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Relative Risk

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1. Clinical evaluation of education relating to nutrition and skeletal loading in competitive male road cyclists at risk of relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S): 6-month randomised controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Clinical evaluation of education relating to nutrition and skeletal loading in competitive male road cyclists at risk of relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S): 6-month randomised controlled trial. To clinically evaluate education to improve eating behaviour and skeletal loading exercise in male cyclists at risk of poor bone health and impaired performance due to relative energy deficiency in sports.Early race season, 50 competitive male road cyclists were matched, in pairs, based on Z

2019 BMJ open sport & exercise medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2. An Anti-CD3 Antibody, Teplizumab, in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

An Anti-CD3 Antibody, Teplizumab, in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and dependence on exogenous insulin for survival. Some interventions have delayed the loss of insulin production in patients with type 1 diabetes, but interventions that might affect clinical progression before diagnosis are needed.We conducted a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (...) of teplizumab (an Fc receptor-nonbinding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) involving relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes who did not have diabetes but were at high risk for development of clinical disease. Patients were randomly assigned to a single 14-day course of teplizumab or placebo, and follow-up for progression to clinical type 1 diabetes was performed with the use of oral glucose-tolerance tests at 6-month intervals.A total of 76 participants (55 [72%] of whom were ≤18 years of age) underwent

2019 NEJM Controlled trial quality: predicted high

3. Estimation of Relative and Absolute Risks in a Competing-Risks Setting Using a Nested Case-Control Study Design: Example From the ProMort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Estimation of Relative and Absolute Risks in a Competing-Risks Setting Using a Nested Case-Control Study Design: Example From the ProMort Study. In this paper, we describe the Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Prostate Cancer (ProMort) study and use it to demonstrate how the weighted likelihood method can be used in nested case-control studies to estimate both relative and absolute risks in the competing-risks setting. ProMort is a case-control study nested within the National Prostate Cancer (...) Register (NPCR) of Sweden, comprising 1,710 men diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 1998 and 2011 who died from prostate cancer (cases) and 1,710 matched controls. Cause-specific hazard ratios and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for prostate cancer death were estimated in ProMort using weighted flexible parametric models and compared with the corresponding estimates from the NPCR cohort. We further drew 1,500 random nested case-control subsamples of the NPCR cohort

2019 American Journal of Epidemiology

4. Methods for calculating credible intervals for ratios of beta distributions with application to relative risks of death during the second plague pandemic. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Methods for calculating credible intervals for ratios of beta distributions with application to relative risks of death during the second plague pandemic. Employing historical records we are able to estimate the risk of premature death during the second plague pandemic, and identify the Black Death and pestis secunda epidemics. We show a novel method of calculating Bayesian credible intervals for a ratio of beta distributed random variables and use this to quantify uncertainty of relative risk

2019 PLoS ONE

5. Trends in the risk of myocardial infarction among HIV-1-infected individuals relative to the general population in France: Impact of gender and immune status. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Trends in the risk of myocardial infarction among HIV-1-infected individuals relative to the general population in France: Impact of gender and immune status. We examined trends in the MI incidence and age at MI diagnosis among adults living with HIV-1 between 2000 and 2009, by comparison with the French MI registries, by gender. Age standardized incidence rates and standardized incidence-ratios (SIRs) were estimated for individuals included in the French hospital database on HIV (n = 71 204 (...) , MI = 663) during three periods: 2000-2002, 2003-2005 and 2006-2009. Median ages at MI diagnosis were compared using the Brown-Mood test. Over the study periods, the absolute rate difference and relative risks were higher in women than in men in 2000-2002 and 2006-2009, with respective SIRs 1.99 (1.39-2.75) and 1.12 (0.99-1.27) in 2006-2009. The trends were different for men and women with a decreasing trend in SIRs in men and no change in women. In both sexes, among individuals with CD4 ≥500/μL

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental illness: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with psychotic or mood disorders. (Abstract)

Brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental illness: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with psychotic or mood disorders. Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable psychiatric disorders with partially overlapping genetic liability. Shared and disorder-specific neurobiological abnormalities associated with familial risk for developing mental illnesses are largely unknown. We performed a meta (...) -analysis of structural brain imaging studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD to identify overlapping and discrete brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental disorders. Search for voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD in PubMed and Embase identified 33 studies with 2292 relatives and 2052 healthy controls (HC). Seed-based d Mapping software was used to investigate global differences in gray matter volumes between relatives as a group

