circadian fluctuations were greater in the SHR than in the WKY rats. The mRNA levels of the renin-angiotensin system components were also increased in the SHR compared with the WKY rats at many

2002 Hypertension

6963. Effects of angiotensin-(1-7) and other bioactive components of the renin-angiotensin system on vascular resistance and noradrenaline release in rat kidney. (Abstract)

Effects of angiotensin-(1-7) and other bioactive components of the renin-angiotensin system on vascular resistance and noradrenaline release in rat kidney. Angiotensin (Ang) is broken down enzymatically to several different metabolites which, in addition to Ang II, may have important biological effects in the kidney. This study investigates the role of Ang metabolites on vascular resistance and noradrenaline release in the rat kidney.In rat isolated kidney Ang I, Ang II, Ang III, Ang IV and des

2003 Journal of Hypertension

6964. Genetic polymorphism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and arterial hypertension in the Italian population: the GENIPER Project. (Abstract)

Genetic polymorphism of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and arterial hypertension in the Italian population: the GENIPER Project. To detect the association of single polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), or different combinations thereof, with hypertension.The GENIPER database is the result of a collaborative effort of 13 Italian research centres to collect genomic DNA in subjects well characterized in terms of blood pressure status. A total of 2461 subjects

2003 Journal of Hypertension

6965. New evidence on the importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the treatment of higher-risk patients with hypertension. (Abstract)

New evidence on the importance of the renin-angiotensin system in the treatment of higher-risk patients with hypertension. We reviewed the drug treatment of hypertension in the light of recent trials. beta-Blockers and diuretics clearly reduce mortality, strokes, and coronary heart disease (CHD) in hypertension. Recent trials assessed whether newer agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or calcium blockers, offer any additional advantage, or have benefits in high-risk (...) are responsible. Recent results of the Prospective Studies Collaboration show lower risk, even in the normal blood pressure range; high-risk patients will benefit further from ACE inhibitors and ARBs (and beta-blockers after myocardial infarction). Data for other blood pressure decreasing agents are unavailable in such populations. We conclude that blood pressure decreasing per se is of clinical benefit, but drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system offer additional advantages. Drug choice is best

2003 Journal of Hypertension

6966. Salt appetite and the renin-angiotensin system: effect of oxytocin deficiency. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Salt appetite and the renin-angiotensin system: effect of oxytocin deficiency. To explore the role of oxytocin in the regulation of salt appetite and blood pressure, we conducted studies in oxytocin gene-knockout mice and determined (1) blood pressure and heart rate during day and night periods, (2) salt appetite after iso-osmotic volume depletion, and (3) salt appetite and blood pressure after central injection of angiotensin II. Long-term arterial catheters were inserted, and blood pressure (...) appetite, specifically as mediated by volume receptors, and that the renin-angiotensin system is not involved in these changes.

2003 Hypertension

6967. Renal interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system in man. (Abstract)

Renal interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system in man. 1818947 1992 07 22 2013 11 21 0952-1178 9 6 1991 Dec Journal of hypertension. Supplement : official journal of the International Society of Hypertension J Hypertens Suppl Renal interactions between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system in man. S206-7 Lang C C CC Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK. Rahman A R AR Choy A M (...) pharmacology Prazosin pharmacology Renin-Angiotensin System physiology Sympathetic Nervous System physiology 1991 12 1 1991 12 1 0 1 1991 12 1 0 0 ppublish 1818947

1992 Journal of hypertension. Supplement : official journal of the International Society of Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6968. Effects of captopril on blood pressure and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive subjects after inhibition of renal vasodilative system. (Abstract)

Effects of captopril on blood pressure and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hypertensive subjects after inhibition of renal vasodilative system. The aim of this study is to contribute to the understanding of the probable role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, the kallikrein-kinins and the prostaglandins systems on the various types of essential hypertension and also their contribution to the action of captopril. Nineteen patients, 7 with high and 12 with normal or low levels (...) of plasma renin activity (PRA), have been studied. Captopril (100 mg) was administered in acute dosage, blood pressure was checked for two hours and PRA and plasma aldosterone were assayed. The same trial was repeated after inhibition of prostaglandin-synthetase with indomethacin and kallikrein with trasylol, alternatively, and then with indomethacin and trasylol, contemporaneously. Our results showed that the renal vasodilative system was probably also involved in the mechanism of action of captopril

