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Relaxation Technique

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6341. Children are not goldfish—mark/recapture techniques and their application to injury data Full Text available with Trip Pro

Children are not goldfish—mark/recapture techniques and their application to injury data Mark/recapture (or capture-recapture) is a simple technique commonly applied to estimate the hypothetical total (including undercount) in a register composed of cases from two or more independent and separately incomplete case lists. This paper seeks to illustrate serious drawbacks in the use of the mark/recapture technique when applied to injuries.Northumbrian children under 15 years of age who were (...) seriously injured in motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) over a five year period ascertained from two data sources: police reports and hospital inpatient records.Individuals (n) appearing in both police (S) and hospital (H) case lists are identified using various matching criteria. The separate and combined influence of age, sex, and casualty class (cyclist, passengers, pedestrians) on the probability of such matching is estimated using multivariate techniques. The hypothetical total incidence of child MVA

2000 Injury Prevention

6342. The transcendental meditation technique and acute experimental pain. (Abstract)

The transcendental meditation technique and acute experimental pain. The Transcendental Meditation (TM) technique decreases the distress associated with the experience of acute experimental pain. Fifteen advanced mediators and 15 controls were administered the cold pressor test before and after a 20 minute period of meditation (TM group) or relaxation (control group). Verbal reports of the intensity of pain sensation and pain distress were obtained at intervals during the cold pressor trials

1981 Psychosomatic Medicine

6343. Cognitive behavioral techniques for hypertension: are they effective? (Abstract)

Cognitive behavioral techniques for hypertension: are they effective? To assess by analysis of published controlled trials the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies (such as biofeedback, relaxation, meditation) for essential hypertension.Randomized controlled trials published in the English language between 1970 and 1991 identified from the MEDLINE database and bibliographic references from these articles.Limited to studies involving randomized assignment to a treatment group consisting (...) Hg (95% CI, -0.8 to 6.4) and 1.3 mm Hg (CI, -1.3 to 3.8), respectively. These changes were neither statistically nor clinically significant.Cognitive interventions for essential hypertension are superior to no therapy but not superior to credible sham techniques or to self-monitoring alone. The literature on this subject is limited by a variety of methodologic inadequacies. No single cognitive behavioral technique appears to be more effective than any other.

1993 Annals of internal medicine

6344. A new method of maintaining airway during nasotracheal intubation--the hand mask technique. (Abstract)

muscle relaxation thereafter. Patients were then randomly assigned into two groups according to the ventilation technique used. Group A patients (n = 30) were manually ventilated first through a face mask for ten minutes and then the hand mask technique for another ten minutes. Blood gas data was sampled and heart rate, blood pressure, peak inspiratory airway pressure and end tidal CO2 were recorded immediately after each ventilation technique. For patients in Group B (n = 30), the sequence (...) A new method of maintaining airway during nasotracheal intubation--the hand mask technique. The efficacy of a new method (The hand mask technique) for airway maintenance during nasotracheal intubation was evaluated in our randomized crossover study. Sixty, age less than 50, ASA physical status class I-II patients undergoing surgery for the extremities with informed consent were randomly chosen for the study. Pulse oximeter, capnometer, EKG, blood pressure monitor and a peripheral nerve

1993 Ma zui xue za zhi = Anaesthesiologica Sinica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6345. Regulation of mental states and biofeedback techniques: effects on breathing pattern. (Abstract)

Regulation of mental states and biofeedback techniques: effects on breathing pattern. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether breathing pattern may be used as a reliable index for the effectiveness of techniques applied for the regulation of mental states. Heart rate (HR), breathing pattern, galvanic skin response (GSR), and electromyogram (EMG) of the frontalis muscle were measured in 39 male and female subjects aged 18-25 years during 10-minute treatment with relaxation (...) technique (autogenic training and/or music) followed by 10 minutes of imagery training. In the first 7 sessions biofeedback (BFB) was not included, while during the last 6 sessions BFB was introduced and utilized by the subjects. Relaxation (music or autogenic training) led to a decrease in breathing frequency, attributed to lengthening of expiration time, as well as reduced HR, GSR, and frontalis EMG response. In most instances imagery training was related to an increase in these indices. Specifically

1995 Biofeedback and self-regulation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6346. Evaluation of different induction techniques for tracheal intubation. (Abstract)

Evaluation of different induction techniques for tracheal intubation. Conditions for tracheal intubation and the hemodynamic changes associated with different intravenous anesthetic induction techniques were studied in seventy-two ASA I patients randomly assigned to one of six groups (G). Anesthesia was induced with I.V. propofol 2.5 in G 1, 3, 5 or with thiopental 5 mg/kg (G2, 4, 6). In G 1-4, the standard sequence of administering muscle relaxant was used. G 1 and 2 received succinylcholine 1 (...) to succinylcholine timing technique with atracurium and propofol or thiopental reliably provided excellent or good intubating conditions in two minutes.

