How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

110,887 results for

Relative Risk

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

1. An Anti-CD3 Antibody, Teplizumab, in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes. (PubMed)

An Anti-CD3 Antibody, Teplizumab, in Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune disease that leads to destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and dependence on exogenous insulin for survival. Some interventions have delayed the loss of insulin production in patients with type 1 diabetes, but interventions that might affect clinical progression before diagnosis are needed.We conducted a phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (...) of teplizumab (an Fc receptor-nonbinding anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) involving relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes who did not have diabetes but were at high risk for development of clinical disease. Patients were randomly assigned to a single 14-day course of teplizumab or placebo, and follow-up for progression to clinical type 1 diabetes was performed with the use of oral glucose-tolerance tests at 6-month intervals.A total of 76 participants (55 [72%] of whom were ≤18 years of age) underwent

2019 NEJM

2. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat

Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat - EN Testing Treatments interactive Languages English Navigate this website Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat | | Short Description: Relative risk (...) reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat. Key Concepts addressed: Details Physicians, patients and policy-makers are influenced not only by the results of studies but also by how authors present the results.1–4 Depending on which measures of effect authors choose, the impact of an intervention may appear very large or quite small, even though the underlying data are the same. In this article we present 3 measures of effect — relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction

2018 Testing Treatments interactive

3. Estimation of Relative and Absolute Risks in a Competing-Risks Setting Using a Nested Case-Control Study Design: Example From the ProMort Study. (PubMed)

Estimation of Relative and Absolute Risks in a Competing-Risks Setting Using a Nested Case-Control Study Design: Example From the ProMort Study. In this paper, we describe the Prognostic Factors for Mortality in Prostate Cancer (ProMort) study and use it to demonstrate how the weighted likelihood method can be used in nested case-control studies to estimate both relative and absolute risks in the competing-risks setting. ProMort is a case-control study nested within the National Prostate Cancer (...) Register (NPCR) of Sweden, comprising 1,710 men diagnosed with low- or intermediate-risk prostate cancer between 1998 and 2011 who died from prostate cancer (cases) and 1,710 matched controls. Cause-specific hazard ratios and cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for prostate cancer death were estimated in ProMort using weighted flexible parametric models and compared with the corresponding estimates from the NPCR cohort. We further drew 1,500 random nested case-control subsamples of the NPCR cohort

2019 American Journal of Epidemiology

4. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat

Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat - EN Testing Treatments interactive Languages English Navigate this website Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 1. relative risk reduction, absolute risk reductions and number needed to treat | | Short Description: Relative risk (...) reduction, absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat. Key Concepts addressed: Details Physicians, patients and policy-makers are influenced not only by the results of studies but also by how authors present the results.1–4 Depending on which measures of effect authors choose, the impact of an intervention may appear very large or quite small, even though the underlying data are the same. In this article we present 3 measures of effect — relative risk reduction, absolute risk reduction

2018 Testing Treatments interactive

5. Trends in the risk of myocardial infarction among HIV-1-infected individuals relative to the general population in France: Impact of gender and immune status. (PubMed)

Trends in the risk of myocardial infarction among HIV-1-infected individuals relative to the general population in France: Impact of gender and immune status. We examined trends in the MI incidence and age at MI diagnosis among adults living with HIV-1 between 2000 and 2009, by comparison with the French MI registries, by gender. Age standardized incidence rates and standardized incidence-ratios (SIRs) were estimated for individuals included in the French hospital database on HIV (n = 71 204 (...) , MI = 663) during three periods: 2000-2002, 2003-2005 and 2006-2009. Median ages at MI diagnosis were compared using the Brown-Mood test. Over the study periods, the absolute rate difference and relative risks were higher in women than in men in 2000-2002 and 2006-2009, with respective SIRs 1.99 (1.39-2.75) and 1.12 (0.99-1.27) in 2006-2009. The trends were different for men and women with a decreasing trend in SIRs in men and no change in women. In both sexes, among individuals with CD4 ≥500/μL

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Methods for calculating credible intervals for ratios of beta distributions with application to relative risks of death during the second plague pandemic. (PubMed)

Methods for calculating credible intervals for ratios of beta distributions with application to relative risks of death during the second plague pandemic. Employing historical records we are able to estimate the risk of premature death during the second plague pandemic, and identify the Black Death and pestis secunda epidemics. We show a novel method of calculating Bayesian credible intervals for a ratio of beta distributed random variables and use this to quantify uncertainty of relative risk

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 PLoS ONE

7. The relative risk of low-load blood-flow restricted exercise compared to exercise control: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The relative risk of low-load blood-flow restricted exercise compared to exercise control: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) is planned , please specify the following:"> Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect measure The random-effects model is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size), and that the true effect is the same (fixed) across all studies. However

2019 PROSPERO

8. Relative risk of musculoskeletal abnormalities in symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Relative risk of musculoskeletal abnormalities in symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record (...) . ">Planned approach If a meta-analysis is planned , please specify the following:"> Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect measure The random-effects model is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size), and that the true effect is the same

