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81621. Attitudes towards predictive genetic testing in minors for familial breast cancer: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Attitudes towards predictive genetic testing in minors for familial breast cancer: a systematic review. The objective of this article is to review the attitudes of different stakeholders (minors, parents, healthcare professionals, and relatives of affected individuals) towards predictive genetic testing of minors for familial breast cancer.The databases PubMed, Google Scholar, Psychinfo, Biological Abstracts, Francis, Anthropological Index online, Web of Science, and Sociological Abstracts were (...) , and study measures. Substantial proportions of adolescents were interested in learning whether they were at risk for familial breast cancer. The attitudes of healthcare professionals about testing minors diverged.Our review has made clear that many respondents fail to understand potential risks related to predictive genetic testing in minors. Respondents might have overly positive expectations about possibilities for genetic testing. This emphasizes the need for genetic education and counselling about

2007 Critical reviews in oncology/hematology

81622. The economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. (PubMed)

The economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Using a cost of illness (COI) framework, this article examines the economic impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and adolescence. Our review of published literature identified 13 studies, most conducted on existing databases by using diagnostic and medical procedure codes and focused on health care costs. Two were longitudinal studies of identified children with ADHD (...) followed into adolescence. Costs were examined for ADHD treatment-related and other health care costs (all but 1 study addressed some aspect of health care), education (special education, 2 studies; disciplinary costs: 1 study), parental work loss (2 studies), and juvenile justice (2 studies). Based on this small and as yet incomplete evidence base, we estimated annual COI of ADHD in children and adolescents at $14,576 per individual (2005 dollars). Given the variability of estimates across studies

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2007 Journal of pediatric psychology

81623. A systematic review of tests of empathy in medicine. (PubMed)

of research papers relating to the reliability and validity of tests of empathy in medical students and doctors. Journal databases (Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) were searched for English-language articles relating to the assessment of empathy and related constructs in applicants to medical school, medical students, and doctors.From 1147 citations, we identified 50 relevant papers describing 36 different instruments of empathy measurement. As some papers assessed more than one instrument, there were 59

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2007 BMC medical education

81624. Cigarette smoking and incident chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Cigarette smoking and incident chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Several studies have examined the role of cigarette smoking in the development of renal disease in human populations. However, there have been no systematic reviews on the evidence linking smoking with incident renal disease.We performed an evidence-based evaluation of peer-reviewed research published during 1966-2005, from a search of five databases, including Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE.Of the 28 studies that were (...) in current smokers that was gender and/or dose related. An increased risk of developing chronic kidney disease among smokers was significantly associated with male gender (relative risk 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.5), >20 cigarettes smoked/day (odds ratio 1.51, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.15, and relative risk 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.3), and smoking >40 years (odds ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.09). A pooled estimate of the relative risk (meta-analysis) was deemed

2007 American journal of nephrology

81625. Walk-in centres in primary care: a review of the international literature. (PubMed)

for the UK. This study is a systematic review, with qualitative synthesis of relevant findings. Studies were identified from seven major bibliographic databases using a sensitive search strategy, and 244 relevant documents relating to walk-in or 'ambulatory care' centres were identified. Users of walk-in centres in other countries tend to be a relatively affluent population of working age, and a different population from those using conventional general practice services. Walk-in centres are used

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2003 The British Journal of General Practice

81626. Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries (PubMed)

Death at a discount: how the tobacco industry thwarted tobacco control policies in US military commissaries The US military is perhaps the only retailer consistently losing money on tobacco. Military stores (commissaries and exchanges) have long sold discount-priced cigarettes, while the Department of Defense (DoD) pays directly for tobacco-related healthcare costs of many current and former customers. Tobacco use also impairs short-term troop readiness.To examine the long struggle to raise (...) commissary tobacco prices and the tobacco industry's role in this policy effort.Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, searches of government and military websites and newspaper databases, and interviews with key informants identified in the documents.Efforts to raise commissary tobacco prices began in the mid-1980s. Opposition quickly emerged. Some military officials viewed tobacco use as a "right" and low prices as a "benefit". Others raised issues of authority, and some saw the change

