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Renin-Angiotensin System

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21. Therapy with agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Therapy with agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exposure to agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system was not associated to a risk increase of COVID-19 infection in two Italian matched case-control studies, one nested in hypertensive patients and the other in patients with cardiovascular diseases or diabetes.© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved

2020 Clinical Infectious Diseases

22. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and Risks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and Risks of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The viral spike coat protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engages the human ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 cell surface receptor to infect the host cells. Thus, concerns arose regarding theoretically higher risk for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients taking ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II

2020 Hypertension

23. Association of Albuminuria Levels With the Prescription of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade. (Abstract)

Association of Albuminuria Levels With the Prescription of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade. Multiple clinical guidelines recommend an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) in patients with elevated albuminuria, which can be measured through urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), protein-to-creatinine ratio, or dipstick. However, how albuminuria test results relate to the prescription of ACE inhibitor/ARB is uncertain. We identified

2020 Hypertension

24. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, COVID-19, and the Renin-Angiotensin System: Pressing Needs and Best Research Practices. (Abstract)

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, COVID-19, and the Renin-Angiotensin System: Pressing Needs and Best Research Practices. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme (...) within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has

2020 Hypertension

25. Hypertension, the renin-angiotensin system, and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for COVID-19. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hypertension, the renin-angiotensin system, and the risk of lower respiratory tract infections and lung injury: implications for COVID-19. Systemic arterial hypertension (referred to as hypertension herein) is a major risk factor of mortality worldwide, and its importance is further emphasized in the context of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection referred to as COVID-19. Patients with severe COVID-19 infections commonly are older and have a history (...) of hypertension. Almost 75% of patients who have died in the pandemic in Italy had hypertension. This raised multiple questions regarding a more severe course of COVID-19 in relation to hypertension itself as well as its treatment with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, e.g. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). We provide a critical review on the relationship of hypertension, RAS, and risk of lung injury. We demonstrate lack of sound evidence

2020 Cardiovascular Research

26. Association between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and outcome in coronavirus disease 2019: analysing in-hospital exposure generates a biased seemingly protective effect of treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and outcome in coronavirus disease 2019: analysing in-hospital exposure generates a biased seemingly protective effect of treatment. The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a matter of controversies. Studies based on in-hospital exposure have suggested a beneficial effect of these drugs, unlike those based on chronic exposure. We aimed to analyse

2020 Journal of Hypertension

27. Effects of exercise training on renal interstitial fibrosis and renin-angiotensin system in rats with chronic renal failure. (Abstract)

Effects of exercise training on renal interstitial fibrosis and renin-angiotensin system in rats with chronic renal failure. To clarify the mechanisms of the renal protective effects of exercise training, we examined the effects of exercise training on the renal interstitial fibrosis and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in rats with chronic renal failure.Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham operation; 5/6 nephrectomy + sedentary; 5/6 nephrectomy + exercise

2020 Journal of Hypertension

28. The Association of ARMC5 with the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Blood Pressure, and Glycemia in African Americans. (Abstract)

The Association of ARMC5 with the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Blood Pressure, and Glycemia in African Americans. Armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) on chromosome 16 is an adrenal gland tumor suppressor gene associated with primary aldosteronism, especially among African Americans (AAs). We examined the association of ARMC5 variants with aldosterone, plasma renin activity (PRA), blood pressure, glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in community-dwelling AAs.The Jackson

2020 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

29. Disentangling the Relationships Between the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Calcium Physiology, and Risk for Kidney Stones. (Abstract)

Disentangling the Relationships Between the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System, Calcium Physiology, and Risk for Kidney Stones. Complex relationships between aldosterone and calcium homeostasis have been proposed.To disentangle the influence of aldosterone and intravascular volume on calcium physiology.Patient-oriented and epidemiology studies.Clinical research center and nationwide cohorts.Patient-oriented study (n = 18): Participants were evaluated after completing a sodium-restricted (RES

2020 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

30. Sex-Specific Modulation of Blood Pressure and the Renin-Angiotensin System by ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) 2. (Abstract)

Sex-Specific Modulation of Blood Pressure and the Renin-Angiotensin System by ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme) 2. We showed ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 is higher in the kidney of male compared with female mice. To further investigate this sex difference, we examined the role of ACE2 in Ang-[1-8] (angiotensin [1-8])-induced hypertension and regulation of the renin-angiotensin system in the kidney of WT (wild type) and Ace2 KO (knockout) mice. Mean arterial pressure rose faster in WT (...) NEP (neprilysin), the enzyme that catabolizes Ang-[1-10] (angiotensin [1-10]), the precursor of Ang-[1-8]. Ang-[1-8] infusion downregulated NEP protein expression by 20% in WT male, whereas there was a slight increase in NEP expression in WT female mice. Deletion of Ace2 resulted in lowered NEP expression after Ang-[1-8] infusion in both sexes. These findings suggest sex-specific ACE2 regulation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to female protection from Ang-[1-8]-induced hypertension

2020 Hypertension

31. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Triple-A Analysis for the Screening of Primary Aldosteronism. (Abstract)

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Triple-A Analysis for the Screening of Primary Aldosteronism. Primary aldosteronism is recognized as the most frequent cause of secondary hypertension, and its screening is expected to become a routine evaluation in most patients with hypertension. The interference of antihypertensive therapies with the aldosterone-to-renin ratio during screening process is a major confounder. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system Triple-A analysis is a novel liquid (...) % and a specificity of 93%, proving noninferiority compared with the aldosterone-to-renin ratio while pointing to the potential for an interference-free application in patients under ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor therapy. This study shows for the first time the accuracy and reliability of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system triple-A analysis for the screening of primary aldosteronism that can be applied in clinical routine.