2020 Neuropsychopharmacology

7. The causal nature of the association between resting pulse in late adolescence and risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders: a co-relative analysis in a national male Swedish sample. (Abstract)

The causal nature of the association between resting pulse in late adolescence and risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders: a co-relative analysis in a national male Swedish sample. Resting pulse is robustly and inversely associated with the risk for externalizing disorders and may be positively associated with internalizing disorders. We know little about the causal nature of these associations.We examined resting pulse at conscription examination in 369 301 males born 1960-80 (...) with a mean (s.d.) follow-up of 29.1 (7.7) years. From pulse rates, we predicted, using Cox models, the risk for criminal behavior (CB), drug abuse (DA), alcohol use disorder (AUD), major depression (MD), and anxiety disorders (AD), assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. Co-relative analyses were conducted on the general population, cousin, half-sibling, full-sibling, and monozygotic pairs discordant for the outcome. Twin/sibling modeling for pulse was performed using OpenMX.Familial

2020 Psychological Medicine

8. The causal effect of resilience on risk for drug abuse: a Swedish national instrumental variable, co-relative and propensity-score analysis. (Abstract)

The causal effect of resilience on risk for drug abuse: a Swedish national instrumental variable, co-relative and propensity-score analysis. We sought to quantify and investigate the causal nature of the association between resilience at age 18 and future drug abuse (DA).In a national sample of Swedish men (n = 1 392 800), followed for a mean of 30.3 years, resilience was assessed during military conscription and DA defined from medical, criminal and pharmacy registers. For causal inference, we (...) predicted the risk for DA (HR = 2.31, 95% CIs 2.28-2.33). In instrumental, co-relative, and propensity score analyses, the association between resilience and DA was estimated at HR = 3.06 (2.44-3.85), 1.34 (1.28-1.39), and 1.40 (1.28-1.53), respectively. Sensitivity analyses suggested that our instrument was weak and, despite our large sample, likely under-estimated confounding.Low resilience strongly predicts DA risk. Three different causal analysis methods, with divergent assumptions, concurred

2020 Psychological Medicine

9. A Bayesian Quantile Modeling for Spatiotemporal Relative Risk: An Application to Adverse Risk Detection of Respiratory Diseases in South Carolina, USA Full Text available with Trip Pro

A Bayesian Quantile Modeling for Spatiotemporal Relative Risk: An Application to Adverse Risk Detection of Respiratory Diseases in South Carolina, USA Quantile modeling has been seen as an alternative and useful complement to ordinary regression mainly focusing on the mean. To directly apply quantile modeling to areal data the discrete conditional quantile function of the data can be an issue. Although jittering by adding a small number from a uniform distribution to impose pseudo-continuity (...) has been proposed, the approach can have a great influence on responses with small values. Thus we proposed an alternative to model the quantiles of relative risk for spatiotemporal areal health data within a Bayesian framework using the log-Laplace distribution. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and examine whether the model could robustly estimate quantiles of spatiotemporal count data. To perform a test with a real data example, we evaluated

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

10. Discrepancies in risk age and relative risk estimations of cardiovascular disease in patients with inflammatory joint diseases. (Abstract)

Discrepancies in risk age and relative risk estimations of cardiovascular disease in patients with inflammatory joint diseases. The European guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention advise use of relative risk and risk age algorithms for estimating CVD risk in patients with low estimated absolute risk. Patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) are associated with increased risk of CVD. We aimed to estimate relative risk and risk age across IJD entities and evaluate (...) % and 20% had three times or higher risk compared to individuals with optimal CVD risk factor levels. Furthermore, 20-42% had a risk age ≥5years higher than their actual age, according to the specific risk age model. There were only minor differences between IJD entities regarding relative risk and risk age. Discrepancies ≥5years in estimated risk age were observed in 14-43% of patients. The largest observed difference in calculated risk age was 24years.In patients with low estimated absolute risk

