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Ocular dominance, coexistent retinal disease, and refractiveerrors in patients with cataract surgery. The purpose of this article is to highlight some common issues when planning cataract surgery in patients with preexisting ocular pathologies and to assess the role of ocular dominance in cataract surgery.In addition to routine ocular examination, determination of ocular dominance and orthoptic evaluation for tropias, phorias, amblyopia, and diplopia can be helpful in planning for cataract (...) surgery as these factors can affect postoperative outcomes. Although once controversial, cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is often a well tolerated and effective option for patients with coexistent retinal conditions including epiretinal membrane, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and macular holes.It is mandatory to recognize phorias, tropias, anisometropia, and amblyopia when planning cataract surgery. Visual potential, ocular dominance, refractiveerrors, and other
Main visual symptoms associated to refractiveerrors and spectacle need in a Brazilian population To determine the main visual symptoms in a Brazilian population sample, associated to refractiveerrors (REs) and spectacle need to suggest priorities in preventive programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the southeast region of Brazil, using a systematic sampling of households, between March 2004 and July 2005. The population was defined as individuals aged between 1
Central corneal thickness of Iraqi population in relation to age, gender, refractiveerrors, and corneal curvature: a hospital-based cross-sectional study Central corneal thickness (CCT) is an important indicator of corneal status. Its measurement provides valid information about corneal physiological condition and possible changes associated with diseases, traumas, and hypoxia. It is an integral part for interpretation of intraocular pressure and glaucoma patient management (...) and in prerefractive procedure assessment.The aim of this study is to determine the mean CCT among a normal Iraqi population and to correlate between CCT and age, gender, refraction, and corneal curvature.This cross-sectional study was carried out at Ibn Al-Haitham Teaching Eye Hospital. A total of 418 eyes from 209 healthy individuals with an age range from 20 to 75 years were studied. CCT was measured by ultrasound pachymeter. Refraction was measured using an auto-refractor and confirmed by trial lenses
Effect of Refractive Correction Error on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: A Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Study BACKGROUND Identifying and assessing retinal nerve fiber layer defects are important for diagnosing and managing glaucoma. We aimed to investigate the effect of refractive correction error on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 68 participants: 32 (...) healthy (normal) and 36 glaucoma patients. RNFL thickness was measured using Spectralis SD-OCT circular scan. Measurements were made with a refractive correction of the spherical equivalent (SE), the SE+2.00D and the SE-2.00D. RESULTS Average RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the normal group (105.88±10.47 μm) than in the glaucoma group (67.67±17.27 μm, P<0.001). In the normal group, +2.00D of refractive correction error significantly affected measurements of average (P<0.001) and inferior
The Effect of Age, Accommodation and RefractiveError on the Adult Human Eye To quantify changes in ocular dimensions associated with age, refractiveerror, and accommodative response, in vivo, in 30- to 50-year-old human subjects.The right eyes of 91 adults were examined using ultrasonography, phakometry, keratometry, pachymetry, interferometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Accommodation was measured subjectively with a push-up (...) test and objectively using open-field autorefraction. Regression analyses were used to assess differences in ocular parameters with age, refractiveerror, and accommodation.With age, crystalline lens thickness increased (0.03 mm/yr), anterior lens curvature steepened (0.11 mm/yr), anterior chamber depth decreased (0.02 mm/yr), and lens equivalent refractive index decreased (0.001/yr) (all p < 0.01). With increasing myopia, there were significant increases in axial length (0.37 mm/D), vitreous
High Prevalence of RefractiveErrors in 7 Year Old Children in Iran The latest WHO report indicates that refractiveerrors are the leading cause of visual impairment throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in 7 yr old children in Iran.In a cross-sectional study in 2013 with multistage cluster sampling, first graders were randomly selected from 8 cities in Iran. All children were tested by an optometrist for uncorrected (...) and corrected vision, and non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction. Refractiveerrors in this study were determined based on spherical equivalent (SE) cyloplegic refraction.From 4614 selected children, 89.0% participated in the study, and 4072 were eligible. The prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 3.04% (95% CI: 2.30-3.78), 6.20% (95% CI: 5.27-7.14), and 17.43% (95% CI: 15.39-19.46), respectively. Prevalence of myopia (P=0.925) and astigmatism (P=0.056) were not statistically
Association of refractiveerror with vision-related quality of life in junior high school students To evaluate the relationship between refractiveerror and vision-related quality of life in 16-year-old students in Taiwan.A cross-sectional study was designed for 16-year junior-high-school students in Taiwan. Myopia was defined as a spherical refractiveerror (SRE) < -0.50 D, hyperopia as SRE > +1.0 D, and emmetropia as SRE -0.5-+1.0 D in the better eye. Vision-related quality of life (...) was assessed using the Taiwan Chinese version of the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire.Of the 688 participants, 466 (68%) had myopia and 22 (3%) had hyperopia. In logistic-regression models adjusted for gender, parents' education, family income, and parental refractiveerror, myopia was an independent risk factor of poorer vision-related quality of life for both near vision (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.45) and distance vision (odds ratio 3.11, 95
Review of effects of anti-VEGF treatment on refractiveerror To examine the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents on refractiveerror in the setting of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) through a review of the literature, a PubMed search was performed of appropriate search terms, and the results of all relevant studies were extracted and compiled. Eleven relevant articles were identified in the literature, totaling 466 eyes, treated with varied anti-VEGF agents (...) (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept) with mean spherical equivalent refractions ranging from +0.75 D to -3.57 D, with prevalence of high myopia ranging from 0 to 35%. Anti-VEGF monotherapy for ROP leads to low levels of myopia, and there may be a differential effect of specific anti-VEGF agents utilized on refractive outcomes.