1995 Middle East journal of anesthesiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6347. Low dose of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with epidural lidocaine for cesarean section--a balance block technique. (Abstract)

Low dose of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine combined with epidural lidocaine for cesarean section--a balance block technique. The present study was designed to develop a combined spinal/epidural anesthetic technique for cesarean section. We compared the effects of different doses of intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5%) combined with epidural lidocaine (2%). We attempted to interrupt somatosensory pathways with spinal anesthesia but to avoid acute high thoracic sympathetic block (...) . The visceral afferent pathways were to be blocked relatively slowly with epidural lidocaine. Eighty term parturients were randomly divided into four groups. In Group A, 2.5 mg of bupivacaine intrathecally combined with 22.2 +/- 4.6 mL of lidocaine epidurally provided insufficient muscle relaxation. In Group B, 5 mg of bupivacaine with 10.1 +/- 2.0 mL of lidocaine resulted in satisfactory anesthesia with rapid onset and minimum side effects. Anesthesia in Group C (7.5 mg of bupivacaine) and Group D (10 mg

1994 Anesthesia and analgesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6348. [Autogenic training versus Erickson's analogical technique in treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome]. (Abstract)

[Autogenic training versus Erickson's analogical technique in treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome]. The AA have conducted a controlled trial to determine the efficacy of two verbal techniques for muscular relaxation on 53 patients with fibromyalgia. The subjects were assigned at random to a autogenous training group (27 patients) or a analogic Erickson's techniques group (26 patients). The autogenous training showed the presence of various limits: (1) application limits (in which notable (...) less than those obtained with the analogic Erickson's techniques). The Erickson's techniques have showed, instead, many advantages: numerous patients continued the treatment until it was finished; only a small number of therapeutic sittings were necessary. There was an improvement of all the parameters examined, superior compared to the results obtained in the group of patients treated with autogenous training.

1996 Rivista europea per le scienze mediche e farmacologiche = European review for medical and pharmacological sciences = Revue européenne pour les sciences médicales et pharmacologiques Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6349. Preoperative hypnotic techniques reduce consumption of analgesics after surgical removal of third mandibular molars: a brief communication. (Abstract)

to an experimental (hypnotic techniques) or a control (no hypnotic techniques) group. During the week before the surgery, the experimental group listened to an audiotape containing a hypnotic relaxation induction. Posthypnotic suggestions of healing and recovery were given on the tape together with advice regarding ways to achieve control over stress and pain. The control group received no hypnotic intervention. Only one surgeon who was not aware of patient group assignments performed all the operations. Thirty (...) Preoperative hypnotic techniques reduce consumption of analgesics after surgical removal of third mandibular molars: a brief communication. The effects of hypnosis in connection with surgery have been described in many clinical publications, but few controlled studies have been published. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of preoperative hypnotic techniques used by patients planned for surgical removal of third mandibular molars. The patients were randomly assigned

1997 The International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6350. Priming technique accelerates the onset time of mivacurium in children during halothane anesthesia. (Abstract)

Priming technique accelerates the onset time of mivacurium in children during halothane anesthesia. Mivacurium is considered a relaxant suitable for tracheal intubation in children due to its rapid onset. We compared the neuromuscular effects of mivacurium, with and without priming, in children undergoing elective surgery during halothane anesthesia.Forty pediatric patients (2-10 yr, ASA class I) were randomly into 2 groups and studied under halothane anesthesia. The non-priming group (n = 20 (...) recovery to 25%, 50% and 75% twitch were not influenced by priming technique. Side effects, such as cutaneous flushing and hypotension, were unremarkable at this dose in children.Priming technique can significantly accelerates the onset of mivacurium in the pediatric patients under halothane anesthesia.

