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Relaxation Technique

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6421. Core/Shell Quantum Dots with High Relaxivity and Photoluminescence for Multimodality Imaging Full Text available with Trip Pro

Core/Shell Quantum Dots with High Relaxivity and Photoluminescence for Multimodality Imaging A series of core/shell CdSe/Zn1-xMnxS nanoparticles were synthesized for use in dual-mode optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques. Mn2+ content was in the range of 0.6-6.2% and varies with the thickness of the shell or amount of Mn2+ introduced to the reaction. These materials showed high quantum yield (QY), reaching 60% in organic solvent. Water-soluble nanoparticles were obtained (...) by capping the core/shell particles with amphiphilic polymer, and the QY values in water reached 21%. These materials also demonstrated high relaxivity with r1 values in the range of 11-18 mM-1 s-1 (at room temperature, 7 T). Both optical and MR imaging were performed on nanoparticles in aqueous solution and applied to cells in culture. The results showed that the QY and manganese concentration in the particles was sufficient to produce contrast for both modalities at relatively low concentrations

2007 Journal of the American Chemical Society

6422. Relaxation and Simplex mathematical algorithms applied to the study of steady-state electrochemical responses of immobilized enzyme biosensors: Comparison with experiments Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relaxation and Simplex mathematical algorithms applied to the study of steady-state electrochemical responses of immobilized enzyme biosensors: Comparison with experiments A description of the implementation of the relaxation method with automatic mesh point allocation for immobilized enzyme electrodes is presented. The advantages of this method for the solution of coupled reaction-diffusion problems are discussed. The relaxation numerical simulation technique is combined with the Simplex

2008 Journal of electroanalytical chemistry (Lausanne, Switzerland)

6423. Relaxation techniques for acute pain management: a systematic review

Relaxation techniques for acute pain management: a systematic review Relaxation techniques for acute pain management: a systematic review Relaxation techniques for acute pain management: a systematic review Seers K, Carroll D Authors' objectives To document the effectiveness of relaxation techniques, when used alone for the management of acute pain, after surgery and during procedures. Searching The following databases were searched: MEDLINE from 1966 to March 1996; PsycLIT from 1974 to March (...) included in the review Evaluations of relaxation strategies used alone and not in combination with other interventions, such as cognitive behaviour therapy or imagery, were eligible. Relaxation techniques included the following: modified Jacobson method; Flaherty and Fitzpatrick jaw relaxation; relaxation tape; tape with structured breathing, muscle relaxation and pleasant imagery; progressive muscle relaxation with cognitive relaxation; pleasant memory, jaw relaxation and breathing techniques

1998 DARE.

6424. Relaxation techniques have some benefit in depression

Relaxation techniques have some benefit in depression PEARLS Practical Evidence About Real Life Situations PEARLS are succinct summaries of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for primary care practitioners. They are funded by the New Zealand Guidelines Group. PEARLS provide guidance on whether a treatment is effective or ineffective. PEARLS are prepared as an educational resource and do not replace clinician judgement in the management of individual cases. View PEARLS online (...) at: • www.cochraneprimarycare.org Relaxation techniques have some benefit in depression Clinical question How effective are relaxation techniques for depression? Bottom line Relaxation techniques were better than wait-list, no treatment or minimal treatment, but not as effective as psychological therapies like cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Relaxation techniques reduced self-rated depressive symptoms at the end of treatment and at follow-up several months later but data on clinician-rated depressive symptoms were less

2008 Cochrane PEARLS

6425. Improvement of muscle flexibility. A comparison between two techniques. (Abstract)

Improvement of muscle flexibility. A comparison between two techniques. Forty-seven male subjects were randomly assigned to 4 different groups. Three groups of 10 subjects trained three times a week with a modified contract-relax (CR) method for improving muscle flexibility. Seventeen subjects trained during the same time with a traditional ballistic stretch (BS) method. After 30 days (14 training sessions) the latter group switched over to the CR method. The results showed that the CR method

