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Relaxation Technique

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6421. A comparison of basal and agonist-stimulated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from different arteries. (Full text)

A comparison of basal and agonist-stimulated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from different arteries. 1. The release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from rabbit aorta and pig coronary artery vessels in response to acetylcholine (ACh), substance P (SP) and the calcium ionophore A23187 has been studied by means of a bioassay cascade system. 2. A technique is described which allows the quantification of EDRF release rates from vessels of different sizes, perfused (...) , but maximum SP-induced EDRF release from rabbit aorta was twice that of pig coronary artery. 6. These data indicate that different endothelium types can release EDRF at widely different rates, according to the agonist used, and that the previously obtained lack of relaxant response to ACh in pig coronary artery was due to a lack of EDRF release rather than concomitant smooth muscle constriction.

1989 British journal of pharmacology PubMed abstract

6422. Proton relaxation times and interstitial fluid pressure in human melanoma xenografts. (Full text)

Proton relaxation times and interstitial fluid pressure in human melanoma xenografts. The interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and the proton spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times (T1 and T2) of some experimental tumours have been shown to be related to tumour water content. These observations have led to the hypothesis that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be a clinically useful non-invasive method for assessment of tumour IFP. The purpose of the work reported here was to examine (...) the general validity of this hypothesis. R-18 human melanoma xenografts grown intradermally in Balb/c nu/nu mice were used as the tumour model system. Median T1 and T2 were determined by spin-echo MRI using a 1.5-T clinical whole-body tomograph. IFP was measured using the wick-in-needle technique. No correlation was found between tumour IFP and fractional tumour water content. Moreover, there was no correlation between median T1 or T2 and IFP, suggesting that proton T1 and T2 values determined by MRI

1997 British journal of cancer PubMed abstract

6423. Characterization and actions of human umbilical endothelium derived relaxing factor. (Full text)

Characterization and actions of human umbilical endothelium derived relaxing factor. 1. A bioassay cascade superfusion technique was utilized to study the properties of endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from human umbilical vein (HUV) and compare its actions on umbilical, chorionic plate and bovine pulmonary arterial strips. 2. Histamine (1 microM), bradykinin (1 microM) and A-23187 (0.3 microM, 1 microM) but not acetylcholine (1 microM) released EDRF. 3. The non-innervated human (...) foetoplacental vessels, i.e., umbilical and chorionic plate arteries, do relax to EDRF by a guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-mediated mechanism. 4. The sensitivity of the human umbilical arterial strips to EDRF was less than that of the chronic plate arterial strips. Bovine pulmonary arterial strips were the most sensitive to the relaxant actions of human umbilical EDRF.

1991 British journal of pharmacology PubMed abstract

6424. Reversible impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in golden hamster carotid arteries during hibernation (Full text)

Reversible impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in golden hamster carotid arteries during hibernation The effects of hibernation on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation were investigated in the golden hamster carotid artery, paying special attention to hibernating body temperature (10 degrees C). To record mechanical and electrical membrane responses, we applied pharmacological (organ bath) and electrophysiological (microelectrode) techniques, using acetylcholine (ACh; 0.001-100 (...) microM) and ATP (0.01-1000 microM) for endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 0.05-10 microM) for endothelium-independent vasodilatation. At 34 degrees C, ACh, ATP and SNP each induced a relaxation or a hyperpolarization, and these responses were similar in all the preparations from control and hibernated animals. At 10 degrees C, on the other hand, ACh-induced relaxations and hyperpolarizations were reduced to approximately 35 % and 50 % of the euthermic level

2002 The Journal of physiology PubMed abstract

6425. Permeation of small molecules into the cavity of ferritin as revealed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation. (Full text)

Permeation of small molecules into the cavity of ferritin as revealed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation. The NMR relaxation technique was used to investigate the permeation of molecules into the cavity of ferritin. Spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame of various probe molecules were measured for solutions of recombinant horse L-apoferritin without iron and horse spleen apoferritin with very small amounts of ferric ions. The results show that molecules larger than

1995 Biochemical Journal PubMed abstract

6426. Reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation at enhanced NO release in hearts of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. (Full text)

Reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation at enhanced NO release in hearts of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. 1. Langendorff hearts, perfused at constant volume, were prepared from rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 4 months. Coronary perfusion pressure and nitric oxide (NO) release (oxyhaemoglobin technique) into the coronary effluent were measured continuously. Prostacyclin (PGI2) in the effluents was determined by radioimmunoassay (6-oxo-PGF1 alpha). 2. Basal NO release (...) was not different between control and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. However, the coronary vasculature of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits showed a considerably (> 50%) reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to short-term (3 min) infusion of bradykinin (50 nM) and substance P (50 nM) (P < 0.05, n = 8-9). Under these conditions, NO release into the vessel lumen was increased, by 26%, in hypercholesterolaemic hearts (P < 0.05, n = 8-9). NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) significantly attenuated