2020 Hypertension

32. Evolution of a New Class of Antihypertensive Drugs: Targeting the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Evolution of a New Class of Antihypertensive Drugs: Targeting the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System. In addition to the circulating renin-angiotensin system, activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. One of the major components of the brain renin-angiotensin system implicated in the development of hypertension is Ang III (angiotensin III). Brain Ang III, produced from Ang II (angiotensin II) by APA (aminopeptidase A), exerts (...) tolerated in healthy volunteers. Clinical efficacy of firibastat in hypertensive patients was, therefore, demonstrated in 2 phase II studies. Accordingly, firibastat could represent the first drug of a novel class of antihypertensive drugs targeting the brain renin-angiotensin system.

2020 Hypertension

33. Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors on Short-Term Mortality After Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study. (Abstract)

Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors on Short-Term Mortality After Sepsis: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), including ACEIs (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers), may prevent organ failure. We, therefore, investigated whether specific RAAS inhibitors are associated with reduced mortality in patients with sepsis.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort

2020 Hypertension

34. Clinical Features of COVID-19 in Patients With Essential Hypertension and the Impacts of Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System Inhibitors on the Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients. (Abstract)

Clinical Features of COVID-19 in Patients With Essential Hypertension and the Impacts of Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System Inhibitors on the Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients. Hypertension is one of the most common comorbidities in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to clarify the impact of hypertension on COVID-19 and investigate whether the prior use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors affects the prognosis of COVID-19. A total of 996

2020 Hypertension

35. Association Between Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and COVID-19 Infection in South Korea. (Abstract)

Association Between Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors and COVID-19 Infection in South Korea. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is known to infect host cells by interacting with ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) expressed in the respiratory epithelium. There have been concerns on whether alterations of ACE2 expression by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors would contribute to the infectivity and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID (...) -19). We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between RAAS inhibitors and risk and severity of COVID-19 infection in South Korea using the population-based data provided by the Korean National Health Insurance System. Of 16 281 subjects with hypertension, there were 950 (5.8%) confirmed COVID-19 cases. After case-control matching, multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analysis was performed. The adjusted odds ratio and 95% CIs for COVID-19 infection

2020 Hypertension

36. Impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on clinical outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: an analysis of from the PARTNER 2 trial and registries. (Abstract)

Impact of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on clinical outcomes in patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement: an analysis of from the PARTNER 2 trial and registries. Left ventricular pressure overload is associated with activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system, which may contribute to myocardial fibrosis and worse clinical outcomes. We sought to assess the association between treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs

2020 European Heart Journal

37. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2: SARS-CoV-2 Receptor and Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System: Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Discovery of ACE2. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2: SARS-CoV-2 Receptor and Regulator of the Renin-Angiotensin System: Celebrating the 20th Anniversary of the Discovery of ACE2. ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) has a multiplicity of physiological roles that revolve around its trivalent function: a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system, facilitator of amino acid transport, and the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2 receptor. ACE2 is widely expressed (...) permeability by ACE2 has emerged as an essential mechanism of pulmonary hypertension and diabetic cardiovascular complications. Recombinant ACE2, gene-delivery of Ace2, Ang 1-7 analogs, and Mas receptor agonists enhance ACE2 action and serve as potential therapies for disease conditions associated with an activated renin-angiotensin system. rhACE2 (recombinant human ACE2) has completed clinical trials and efficiently lowered or increased plasma angiotensin II and angiotensin 1-7 levels, respectively. Our

2020 Circulation Research

38. The renin-angiotensin system in cutaneous hypertrophic scar and keloid formation. (Abstract)

The renin-angiotensin system in cutaneous hypertrophic scar and keloid formation. Hypertrophic scar and keloid are two types of fibroproliferative conditions that result from excessive extracellular matrix production. The underlying pathological mechanism is not entirely clear. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with fibrosis in various organs. RAS components including angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE (...) and discusses the translational potential of targeting this hormonal system for treatment and prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids.© 2020 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2020 Experimental Dermatology

39. Effects of combined renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor and beta-blocker treatment on outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from BIOSTAT-CHF and ASIAN-HF registries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of combined renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor and beta-blocker treatment on outcomes in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: insights from BIOSTAT-CHF and ASIAN-HF registries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and β-blockers are guideline-recommended first-line therapies in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Previous studies showed that individual drug classes were under-dosed in many parts

2020 European Journal of Heart Failure

40. Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibition Based on History of Heart Failure and Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Antagonists. (Abstract)

Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibition Based on History of Heart Failure and Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Antagonists. The PIONEER-HF (comParIson Of sacubitril/valsartaN versus Enalapril on Effect on nt-pRo-bnp in patients stabilized from an acute Heart Failure episode) trial demonstrated the efficacy and safety of sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) in stabilized patients with acute decompensated heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction.The study sought to determine whether and how prior

2020 Journal of the American College of Cardiology

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