2018 International journal of cardiology

11. Relative Risk Chart Score for the Assessment of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relative Risk Chart Score for the Assessment of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis To determine if the use of the relative risk (RR) chart score may help to identify young ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease.73 AS patients younger than 50 years were assessed. CV risk was calculated according to the total cholesterol systematic coronary risk evaluation (TC-SCORE) and the RR chart score. C-reactive protein (CRP) value (...) at disease diagnosis and carotid ultrasound data were also analyzed.Twenty (27.4%) patients exhibited carotid plaques being classified into the category of very high CV risk. None of them was found to have a high/very high TC-SCORE. CRP > 3 mg/L at disease diagnosis was associated with the presence of carotid plaques (odds ratio 5.66, p = 0.03). Whereas only 5 (14.2%) of the 35 patients with RR = 1 had carotid plaques, 15 (39.5%) of 38 with RR > 1 showed plaques. A model that included the performance

2018 International journal of rheumatology

12. Residual cardiovascular risk in individuals on lipid-lowering treatment: quantifying absolute and relative risk in the community Full Text available with Trip Pro

Residual cardiovascular risk in individuals on lipid-lowering treatment: quantifying absolute and relative risk in the community The residual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in individuals on long-term lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) in the general population is not well described.We estimated absolute CVD risks by age and sex for different categories of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, stratified by LLT status, and assessed subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in 3012 (...) substantial residual CVD risk (26.7 (95% CI 19.5 to 34.0) and 24.1 (95% CI 16.2 to 31.9) per 1000 person-years, respectively), representing approximately three times the risk for untreated individuals with LDL <100 mg/dL (group 1: 9.0 (95% CI 6.8 to 11.3) per 1000 person-years). Absolute CVD risks rose with age and were slightly greater in men than in women. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, groups 3-5 displayed increased hazards for CVD (HR=1.47, 1.42 and 1.54, respectively) compared

2018 Open heart

13. Differences in inherited risk among relatives of hereditary prostate cancer patients using genetic risk score. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Differences in inherited risk among relatives of hereditary prostate cancer patients using genetic risk score. Family history assigns equivalent risk to all relatives based upon the degree of relationship. Recent genetic studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) to determine prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We sought to determine whether GRS can stratify PCa risk among individuals in families considered to be at higher (...) risk due their family history of PCa.Family members with hereditary PCa were recruited and genotyped for 17 SNPs associated with PCa. A GRS was calculated for all subjects. Analyses compared the distribution of GRS values among affected and unaffected family members of varying relationship degrees.Data was available for 789 family members of probands including 552 affected and 237 unaffected relatives. Median GRSs were higher among first-degree relatives compared to second- and third-degree

2018 Prostate

14. Two-level resolution of relative risk of dengue disease in a hyperendemic city of Colombia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Two-level resolution of relative risk of dengue disease in a hyperendemic city of Colombia. Risk maps of dengue disease offer to the public health officers a tool to model disease risk in space and time. We analyzed the geographical distribution of relative incidence risk of dengue disease in a high incidence city from Colombia, and its evolution in time during the period January 2009-December 2015, identifying regional effects at different levels of spatial aggregations. Cases of dengue (...) disease were geocoded and spatially allocated to census sectors, and temporally aggregated by epidemiological periods. The census sectors are nested in administrative divisions defined as communes, configuring two levels of spatial aggregation for the dengue cases. Spatio-temporal models including census sector and commune-level spatially structured random effects were fitted to estimate dengue incidence relative risks using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) technique. The final

2018 PLoS ONE

15. Conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer relative to bioidentical hormone therapy and controls. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Conjugated equine estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate are associated with decreased risk of breast cancer relative to bioidentical hormone therapy and controls. By the 1990s it became popular for women to use hormone therapy (HT) to ease menopause symptoms. Bioidentical estrogen and progesterone are supplements whose molecular structures are identical to what is made in the human body, while synthetic supplements are ones whose structures are not. After the Women's Health Initiative found (...) with decreased breast cancer risk(HR = 0.65), CEE & MPA is associated with reduced breast cancer risk (HR = 0.43), and CEE & MPA is associated with reduced breast cancer risk relative to Bioidentical Estrogen & Progesterone (HR = 0.25).Our results indicate CEE & MPA is superior to bioidentical HT as far as breast cancer risk. Furthermore, this combination is associated with decrease of breast cancer risk, contrary to previous findings. Additional retrospective studies are needed to confirm our results.