2019 PROSPERO

9. The relative effect of modifiable risk factors on the progression of arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The relative effect of modifiable risk factors on the progression of arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) is planned , please specify the following:"> Example: number of metastases: standardized mean difference; incidence of metastasis: risk ratio. ">Effect measure The random-effects model is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size), and that the true effect is the same (fixed) across all studies. However

2019 PROSPERO

10. Differences in inherited risk among relatives of hereditary prostate cancer patients using genetic risk score. (PubMed)

Differences in inherited risk among relatives of hereditary prostate cancer patients using genetic risk score. Family history assigns equivalent risk to all relatives based upon the degree of relationship. Recent genetic studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that can be used to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) to determine prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We sought to determine whether GRS can stratify PCa risk among individuals in families considered to be at higher (...) risk due their family history of PCa.Family members with hereditary PCa were recruited and genotyped for 17 SNPs associated with PCa. A GRS was calculated for all subjects. Analyses compared the distribution of GRS values among affected and unaffected family members of varying relationship degrees.Data was available for 789 family members of probands including 552 affected and 237 unaffected relatives. Median GRSs were higher among first-degree relatives compared to second- and third-degree

2018 Prostate

11. Discrepancies in risk age and relative risk estimations of cardiovascular disease in patients with inflammatory joint diseases. (PubMed)

Discrepancies in risk age and relative risk estimations of cardiovascular disease in patients with inflammatory joint diseases. The European guidelines on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention advise use of relative risk and risk age algorithms for estimating CVD risk in patients with low estimated absolute risk. Patients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJD) are associated with increased risk of CVD. We aimed to estimate relative risk and risk age across IJD entities and evaluate (...) % and 20% had three times or higher risk compared to individuals with optimal CVD risk factor levels. Furthermore, 20-42% had a risk age ≥5years higher than their actual age, according to the specific risk age model. There were only minor differences between IJD entities regarding relative risk and risk age. Discrepancies ≥5years in estimated risk age were observed in 14-43% of patients. The largest observed difference in calculated risk age was 24years.In patients with low estimated absolute risk

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2018 International journal of cardiology

12. Residual cardiovascular risk in individuals on lipid-lowering treatment: quantifying absolute and relative risk in the community (PubMed)

Residual cardiovascular risk in individuals on lipid-lowering treatment: quantifying absolute and relative risk in the community The residual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in individuals on long-term lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) in the general population is not well described.We estimated absolute CVD risks by age and sex for different categories of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, stratified by LLT status, and assessed subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in 3012 (...) substantial residual CVD risk (26.7 (95% CI 19.5 to 34.0) and 24.1 (95% CI 16.2 to 31.9) per 1000 person-years, respectively), representing approximately three times the risk for untreated individuals with LDL <100 mg/dL (group 1: 9.0 (95% CI 6.8 to 11.3) per 1000 person-years). Absolute CVD risks rose with age and were slightly greater in men than in women. After adjustment for traditional risk factors, groups 3-5 displayed increased hazards for CVD (HR=1.47, 1.42 and 1.54, respectively) compared

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2018 Open heart

13. A Bayesian Quantile Modeling for Spatiotemporal Relative Risk: An Application to Adverse Risk Detection of Respiratory Diseases in South Carolina, USA (PubMed)

A Bayesian Quantile Modeling for Spatiotemporal Relative Risk: An Application to Adverse Risk Detection of Respiratory Diseases in South Carolina, USA Quantile modeling has been seen as an alternative and useful complement to ordinary regression mainly focusing on the mean. To directly apply quantile modeling to areal data the discrete conditional quantile function of the data can be an issue. Although jittering by adding a small number from a uniform distribution to impose pseudo-continuity (...) has been proposed, the approach can have a great influence on responses with small values. Thus we proposed an alternative to model the quantiles of relative risk for spatiotemporal areal health data within a Bayesian framework using the log-Laplace distribution. A simulation study was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method and examine whether the model could robustly estimate quantiles of spatiotemporal count data. To perform a test with a real data example, we evaluated

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

14. Relative Risk Chart Score for the Assessment of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (PubMed)

Relative Risk Chart Score for the Assessment of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis To determine if the use of the relative risk (RR) chart score may help to identify young ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients at high risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease.73 AS patients younger than 50 years were assessed. CV risk was calculated according to the total cholesterol systematic coronary risk evaluation (TC-SCORE) and the RR chart score. C-reactive protein (CRP) value (...) at disease diagnosis and carotid ultrasound data were also analyzed.Twenty (27.4%) patients exhibited carotid plaques being classified into the category of very high CV risk. None of them was found to have a high/very high TC-SCORE. CRP > 3 mg/L at disease diagnosis was associated with the presence of carotid plaques (odds ratio 5.66, p = 0.03). Whereas only 5 (14.2%) of the 35 patients with RR = 1 had carotid plaques, 15 (39.5%) of 38 with RR > 1 showed plaques. A model that included the performance

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2018 International journal of rheumatology

15. Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17. (PubMed)