1997 Acta anaesthesiologica Sinica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6351. [Intubation conditions following administration of atracurium and vecuronium. Bolus method versus priming technique]. (Abstract)

[Intubation conditions following administration of atracurium and vecuronium. Bolus method versus priming technique]. Prompted by the ongoing discussion of the pros and cons of using succinylcholine, this study was conducted to compare the responses to bolus injections of atracurium or vecuronium with those after sequential injection of these drugs (priming principle). We evaluated the earliest possible intubation times, intubating conditions, and the onset times (i.e. times from the end (...) every 15 s). RESULTS. The priming doses did not diminish the elicited twitches of the adductor pollicis muscle, but led to heavy eyelids and double vision in 35% of the atracurium patients and 47% of the vecuronium patients; these symptoms were well tolerated by the patients. At the time of intubation the adductor pollicis muscle was relaxed to approximately the same degree in all groups (mean +/- SD for the TOF ratios in the bolus groups was 0.46 +/- 0.37 for atracurium, 0.45 +/- 0.4 for vecuronium

1996 Der Anaesthesist Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6352. Clinical study of yoga techniques in university students with asthma: a controlled study. (Abstract)

Clinical study of yoga techniques in university students with asthma: a controlled study. Adult asthmatics, ranging from 19 to 52 years from an asthma and allergy clinic in a university setting volunteered to participate in the study. The 17 students were randomly divided into yoga (9 subjects) and nonyoga control (8 subjects) groups. The yoga group was taught a set of breathing and relaxation techniques including breath slowing exercises (pranayama), physical postures (yogasanas (...) ), and meditation. Yoga techniques were taught at the university health center, three times a week for 16 weeks. All the subjects in both groups maintained daily symptom and medication diaries, collected A.M. and P.M. peak flow readings, and completed weekly questionnaires. Spirometry was performed on each subject every week. Analysis of the data showed that the subjects in the yoga group reported a significant degree of relaxation, positive attitude, and better yoga exercise tolerance. There was also

1998 Allergy and Asthma Proceedings Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6353. [Respiratory changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparative study of three techniques]. (Abstract)

[Respiratory changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A comparative study of three techniques]. To analyze the repercussions of CO2 pneumoperitoneum on the ventilation of healthy patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy; to assess the influence of anesthetic technique and determine whether duration of procedure or CO2 volume are relevant factors.Prospective study of 132 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patients were selected based on disease and level (...) of anesthetic risk and then randomly assigned to three groups to receive anesthesia with oxygen/nitrous oxide (group I), isoflurane in O2 and air (FIO2 0.4) (group II) or propofol in continuous infusion with O2 and air (FIO2 0.4) (group III). Analgesia and muscle relaxation were the same in all groups. Monitoring included blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), electrocardiography (ECG), central venous pressure (CVP), capnography (PETco2), pulse oximetry (SaO2), peak airways pressure (PAP), FIO2, intra

1997 Revista española de anestesiología y reanimación Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6354. Does the choice of anesthetic technique affect the recovery of bowel function after radical prostatectomy? (Abstract)

of the intraoperative anesthetic technique on recovery of bowel function, intraoperative blood loss, and the incidence of postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients undergoing radical retropubic prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.Forty patients undergoing prostatectomy were randomized to either group A (general endotracheal anesthesia, including muscle relaxation and mechanical ventilation, followed by postoperative intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia) or group B (thoracic epidural (...) Does the choice of anesthetic technique affect the recovery of bowel function after radical prostatectomy? Return of bowel function after radical prostatectomy surgery may be the limiting factor in discharging these patients from the hospital. Recent studies have shown that postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine decreases time to return of bowel function compared with intravenous and epidural morphine in patients after abdominal surgery. This study focuses on the role

1998 Urology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6355. [Effects of priming technique on onset profile of cisatracurium]. (Abstract)

[Effects of priming technique on onset profile of cisatracurium]. Compared to atracurium, cisatracurium releases less laudanosine and histamine, but it has a longer onset time. The primary objective of this study was a blinded, randomized comparison of intubation scores and onset times of a threefold ED 95 of cisatracurium using the priming technique with two priming substances cisatracurium itself and pancuronium. To test the effect of priming with cisatracurium or pancuronium on the onset (...) was monitored by adductor pollicis electromyogram (EMG) by stimulating in a TOF pattern. Times for T1 reduction to 75%, 50%, 25% and 0% and T1 recovery to 25% were taken. Intubation was performed 120 seconds after the main relaxant dose and scored in four grades. The two priming groups showed a significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade than the control group (cisatracurium priming group: T1 = 0: 178.4 +/- 16.3 sec., pancuronium priming group 171.2 +/- 15.3 sec. vs. control group: T1 = 0: 205.5

1999 Anaesthesiologie und Reanimation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6356. Tracheal intubating conditions after induction with sevoflurane 8% in children. A comparison with two intravenous techniques. (Abstract)