1984 International journal of clinical pharmacology research

6969. Calcium channel blockade with nitrendipine. Effects on sodium homeostasis, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system in humans. (Abstract)

Calcium channel blockade with nitrendipine. Effects on sodium homeostasis, the renin-angiotensin system, and the sympathetic nervous system in humans. To test the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effect of the calcium channel blocking drug nitrendipine is in part related to natriuresis, we gave 16 subjects (8 normal, 8 hypertensive) placebo for 8 days followed by nitrendipine titrated to 20 mg twice daily for 8 days. The same diet was prepared for each meal for the entire study. Sodium

1985 Hypertension

6970. Responses of the systemic circulation and of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to ketanserin at rest and exercise in normal man. (Abstract)

Responses of the systemic circulation and of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to ketanserin at rest and exercise in normal man. The systemic circulation at rest and during exercise was studied in ten normal male volunteers, after placebo on one occasion and after acute intravenous administration of the serotonergic antagonist ketanserin on another occasion. The effects of ketanserin on the components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, on plasma catecholamines and on exercise

1984 Clinical science (London, England : 1979) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6971. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in systemic and regional vascular responses to orthostatic stress in healthy volunteers. (Abstract)

Role of the renin-angiotensin system in systemic and regional vascular responses to orthostatic stress in healthy volunteers. The effects of a single oral dose (5 mg) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, on the systemic and regional vascular responses to simulated orthostatic stress by the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) technique were investigated in eight healthy volunteers, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Arterial blood pressure remained

1995 Fundamental & clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6972. Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension? (Abstract)

Does the renin-angiotensin system determine the renal and systemic hemodynamic response to sodium in patients with essential hypertension? Many patients with essential hypertension respond to a high dietary sodium intake with a rise in blood pressure. Experimental evidence suggests that the renal hemodynamic response to sodium determines, at least partially, this rise in blood pressure. Our aim was to clarify the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the renal and systemic adaptation (...) to high sodium intake showed the largest ERPF rise (r = .70, P < .01). The remikiren-induced rise in ERPF correlated (r = .68, P < .01) with the fall in MAP (114 +/- 2 to 110 +/- 2 mm Hg). In conclusion, in patients with essential hypertension a rise in blood pressure in response to high sodium intake appears to partially be the result of insufficient renal vasodilatation. This seems to be due to an inadequate (intrarenal?) renin-angiotensin system response to increased sodium intake.

1996 Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6973. Comparative effects of pinacidil and prazosin on blood pressure, weight, plasma volume, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the renal kallikrein-kinin system in patients with essential hypertension. (Abstract)

Comparative effects of pinacidil and prazosin on blood pressure, weight, plasma volume, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and the renal kallikrein-kinin system in patients with essential hypertension. Patients with essential hypertension were randomized to treatment with either prazosin or pinacidil, a new direct-acting vasodilator. Factors that might modulate the antihypertensive response and result in pseudotolerance to these drugs were measured before initiation of therapy (...) and following 12 weeks of treatment. Despite significant reductions in blood pressure, pinacidil and prazosin did not produce an increase in plasma volume, did not activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and did not interfere with the renal kallikrein-kinin system. The data fail to reveal evidence of physiologic compensatory changes that would lead to the development of pseudotolerance.

1987 Journal of clinical hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6974. The influence of captopril on the epinephrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in humans. The interaction between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system. (Abstract)

The influence of captopril on the epinephrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in humans. The interaction between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess whether an interaction exists between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathetic nervous system at the level of the adrenal medulla during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in normal humans. Seventeen healthy volunteers were studied in a randomized, single-dose, double-blind (...) in plasma norepinephrine was blunted on insulin and captopril. Thus, when the generation of angiotensin II was blocked by captopril the insulin-induced rise in epinephrine and norepinephrine was blunted. This indicates that an interaction exists between the renin-angiotensin system and the sympathoadrenal system.