1994 British journal of pharmacology PubMed abstract

6427. Absence of mechanical evidence for attached weakly binding cross-bridges in frog relaxed muscle fibres. (Full text)

Absence of mechanical evidence for attached weakly binding cross-bridges in frog relaxed muscle fibres. 1. Passive force responses to ramp stretches at various velocities were measured in intact and skinned single muscle fibres isolated from the lumbricalis muscle of the frog. Force was measured using a fast capacitance transducer and sarcomere length was measured using a laser light diffraction technique at a point very close to the fixed end so as to avoid effects of fibre inertia

1995 The Journal of physiology PubMed abstract

6428. Effect of relaxation on blood pressure and serum cholesterol. (Abstract)

Effect of relaxation on blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Chronic sympathetic nervous system overactivity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. We conducted a controlled trial to determine the effect of a relaxation technique on blood pressure and serum cholesterol in drug free subjects with normal and slightly elevated values. Over the follow-up period, highly significant reductions in blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels were noted (...) in relaxation group subjects while control group subjects showed no significant changes. These results suggest that relaxation therapy may contribute to the management of individuals with mild hypertension and/or mild hypercholesterolemia.

1982 Activitas nervosa superior

6429. Increasing breast milk production for premature infants with a relaxation/imagery audiotape. (Abstract)

Increasing breast milk production for premature infants with a relaxation/imagery audiotape. Many women whose premature infants are hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit choose to express breast milk for their babies. Yet anxiety, fatigue, and emotional stress are powerful inhibitors of lactation. To facilitate the breast-feeding experience, intervention mothers were given a 20-minute audio cassette tape based on relaxation and visual imagery techniques. At a single follow-up expression (...) of milk at the hospital approximately 1 week after enrollment, they expressed 63% more breast milk than a randomized group of control mothers. The fat content of the breast milk in the two groups was not significantly different. Among a small group of mothers whose infants were receiving mechanical ventilation, the increase in milk volume compared with that of control mothers was 121%. Longer-term effects of the relaxation/imagery approach (such as extending the duration of breast-feeding or reducing

1989 Pediatrics

6430. Hypnosis compared to relaxation in the outpatient management of chronic low back pain. (Abstract)

Hypnosis compared to relaxation in the outpatient management of chronic low back pain. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) presents a problem of massive dimensions. While inpatient approaches have been evaluated, outpatient treatment programs have received relatively little examination. Hypnosis and relaxation are two powerful techniques amenable to outpatient use. Seventeen outpatient subjects suffering from CLBP were assigned to either Self-Hypnosis (n = 9) or Relaxation (n = 8) treatments

1983 Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation

6431. The effects of relaxation training on clinical symptoms: a meta-analysis. (Abstract)

The effects of relaxation training on clinical symptoms: a meta-analysis. Forty-eight experimental studies of nonmechanically assisted relaxation techniques used to control a variety of clinical symptoms were synthesized using meta-analysis. Effect sizes for three types of comparisons, experimental-control, experimental-placebo, and pre-post, ranged from .43 to .66, demonstrating that treatment of any type included in the analysis moved the client from the 50th to the 67th percentile (...) of an untreated group at minimum and from the 50th to the 75th percentile at maximum. All treatments included in the analysis except Benson's relaxation technique demonstrated evidence of effectiveness, particularly for nonsurgical samples with chronic problems such as hypertension, headache, and insomnia.

1989 Nursing research

6432. Relaxation for the relief of chronic pain: a systematic review. (Abstract)

Relaxation for the relief of chronic pain: a systematic review. The effectiveness of relaxation techniques in the management of chronic pain was determined in this systematic review of published randomized controlled trials. Reports were sought by searching MEDLINE, psycLIT, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Oxford Pain Relief Database. Studies were included in this review if they were randomized controlled trials of relaxation techniques in chronic pain. Studies which investigated the effects (...) control groups rather than for relaxation. There is insufficient evidence to confirm that relaxation can reduce chronic pain. Many of the studies both positive and negative suffer methodological inadequacies. Recommendations for future research into the effectiveness of relaxation techniques for chronic pain are made.