Evidence of sustained reductions in the relative risk of acute hepatitis B and C virus infections, and the increasing burden of hepatitis a virus infection in Egypt: comparison of sentinel acute viral hepatitis surveillance results, 2001-17. Egypt ranks fifth for the burden of viral hepatitis worldwide. As part of Egypt's renewed national strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis, surveillance for acute viral hepatitis (AVH) was re-established during 2014-2017 to describe the current (...) epidemiology and associated risk factors, and changes from surveillance conducted during 2001-2004.Patients with suspected AVH were enrolled, completed a questionnaire, and provided blood for testing for hepatitis viruses A (HAV), B (HBV), C (HCV), D, and E (HEV) infections by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odds ratios and Chi2 were used to detect differences between hepatitis types by patient characteristics and exposures. Newcombe-Wilson method was used to compare results between surveillance periods

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

16. Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women: risk and survival relative to those of the general population in France. Results from the French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH)-Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) CO4 (PubMed)

Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women: risk and survival relative to those of the general population in France. Results from the French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH)-Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les Hépatites Virales (ANRS) CO4 We examined trends in the incidence rates of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and in the rate of survival after ICC among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in France and compared them to those of the general population.Histologically validated (...) with that of the general population for ICC diagnosed in 2005-2009 after standardization for age.Among 28 977 WLHIV, 60 incident ICCs were histologically validated. There was a nonsignificant decreasing trend for the incidence across the cART periods (P = 0.07), from 60 to 36/100 000 person-years. The risk of ICC was consistently significantly higher in WLHIV than in the general population; the SIR was 5.4 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-8.9] during the pre-cART period and 3.3 (95% CI 2.2-4.7) in 2005-2009. Survival

2019 HIV medicine

17. Relative Prognostic Importance and Optimal Levels of Risk Factors for Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes. (PubMed)

Relative Prognostic Importance and Optimal Levels of Risk Factors for Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes. The strength of association and optimal levels for risk factors related to excess risk of death and cardiovascular outcomes in type 1 diabetes have been sparsely studied.In a national observational cohort study from the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 1998 to 2014, we assess relative prognostic importance of 17 risk factors for death and cardiovascular outcomes (...) diabetes, 1,809 (5.5 %) died during follow-up over 10.4 years. The strongest predictors for death and cardiovascular outcomes were glycated hemoglobin, albuminuria, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Glycated hemoglobin displayed approximately 2% higher risk for each mmol/mol increase (equating to ~22% per %HbA1c difference), whereas low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was associated with 35-50% greater risk for each mmol/l increase. Micro

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 Circulation

18. Incidence and relative risk for developing cancers in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Incidence and relative risk for developing cancers in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. To evaluate the risk of developing cancers, particularly site-specific cancers, in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Taiwan.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan.This study was conducted using the nationwide data from 2000 to 2013. In total, 1 466 596 pregnant women with admission for delivery were identified. Subjects (...) with GDM consisted of 47 373 women, while the non-exposed group consisted of 943 199 women without GDM. The participants were followed from the delivery date to the diagnosis of cancer, death, the last medical claim or the end of follow-up (31 December 2013), whichever came first.Patients with a new diagnosis of cancer (International Classification of Diseases, ninth edition, with clinical modification (ICD-9-CM codes 140-208)) recorded in NHIRD were identified. The risk of 11 major cancer types

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 BMJ open

19. Telephone versus in-person colorectal cancer risk and screening intervention for first-degree relatives: A randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Telephone versus in-person colorectal cancer risk and screening intervention for first-degree relatives: A randomized controlled trial. Having a first-degree relative (FDR) with colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant risk factor for CRC. Counseling for FDRs regarding CRC risk factors and personalized risk is important to improve knowledge and screening compliance.A 3-arm randomized controlled trial compared tailored in-person and telephone CRC counseling interventions with controls among FDRs (...) who were not mutation carriers for known hereditary cancer syndromes, but who were considered to be at an increased risk based on family history. It was hypothesized that both telephone and in-person approaches would increase CRC knowledge, screening adherence, perceived risk accuracy, and psychosocial functioning compared with controls. The authors anticipated greater satisfaction with the in-person approach. CRC knowledge, risk perception, psychosocial functioning, and intention to screen were

2019 Cancer

20. Relative cerebral hyperperfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with risk for postoperative delirium: a cross-sectional cohort study. (PubMed)

Relative cerebral hyperperfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with risk for postoperative delirium: a cross-sectional cohort study. Our objective was to evaluate if changes in on-pump cerebral blood flow, relative to the pre-bypass baseline, are associated with the risk for postoperative delirium (POD) following cardiac surgery.In 47 consecutive adult patients, right middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAV) was assessed using transcranial Doppler sonography. Individual (...) values, measured during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were normalized to the pre-bypass baseline value and termed MCAVrel. An MCAVrel > 100% was defined as cerebral hyperperfusion. Prevalence of POD was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit.Overall prevalence of POD was 27%. In the subgroup without POD, 32% of patients had experienced relative cerebral hyperperfusion during CPB, compared to 67% in the subgroup with POD (p < 0.05). The mean averaged MCAVrel was 90

Full Text available with Trip Pro

2019 BMC Anesthesiology

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>