1992 American journal of hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6975. Effects of a long-term pharmacological interruption of the renin-angiotensin system on the fibrinolytic system in essential hypertension. (Abstract)

Effects of a long-term pharmacological interruption of the renin-angiotensin system on the fibrinolytic system in essential hypertension. To assess the effects of pharmacological interruption of the renin-angiotensin system on the fibrinolysis, tissue plasminogen activator antigen (t-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigens (PAI-1) and neurohormones, such as plasma renin activity, norepinephrine, angiotensin II (AII) and IV (AIV) concentrations, were measured in 60 hypertensives. Among (...) drug treatment, only the losartan group showed significant increases in AII and AIV concentrations. In the quinapril group, there was a significant change in t-PA (p < 0.001) without changes in PAI-1. In the losartan group, free PAI-I and total PAI-I (p < 0.05 for free PAI-I and p < 0.04 for total PAI-I) were significantly increased without a change in t-PA. Thus, quinapril enhanced fibrinolysis but losartan attenuated it. These unique effects of each drug on the fibrinolytic system appear

2002 Pathophysiology of haemostasis and thrombosis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6976. Minireview: overview of the renin-angiotensin system--an endocrine and paracrine system. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Minireview: overview of the renin-angiotensin system--an endocrine and paracrine system. Since the discovery of renin as a pressor substance in 1898, the renin-angiotensin (RAS) system has been extensively studied because it remains a prime candidate as a causative factor in the development and maintenance of hypertension. Indeed, some of the properties of the physiologically active component of the RAS, angiotensin II, include vasoconstriction, regulation of renal sodium and water absorption (...) of pharmacology in not differentiating between RAS products made systemically from those synthesized locally. However, the development of transgenic animals with highly specific promoters to target the RAS to specific tissues provided important tools to dissect these systems. Thus, this minireview will discuss recent advances in understanding the relationship between endocrine and paracrine (tissue) RAS using transgenic models.

2003 Endocrinology

6977. Reduced activity of the kallikrein-kinin system predominates over renin-angiotensin system overactivity in all conditions of sodium balance in essential hypertensives and family-related hypertension. (Abstract)

Reduced activity of the kallikrein-kinin system predominates over renin-angiotensin system overactivity in all conditions of sodium balance in essential hypertensives and family-related hypertension. To study the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and kallikrein-kinin systems in essential hypertensives and offspring of hypertensive parents during different sodium loads, and to explore their possible influence on renal hemodynamics.Forty-five essential hypertensives (35 +/- 4 years old, 25 males), 30 (...) and normotensive offspring, while the glomerular filtration rated was similar in the three groups. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) administration to essential hypertensives for 3 days normalized effective renal plasma flow, increased plasma renin activity and decreased aldosterone and urinary kallikrein activity.Our observations confirmed the presence of a hormonal imbalance between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system, not only in essential hypertensives

2003 Journal of Hypertension

6978. Comparison of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Angiographically Documented Coronary Narrowing With Combined Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitor Plus Statin Versus Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitor Alone Versus Statin Alone (from the Japanese Coronar (Abstract)

Comparison of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Angiographically Documented Coronary Narrowing With Combined Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitor Plus Statin Versus Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitor Alone Versus Statin Alone (from the Japanese Coronar Statins and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors are 2 classes of drugs prescribed frequently in clinical practice that may have pleiotropic effects in addition to cholesterol-lowering and blood pressure-lowering effects, respectively

2007 American Journal of Cardiology

6979. The Adipose Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Systemic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Activates the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System Full Text available with Trip Pro

The Adipose Renin-Angiotensin System Modulates Systemic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Activates the Intrarenal Renin-Angiotensin System The adipose tissue renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to regulation of fat mass and may also impact systemic functions such as blood pressure and metabolism.A panel of mouse models including mice lacking angiotensinogen, Agt (Agt-KO), mice expressing Agt solely in adipose tissue (aP2-Agt/Agt-KO), and mice overexpressing Agt in adipose tissue (aP2 (...) significantly impact both local and systemic physiology in a way that may contribute to the detrimental health effects of obesity.

2006 Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology

6980. [The importance of studying the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in essential arterial hypertension in clinical practice. Activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during treatment of hypertension with ACE-inhibitors and beta blockers]. (Abstract)

[The importance of studying the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in essential arterial hypertension in clinical practice. Activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during treatment of hypertension with ACE-inhibitors and beta blockers]. The authors assessed in 20 subjects with mild or medium severe arterial hypertension basal and stimulated values of plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone before onset of treatment and after 6-week therapy with enalapril (ENAP KRKA

1994 Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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