1985 American Journal of Sports Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6426. T(1rho) relaxation can assess longitudinal proteoglycan loss from articular cartilage in vitro. (Abstract)

digestions with trypsin on a 2T whole-body magnet. Proteoglycan and collagen loss induced by the trypsin digestion was measured using standard biochemical techniques. The correlation between changes in relaxation times and PG loss were tested with regression analysis. T(1rho) MRI was also performed on a clinical 1.5T MRI system to determine whether the spatial distribution of PG loss could be detected. The MRI results were compared with histology sections of native and PG-depleted tissue. Results (...) The results of this study demonstrate that T(1rho) relaxation changes are correlated with PG loss in vitro. Furthermore, T(1rho) measurements alone can be used to indicate PG loss data. T(1rho) MRI may thus be developed into a useful adjunct to existing techniques for the evaluation of cartilage disease.Copyright 2002 OsteoArthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

2002 Osteoarthritis and Cartilage

6427. Impaired systemic ventricular relaxation affects postoperative short-term outcome in Fontan patients. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Impaired systemic ventricular relaxation affects postoperative short-term outcome in Fontan patients. Systemic ventricular end-diastolic pressure has been used as a predictor of outcome in patients undergoing the Fontan operation. However, this index only evaluates late diastolic function and does not assess active ventricular relaxation during the phase of early diastole, a key component of systemic venous pathway flow. This study sought to examine whether impaired preoperative systemic (...) ventricular relaxation, expressed as the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), affects short-term postoperative outcome in Fontan patients.All patients who underwent Fontan operation between May 1998 and November 2001 were enrolled. Tau was calculated from digitized preoperative systemic ventricular pressure tracings. Standard preoperative invasive indices were also recorded and analyzed. These independent variables were then entered into a multiple stepwise regression model, with length

2003 Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery

6428. High methionine and cholesterol diet abolishes endothelial relaxation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

randomized into the following: control (Con), 0.5% cholesterol (Chol), 1% methionine (Meth), and 1% methionine+0.5% cholesterol (MethChol). Aortic reactivity was studied by isometric tension techniques, aortic volumetric analysis was determined by stereological techniques, and immunohistochemistry was used to localize endothelial and inducible NO synthases, superoxide dismutase, macrophages, and nitrotyrosine. Atherosclerosis was present in the Chol and MethChol groups. Endothelium-dependent relaxation (...) High methionine and cholesterol diet abolishes endothelial relaxation. High plasma cholesterol or homocysteine is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Cholesterol and methionine, the precursor of homocysteine, are rarely eaten separately. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine neointima formation, aortic reactivity, and factors involved in endothelial function in rabbits fed high dietary cholesterol, methionine, or a combination of the two for 12 weeks.Rabbit dietary groups were

2003 Thrombosis and Vascular Biology

6429. The molecular site of action of K(ATP) channel inhibitors determines their ability to inhibit iNOS-mediated relaxation in rat aorta. (Abstract)

The molecular site of action of K(ATP) channel inhibitors determines their ability to inhibit iNOS-mediated relaxation in rat aorta. ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are important modulators of vascular tone. Abnormal activation of these channels via over production of nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in endotoxin-induced hypotension. However, based on studies with the sulphonylurea K(ATP) channel inhibitor, glibenclamide, there is little evidence to support their role (...) in mediating vasorelaxation to endotoxin in isolated blood vessels. In the present study, we investigated whether NO derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) modulates K(ATP) channel function in rat aorta.Using standard organ bath techniques, the effects of structurally unrelated K(ATP) channel inhibitors on the vasorelaxant responses to L-arginine (iNOS substrate), NO, levcromakalim (K(ATP) channel opener) and forskolin were investigated in endothelium-denuded aortic rings exposed to endotoxin

2002 Cardiovascular Research

6430. Time course of vascular reactivity to contracting and relaxing agents after endothelial denudation by balloon angioplasty in rat carotid artery. (Abstract)

with angioplastic balloon technique. Injured (IC) and uninjured carotid artery rings (UC) were placed in an isolated organ bath for isometric force displacement. IC collected at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days showed a reduction in contraction to phenylephrine (0.3 microM), angiotensin II (0.1 microM), U46619 (0.1 microM), KCl (60 mM) and A23187 (1microM) at any experimental time compared to rings obtained from UC. The evaluation of endothelial-derived relaxing or hyperpolarizing factor (EDRF or EDHF), induced (...) Time course of vascular reactivity to contracting and relaxing agents after endothelial denudation by balloon angioplasty in rat carotid artery. Endothelial injuries induced by different stimuli lead to proliferation of intimal vascular smooth muscle cells with formation of neointima. In this functional study, we evaluated the reactivity to contracting and vasorelaxing agents in Wistar rat carotid artery at different times (1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days) after endothelial denudation