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2007 Tobacco Control

81627. Assessing the Impact of HL7/FDA Structured Product Label (SPL) Content for Medication Knowledge Management (PubMed)

Assessing the Impact of HL7/FDA Structured Product Label (SPL) Content for Medication Knowledge Management The amount and quality of the SPL drug knowledge which has been released so far is assessed. All published labels were loaded into a relational database and classified to create vendor-independent descriptions. While SPL labels cover only 23% of RxNorm clinical drugs, they still describe 78% of actual community pharmacy dispenses records. SPL descriptions agree well with RxNorm. SPL can

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2007 AMIA Annual Symposium Proceedings

81628. White Coat Hypertension: Relevance to Clinical and Emergency Medical Services Personnel (PubMed)

and prehospital settings.A systematic literature review was undertaken with the Medline PubMed database, UpToDate, and Web of Science. The following search queries were used: "prehospital WCHT, " " prehospital white coat hypertension, " "EMS WCHT, " " emergency medical services white coat hypertension, " " ambulatory WCHT, " " ambulatory white coat hypertension, " " labile HTN, " " labile hypertension, " " variable HTN, " and " variable hypertension " limited to 1980-July 2006. Only human studies published (...) in English were included.The reviews yielded 233 articles initially, which were narrowed down to those mentioned herein by direct relevance to either the observed WCHT effect in the clinic or the prehospital setting.WCHT has not been applied or explored in the prehospital setting as of yet, and thus all data were shown to be related to clinical WCHT. It was found that WCHT may not be simply a benign entity but rather part of a continuum in the development of true essential hypertension. It was found

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2007 Medscape General Medicine

81629. Breast pain (PubMed)

pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 22 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria (...) . We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: a low-fat diet, antibiotics, bromocriptine, danazol, diuretics, evening primrose oil, gestrinone, gonadorelin analogues, hormone replacement therapy, lisuride, progestogens, pyridoxine, tamoxifen, tibolone, topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, toremifene, and vitamin E.

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81630. Genital herpes (PubMed)

in people with a first episode of genital herpes? What are the effects of interventions to reduce the impact of recurrence? What are the effects of treatments in people with genital herpes and HIV? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug (...) Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 35 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antivirals, caesarean delivery, condoms, oral acyclovir, psychotherapy, recombinant glycoprotein vaccines, serological

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81631. Leprosy (PubMed)

Leprosy The World Health Organization field leprosy classification is based on the number of skin lesions: single-lesion leprosy (1 lesion), paucibacillary leprosy (2-5 skin lesions), and multibacillary leprosy (more than 5 skin lesions). Worldwide, about 720,000 new cases of leprosy are reported each year, and about 2 million people have leprosy-related disabilities.We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions (...) to prevent leprosy? What are the effects of treatments for leprosy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to March 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 20 systematic reviews, RCTs

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81632. 2006 Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children [summary] (PubMed)

11524581 Med Care. 2001 Aug;39(8 Suppl 2):II85-92 11583124 Obes Res. 2001 Nov;9 Suppl 4:312S-320S 11707559 Obes Res. 2002 Jan;10(1):22-32 11786598 N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403 11832527 Int J Eat Disord. 2002 Mar;31(2):172-84 11920978 J Am Coll Nutr. 2002 Apr;21(2):152S-155S 11999544 Diabetes Care. 2002 Jun;25(6):1033-41 12032111 Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 May;26(5):593-604 12032741 Vital Health Stat 11. 2002 May;(246):1-190 12043359 Diabetes Care. 2002 Jul;25(7):1123-8 12087008 Obes (...) Rev. 2000 Oct;1(2):95-111 12119991 Eur J Pediatr. 2002 Aug;161(8):449-54 12172831 Pediatrics. 2002 Sep;110(3):497-504 12205250 Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):415-23 12406041 J Hypertens. 2002 Nov;20(11):2257-67 12409965 Obes Rev. 2002 Nov;3(4):245-56 12458971 Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan;26(1):125-31 12502668 Circulation. 2003 Mar 25;107(11):1562-6 12654618 Int J Eat Disord. 2003 May;33(4):421-33 12658672 Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Apr;27(4):419-27 12664074 Arch Intern Med. 2004 Jan 12;164