1998 Journal of advanced nursing

6433. Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review. (Full text)

Relaxation therapies for asthma: a systematic review. Emotional stress can either precipitate or exacerbate both acute and chronic asthma. There is a large body of literature available on the use of relaxation techniques for the treatment of asthma symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if there is any evidence for or against the clinical efficacy of such interventions.Four independent literature searches were performed on Medline, Cochrane Library, CISCOM, and Embase (...) relaxation, two of which showed significant effects of therapy. One RCT investigating hypnotherapy, one of autogenic training, and two of biofeedback techniques revealed no therapeutic effects. Overall, the methodological quality of the studies was poor.There is a lack of evidence for the efficacy of relaxation therapies in the management of asthma. This deficiency is due to the poor methodology of the studies as well as the inherent problems of conducting such trials. There is some evidence

2002 Thorax PubMed abstract

6434. The effects of relaxation response meditation on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: results of a controlled treatment study. (Abstract)

The effects of relaxation response meditation on the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: results of a controlled treatment study. In this study, Herbert Benson's (1975) Relaxation Response Meditation program was tested as a possible treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Participants were 16 adults who were matched into pairs based on presence of Axis I disorder, primary IBS symptoms and demographic features and randomized to either a six week meditation condition or a six week wait (...) list symptom monitoring condition. Thirteen participants completed treatment and follow-up. All subjects assigned to the Wait List were subsequently treated. Patients in the treatment condition were taught the meditation technique and asked to practice it twice a day for 15 minutes. Composite Primary IBS Symptom Reduction (CPSR) scores were calculated for each patient from end of baseline to two weeks post-treatment (or to post wait list). One tailed independent sample t-tests revealed

2001 Behaviour research and therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6435. The effect of different doses of propofol on tracheal intubating conditions without muscle relaxant in children. (Abstract)

The effect of different doses of propofol on tracheal intubating conditions without muscle relaxant in children. Situations may occur in anaesthetic practice where the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs is unsuitable or contraindicated. We investigated the use of propofol given 5 min after fentanyl to permit endotracheal intubation in children.We studied the intubating conditions and cardiovascular parameters in 60 ASA I and II children. Intravenous midazolam (0.1 mg kg(-1)) was given (...) alternative technique for tracheal intubation when neuromuscular blocking drugs are contraindicated or should be avoided.

2001 European Journal of Anaesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6436. Efficacy of IV Buscopan as a muscle relaxant in CT colonography. (Abstract)

Efficacy of IV Buscopan as a muscle relaxant in CT colonography. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of IV Buscopan as a muscle relaxant in CT colonography in terms of colonic distension and polyp detection, and to determine its particular efficacy in patients with diverticular disease. Seventy-three consecutive patients were randomised to receive IV Buscopan or no muscle relaxant prior to CT colonography. CT colonography was performed using a Siemens Somatom 4-detector multislice (...) to supine scanning was found to be the most useful technique for maximising colonic distension. Intravenous Buscopan at CT colonography does not improve the overall adequacy of colonic distension nor the accuracy of polyp detection. In patients with sigmoid diverticular disease IV Buscopan improves distension of more proximal colonic segments and may be useful in selected cases, but our results do not support its routine use for CT colonography.

2003 European radiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6437. Reduced pupillary sensitivity to topical phenylephrine associated with the relaxation response. (Abstract)

Reduced pupillary sensitivity to topical phenylephrine associated with the relaxation response. Human pupillary dilatation after topical instillation of phenylephrine was assessed in a prospective, randomized, controlled experiment to measure alterations in alpha-end-organ responsivity after regular elicitation of the relaxation response. Baseline pupillometric measurements were taken in both experimental and control subjects. The experimental subjects then practiced daily a technique (...) that elicited the relaxation response while the control subjects sat quietly for comparable periods of time without eliciting the relaxation response. After four to six weeks, both groups returned to the laboratory for an assessment identical to that of the first visit. Comparison between visits revealed that the pupillary dilatation in the experimental group was significantly diminished (p less than .02) as compared to that of the control group. This observation is consistent with reduced end-organ

1986 Journal of human stress Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6438. Use of relaxation to reduce side effects of chemotherapy in Japanese patients. (Abstract)

Use of relaxation to reduce side effects of chemotherapy in Japanese patients. Nausea and vomiting have been recognized as the most distressing side effects of chemotherapy, and are experienced by 66-91% of chemotherapy patients in Japan. Relaxation measures have been used for patients with various other diagnoses, but this technique has never been applied to patients receiving cancer chemotherapy. This pilot study examined the effects of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) to reduce nausea

1995 Cancer nursing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6439. Applied relaxation vs cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder. (Abstract)

Applied relaxation vs cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of panic disorder. The present study investigated the efficacy of a coping-technique, applied relaxation (AR) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), in the treatment of panic disorder. Thirty-eight outpatients fulfilling the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with no (n = 30) or mild (n = 8) avoidance were assessed with independent assessor ratings, self-report scales and self-observation of panic attacks before and after

1995 Behaviour research and therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6440. Relaxation and the relief of cancer pain. (Abstract)

Relaxation and the relief of cancer pain. Progressive muscle relaxation combined with guided imagery has the potential to promote relief of cancer pain. The techniques appear to produce a relaxation response that may break the pain-muscle-tension-anxiety cycle and facilitate pain relief through a calming effect. The techniques can be taught by nurses and readily learned by patients. The techniques provide a self-care strategy that, to a limited extent, shifts the locus of control from clinician

1995 The Nursing clinics of North America Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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