2003 Atherosclerosis

6431. Duration of Maintained Hamstring Flexibility After a One-Time, Modified Hold-Relax Stretching Protocol. (Abstract)

Duration of Maintained Hamstring Flexibility After a One-Time, Modified Hold-Relax Stretching Protocol. OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques produce greater increases in range of motion than passive, ballistic, or static stretching methods. The purpose of our study was to measure the duration of maintained hamstring flexibility after a 1-time, modified hold-relax stretching protocol. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study had a 1 x 1 (...) flexibility in the right lower extremity were randomly assigned to a control (no-stretch) group or an experimental (stretch) group. MEASUREMENTS: All subjects performed 6 warm-up active knee extensions, with the last repetition serving as the prestretch measurement. The experimental group received 5 modified (no-rotation) hold-relax stretches, whereas the control group rested quietly supine on a table for 5 minutes. Posttest measurements were recorded for both groups at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, and 32 minutes

2001 Journal of athletic training Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6432. The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length. (Abstract)

The effects of a Feldenkrais program and relaxation procedures on hamstring length. Despite the growing popularity of the Feldenkrais method in Australia (Wildman 1990b), little research is available investigating its efficacy. The current study investigated the effects of the Feldenkrais method on hamstring length. Forty-eight healthy undergraduate participants were randomly allocated into either Feldenkrais, relaxation, or control groups. All subjects had their right hamstring measured using (...) a modified active knee extension test prior to the first session, prior to the fourth (final) session, and after the final session of intervention. Two-way analysis of variance with time of measurement repeated revealed no significant differences between the groups. The findings are discussed in relation to apparent ineffectiveness of the Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement lessons used on hamstring length, exposure time to the technique, and attitudes towards the Feldenkrais method.

1998 The Australian journal of physiotherapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6433. Permeation of small molecules into the cavity of ferritin as revealed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Permeation of small molecules into the cavity of ferritin as revealed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation. The NMR relaxation technique was used to investigate the permeation of molecules into the cavity of ferritin. Spin-lattice relaxation times in the rotating frame of various probe molecules were measured for solutions of recombinant horse L-apoferritin without iron and horse spleen apoferritin with very small amounts of ferric ions. The results show that molecules larger than

1995 Biochemical Journal

6434. Absence of mechanical evidence for attached weakly binding cross-bridges in frog relaxed muscle fibres. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Absence of mechanical evidence for attached weakly binding cross-bridges in frog relaxed muscle fibres. 1. Passive force responses to ramp stretches at various velocities were measured in intact and skinned single muscle fibres isolated from the lumbricalis muscle of the frog. Force was measured using a fast capacitance transducer and sarcomere length was measured using a laser light diffraction technique at a point very close to the fixed end so as to avoid effects of fibre inertia

1995 The Journal of physiology

6435. A comparison of basal and agonist-stimulated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from different arteries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A comparison of basal and agonist-stimulated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor from different arteries. 1. The release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from rabbit aorta and pig coronary artery vessels in response to acetylcholine (ACh), substance P (SP) and the calcium ionophore A23187 has been studied by means of a bioassay cascade system. 2. A technique is described which allows the quantification of EDRF release rates from vessels of different sizes, perfused (...) , but maximum SP-induced EDRF release from rabbit aorta was twice that of pig coronary artery. 6. These data indicate that different endothelium types can release EDRF at widely different rates, according to the agonist used, and that the previously obtained lack of relaxant response to ACh in pig coronary artery was due to a lack of EDRF release rather than concomitant smooth muscle constriction.

1989 British journal of pharmacology

6436. Characterization and actions of human umbilical endothelium derived relaxing factor. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Characterization and actions of human umbilical endothelium derived relaxing factor. 1. A bioassay cascade superfusion technique was utilized to study the properties of endothelium derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from human umbilical vein (HUV) and compare its actions on umbilical, chorionic plate and bovine pulmonary arterial strips. 2. Histamine (1 microM), bradykinin (1 microM) and A-23187 (0.3 microM, 1 microM) but not acetylcholine (1 microM) released EDRF. 3. The non-innervated human (...) foetoplacental vessels, i.e., umbilical and chorionic plate arteries, do relax to EDRF by a guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-mediated mechanism. 4. The sensitivity of the human umbilical arterial strips to EDRF was less than that of the chronic plate arterial strips. Bovine pulmonary arterial strips were the most sensitive to the relaxant actions of human umbilical EDRF.