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2007 CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal

81633. In vivo MRI-Based 3D FSI RV/LV Models for Human Right Ventricle and Patch Design for Potential Computer-Aided Surgery Optimization (PubMed)

interaction was introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human right ventricle with potential clinical applications. Patient-specific RV/LV morphologies were acquired by using planar tagged MRI. The 3D RV/LV FSI model was solved using a commercial finite element package ADINA. Our results indicated that flow and stress/strain distributions in the right ventricle are closely related to RV morphology, material properties and blood pressure conditions. Patches with material properties better matching RV (...) tissue properties and smaller size lead to better RV function recoveries. Computational RV volumes showed very good agreement with MRI data (error < 3%). More patient studies are needed to establish baseline database so that computational simulations can be used to replace empirical and often risky clinical experimentation to examine the efficiency and suitability of various reconstructive procedures in diseased hearts and optimal design can be found.

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2007 Computers & structures

81634. Amoebic dysentery (PubMed)

and other important databases up to July 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 11 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence (...) for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: emetine, metronidazole, ornidazole, paromomycin, secnidazole, and tinidazole.

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81635. Breast cancer (metastatic) (PubMed)

of first-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of first-line chemotherapy in combination with a monoclonal antibody? What are the effects of second-line chemotherapy? What are the effects of treatments for bone metastases? What are the effects of treatments for spinal cord metastases? What are the effects of treatments for cerebral or choroidal metastases? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to June 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated (...) periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 63 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anthracycline-based non-taxane

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81636. Testicular cancer: seminoma (PubMed)

of treatments in men with good-prognosis non-stage 1 seminoma who have undergone orchidectomy? What are the effects of maintenance chemotherapy in men in remission after orchidectomy and chemotherapy for good-prognosis non-stage 1 seminoma? What are the effects of treatments in men with intermediate-prognosis seminoma who have undergone orchidectomy? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to April 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please (...) check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 27 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81637. Chronic suppurative otitis media (PubMed)

, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to January 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 48 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation (...) of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ear cleansing, systemic antibiotics, topical antibiotics, topical antiseptics, topical corticosteroids, tympanoplasty (with or without mastoidectomy).

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

81638. Neonatal newborn hearing screening: four years’ experience at Ferrara University Hospital (CHEAP Project): Part 1 (PubMed)

and auditory brainstem responses; (ii) the calculation of a precise estimate of cost-benefits for every child tested; (iii) the development of an information flow instrument (database) for the storage of data and the statistical analysis of the results. The present report refers only to the results of the project related to the otoacoustic emission data from well-babies and intensive care unit residents. In the period January 2000-December 2004, 4269 full-term newborns and 654 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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2007 Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica

81639. Long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients after secondary peritonitis (PubMed)

Long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients after secondary peritonitis The aim of this study was to determine the long-term prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology in patients following secondary peritonitis and to determine whether the prevalence of PTSD-related symptoms differed between patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients admitted only to the surgical ward.A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients (...) treated for secondary peritonitis was sent a postal survey containing a self-report questionnaire, namely the Post-traumatic Stress Syndrome 10-question inventory (PTSS-10). From a database of 278 patients undergoing surgery for secondary peritonitis between 1994 and 2000, 131 patients were long-term survivors (follow-up period at least four years) and were eligible for inclusion in our study, conducted at a tertiary referral hospital in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.The response rate was 86%, yielding

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2007 Critical Care

81640. Dysmenorrhoea (PubMed)

and other important databases up to July 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 34 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence (...) for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupressure, acupuncture, aspirin, behavioural interventions, combined oral contraceptives, compound analgesics, fish oil, herbal remedies, magnesium, magnets, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, spinal manipulation, surgical interruption of pelvic nerve pathways, thiamine, toki-shakuyaku-san, topical heat, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

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