Tracheal intubating conditions after induction with sevoflurane 8% in children. A comparison with two intravenous techniques. We studied tracheal intubating conditions in 120 healthy children, aged 3-12 years, in a blinded, randomised clinical trial. Children were randomly allocated to one of three groups: group PS, propofol 3 mg.kg-1 and succinylcholine 1 mg.kg-1 (n = 40); group PA, propofol 3 mg.kg-1 and alfentanil 10 microg.kg-1 (n = 40); group SF, sevoflurane 8% in 60% nitrous oxide (...) in oxygen for 3 min (n = 40). Tracheal intubating conditions were graded according to ease of laryngoscopy, position of vocal cords, coughing, jaw relaxation and movement of limbs. Overall intubating conditions were acceptable in 39 of 40 children in the propofol/succinylcholine group, 21 of 40 children in the propofol/alfentanil group and 35 of 40 children in the sevoflurane group. Children receiving propofol and succinylcholine or sevoflurane had better intubating conditions overall than those given

2000 Anaesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6357. Endothelial function of human vena saphena magna prepared with different minimally invasive harvesting techniques. (Abstract)

minimally invasive groups, two patients each had to be converted to the traditional open technique and dropped out of the study. The endothelial function of the other veins harvested by either of the minimally invasive techniques showed no significant difference compared with veins harvested conventionally. Reactivity was measured as the percentage relaxation of pharmacological contraction and was significant in all groups (P<0.05); ETHI, 49.1+/-4.2%; AUTS, 48.8+/-5.1%; and CONV, 51.7+/-6. 0 (...) Endothelial function of human vena saphena magna prepared with different minimally invasive harvesting techniques. Minimally invasive saphenous harvesting techniques have been shown to reduce post-operative morbidity. However, when applying new techniques of vein harvesting, endothelial integrity should be preserved in order to guarantee graft quality. We investigated the impact of two different minimally invasive saphenous vein harvesting techniques on endothelial function compared

2000 European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6358. Training programme in techniques of self-control and communication skills to improve nurses' relationships with relatives of seriously ill patients: a randomized controlled study. (Abstract)

Training programme in techniques of self-control and communication skills to improve nurses' relationships with relatives of seriously ill patients: a randomized controlled study. The interpersonal relationships with relatives of seriously ill patients may cause anxiety on the part of nurses and the need for adequate communication and self-control skills. To assess the efficacy of training nurses in self-control techniques and communication skills when they interact with relatives of seriously (...) ill patients we planned a randomized, controlled trial in two parallel groups: an experimental group, with immediate training, and a control group, with training delayed for 6 months. We recruited 61 nurses from the nursing staff of a university hospital of 500 beds. The intervention consisted of training in relaxation, cognitive restructuring and some communication skills. The outcome variables were communication skills measured under simulated conditions using an observation instrument of our

2000 Journal of advanced nursing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6359. Low dose fentanyl and propofol improve the speed and quality of tidal-breathing induction techniques in sevoflurane anesthesia for adults. (Abstract)

Low dose fentanyl and propofol improve the speed and quality of tidal-breathing induction techniques in sevoflurane anesthesia for adults. The objective of this study was to investigate whether low dose fentanyl, with or without low dose propofol, as pretreatment agent/s is capable of speeding up and improving the quality of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion in tidal-breathing induction technique with high-concentration sevoflurane.One hundred and twenty patients were assigned to one (...) of the three groups: Group S, induction with 8% sevoflurane only; Group F + S, 1.0 microgram/kg fentanyl prior to induction; and Group F + P + S, 1.0 microgram/kg fentanyl and 0.5 mg/kg propofol prior to induction.It was demonstrated that the time from administration of drug (drugs) to loss of eyelash reflex (P < 0.05, Group F + P + S vs. F + S; P < 0.01, Group F + P + S vs. S), to jaw relaxation (P < 0.05, Group F + P + S vs. S) and time taken for LMA insertion (P < 0.01, Group F + P + S vs. S) were all

2001 Acta anaesthesiologica Sinica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6360. Sevoflurane: a comparison between vital capacity and tidal breathing techniques for the induction of anaesthesia and laryngeal mask airway placement. (Abstract)

Sevoflurane: a comparison between vital capacity and tidal breathing techniques for the induction of anaesthesia and laryngeal mask airway placement. Sixty unpremedicated adult day-case patients were randomly assigned to either vital capacity or tidal breathing inhalational induction techniques. End points assessed included loss of eyelash reflex, time to drop a weighted syringe, time to jaw relaxation and time to the end of laryngeal mask airway insertion. Complications occurring during (...) the induction of anaesthesia were recorded. The data show that there is no statistical or clinical difference between the two induction techniques. Patient acceptance of both techniques was similarly high. When the time taken to prime the anaesthetic breathing system is taken into consideration, the vital capacity technique is more expensive for induction of anaesthesia. These results therefore question the need for the vital capacity induction technique with sevoflurane 8%.

1999 Anaesthesia Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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