1991 British journal of pharmacology

6437. Reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation at enhanced NO release in hearts of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation at enhanced NO release in hearts of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. 1. Langendorff hearts, perfused at constant volume, were prepared from rabbits fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for 4 months. Coronary perfusion pressure and nitric oxide (NO) release (oxyhaemoglobin technique) into the coronary effluent were measured continuously. Prostacyclin (PGI2) in the effluents was determined by radioimmunoassay (6-oxo-PGF1 alpha). 2. Basal NO release (...) was not different between control and hypercholesterolaemic rabbits. However, the coronary vasculature of hypercholesterolaemic rabbits showed a considerably (> 50%) reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to short-term (3 min) infusion of bradykinin (50 nM) and substance P (50 nM) (P < 0.05, n = 8-9). Under these conditions, NO release into the vessel lumen was increased, by 26%, in hypercholesterolaemic hearts (P < 0.05, n = 8-9). NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) significantly attenuated

1994 British journal of pharmacology

6438. Cell Wall Yield Properties of Growing Tissue : Evaluation by in Vivo Stress Relaxation Full Text available with Trip Pro

extensibility of the cell wall and epsilon is the volumetric elastic modulus of the cell. This theory represents a new method to determine phi in growing tissues.Stress relaxation was measured in pea (Pisum sativus L.) stem segments using the pressure microprobe technique. From the rate of stress relaxation, phi of segments pretreated with water was calculated to be 0.08 per megapascal per hour while that of auxin-pretreated tissue was 0.24 per megapascal per hour. These values agreed closely with estimates (...) of phi made by a steady-state technique. The yield threshold (0.29 megapascal) was not affected by auxin. Technical difficulties with measuring phi by stress relaxation may arise due to an internal water reserve or due to changes in phi subsequent to excision. These difficulties are discussed and evaluated.A theoretical analysis is also presented to show that the tissue hydraulic conductance may be estimated from the T((1/2)) of tissue swelling. Experimentally, pea stems had a swelling T((1/2

1985 Plant physiology

6439. Bioassay of prostacyclin and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from porcine aortic endothelial cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Bioassay of prostacyclin and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) from porcine aortic endothelial cells. A cascade superfusion technique has been developed for the differential bioassay of prostacyclin and endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) released from porcine aortic endothelial cells cultured on microcarriers, packed into a column and perfused. Bradykinin (Bk; 20-100 nM) released prostacyclin (9.6 +/- 1.5 nM per 10(6) cells; mean +/- s.e.mean, n = 9) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 (...) ; 2.1 +/- 0.6 nM per 10(6) cells) from the column measured by relaxation of strips of bovine coronary artery (BCA) and rabbit mesenteric or coeliac artery, respectively. The presence of these prostanoids in the effluent was confirmed by specific radioimmunoassays. A23187 (500-2000 nM) also released both prostacyclin and PGE2 from the cells. This release was long-lasting and not reproducible. Bk (20-100 nM) and A23187 (30-300 nM) released EDRF from the column. This was detected in a cascade of four

1986 British journal of pharmacology

6440. 14N1H and 2H1H cross-relaxation in hydrated proteins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

14N1H and 2H1H cross-relaxation in hydrated proteins. The frequency dependence of the proton spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of solid hydrated bovine serum albumin and alpha-chymotrypsin has been measured over 4.5 decades in the range 10(4) to 3 X 10(8) Hz mainly by the aid of the field-cycling technique. The comparison between H2O- and D2O-hydrated samples permitted the distinction of exchangeable and unexchangeable protons. In all cases the 14N1H cross-relaxation dips due mainly to the amide (...) groups have been observed. In addition, in the case of the deuterium exchanged proteins a 2H1H quadrupole dip appears. The amide groups act as relaxation sinks due to the coupling of the amide proton to 14N and adjacent protons. Outside of the dip regions the proton-proton coupling dominates. The fluctuations of the 14N1H and 1H1H interactions are of a different type. The unexchangeable protons show a T1 dispersion outside of the quadrupole dip regions given by the exceptional power law T1

1985 Biophysical journal

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