2018 PLoS ONE

16. High relative risk of all-cause mortality attributed to smoking in China: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

High relative risk of all-cause mortality attributed to smoking in China: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Prediction of disease burden in China arising from smoking based on earlier cohorts in the West and China could not reflect the disease burden at the current stage accurately. No cohort studies in China focused specifically on people born since 1950. We examined the risk of all-cause mortality attributed to smoking in adults in Guangzhou, the city with the most rapidly expanding economy (...) ), and 4.40 (95% CI 3.14-6.17), in those born in the 1940s and 1950s, respectively (P for trend 0.009).In smokers born after 1949 in Guangzhou and other areas which have the longest history of smoking, the mortality risk could have reached three fold that of non-smokers, as in the UK, US and Australia. If confirmed, unless China quickly and strictly complies with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control with massive smoking cessation in the population, this is a more striking warning that China

2018 PLoS ONE

17. Serum ferritin, an early marker of cardiovascular risk: a study in Chinese men of first-degree relatives with family history of type 2 diabetes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Serum ferritin, an early marker of cardiovascular risk: a study in Chinese men of first-degree relatives with family history of type 2 diabetes. Ferritin is one of the key proteins that regulate iron homeostasis and is widely available clinical biomarker of iron status. This study aimed to discuss the influence of serum ferritin (SF) on cardiovascular risk factors in the first-degree relatives with family history of type 2 diabetes (FHD).This cross-sectional study included 232 men (...) SF levels increased the risk of cardiovascular risk factors and the occurrence of insulin resistance in first-degree relatives with FHD.

2019 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders

18. Population-Based Relative Risks for Lung Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Lung Cancer. (Abstract)

Population-Based Relative Risks for Lung Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Lung Cancer. Published risk estimates for diagnosis of lung cancer based on family history are typically focused on close relatives, rather than a more diverse or complete family history. This study provides estimates of relative risk (RR) for lung cancer based on comprehensive family history data obtained from a statewide cancer registry linked to a high-quality genealogy data resource that is extensive (...) and deep. The risk estimates presented avoid common recall, recruitment, ascertainment biases, and are based on an individual's (proband's) lung cancer family history constellation (pattern of lung cancer affected relatives); numerous constellations are explored.We used a population-based genealogic resource linked to a statewide electronic Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program cancer registry to estimate RR for lung cancer for an individual based on their lung cancer family history

2019 Journal of Thoracic Oncology

19. The index lift in data mining has a close relationship with the association measure relative risk in epidemiological studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The index lift in data mining has a close relationship with the association measure relative risk in epidemiological studies. Data mining tools have been increasingly used in health research, with the promise of accelerating discoveries. Lift is a standard association metric in the data mining community. However, health researchers struggle with the interpretation of lift. As a result, dissemination of data mining results can be met with hesitation. The relative risk and odds ratio are standard (...) association measures in the health domain, due to their straightforward interpretation and comparability across populations. We aimed to investigate the lift-relative risk and the lift-odds ratio relationships, and provide tools to convert lift to the relative risk and odds ratio.We derived equations linking lift-relative risk and lift-odds ratio. We discussed how lift, relative risk, and odds ratio behave numerically with varying association strengths and exposure prevalence levels. The lift-relative

2019 Medical Informatics and Decision Making

20. Having a first-degree relative with melanoma increases lifetime risk of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. (Abstract)

Having a first-degree relative with melanoma increases lifetime risk of melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Previous studies have found familial aggregation of melanoma and keratinocyte cancers (KCs).We sought to determine the risk of melanoma and KCs in those with a positive family history of melanoma while controlling for pigmentary and environmental risk factors.We prospectively followed 216,115 participants from the Nurses' Health Study, Nurse's Health Study 2 (...) , and Health Professionals Follow-up Study for more than 20 years. Cox proportional hazards regression controlling for known risk factors for skin cancer was used to estimate association between family history of melanoma and melanoma and KCs.Compared with those without a family history of melanoma, individuals with a family history of melanoma had a 74% increased risk of melanoma (hazard ratio [HR], 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.45-2.09), a 22% increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (HR, 1.22

2019 Journal of American Academy of Dermatology

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