Five-Year Progression of RefractiveErrors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China To determine the change in refractiveerror and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China.A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractiveerror (...) was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractiveerror were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractiveerror and incidence of myopia.Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractiveerror was -2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of -0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractiveerror was associated
Steps towards Smarter Solutions in Optometry and Ophthalmologyâ€”Inter-Device Agreement of Subjective Methods to Assess the RefractiveErrors of the Eye To investigate the inter-device agreement and mean differences between a newly developed digital phoropter and the two standard methods (trial frame and manual phoropter).Refractiveerrors of two groups of participants were measured by two examiners (examiner 1 (E1): 36 subjects; examiner 2 (E2): 38 subjects). Refractiveerrors were assessed (...) using a trial frame, a manual phoropter and a digital phoropter. Inter-device agreement regarding the measurement of refractiveerrors was analyzed for differences in terms of the power vector components (spherical equivalent (SE) and the cylindrical power vector components J0 and J45) between the used methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC's) were calculated to evaluate correlations between the used methods.Analyzing the variances between the three methods for SE, J0 and J45 using a two
Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of RefractiveErrors. The cornea is the target of most surgeries for refractive disorders, as myopia. It is estimated that almost 1 million patients undergo corneal refractive surgery each year in the United States. Refractive surgery includes photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) that produces intense postoperative pain. This review presents the main pain mechanisms behind PRK-related pain and the available (...) steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic analgesics, cold balanced saline solution, topical anesthetic, gabapentin, and morphine to treat postoperative pain in PRK.The percentage of responders has seldom been reported, and few studies allow for the formal calculation of the number necessary to treat. Postoperative intense pain after PRK laser surgery remains the main challenge to its widespread use for the correction of refractiveerrors.
Prevalence of RefractiveError in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. To estimate the prevalence of refractiveerrors in adult Chinese Americans, and to evaluate factors associated with myopia and high myopia.A population-based, cross-sectional study.Chinese Americans 50 years and older residing in Monterey Park, California, were recruited. Noncycloplegic automated refraction with supplemental subjective refraction was performed. Myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, and high (...) %), 40.2% (38.7%-41.8%), 2.7% (2.2%-3.3%), 45.6% (44.1%-47.2%), and 3.7% (3.1%-4.3%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia was lower among older individuals (P < .05). Reversed age trends were observed for the other refractiveerrors (P < .05). There was no sex difference in the prevalence of refractiveerrors, except for a higher prevalence of hyperopia among female subjects (P = .010). Age, acculturation, education, income, marital status, birth country, history of ocular disease
Influence of uncorrected refractiveerror and unmet refractiveerror on visual impairment in a Brazilian population. The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of blindness and visual impairment are widely based on best-corrected visual acuity excluding uncorrected refractiveerrors (URE) as a visual impairment cause. Recently, URE was included as a cause of visual impairment, thus emphasizing the burden of visual impairment due to refractiveerror (RE) worldwide is substantially higher (...) exam, including no corrected visual acuity (NCVA), best corrected vision acuity (BCVA), automatic and manual refractive examination. The definition adopted for URE was applied to individuals with NCVA > 0.15 logMAR and BCVA ≤ 0.15 logMAR after refractive correction and unmet refractiveerror (UREN), individuals who had visual impairment or blindness (NCVA > 0.5 logMAR) and BCVA ≤ 0.5 logMAR after optical correction.A total of 70.2% of subjects had normal NCVA. URE was detected in 13.8%. Prevalence
Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractiveerrors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The aim of the study was a systematic review of refractiveerrors across the world according to the WHO regions.To extract articles on the prevalence of refractiveerrors for this meta-analysis, international databases were searched from 1990 to 2016. The results of the retrieved studies were merged using a random effect model and reported as estimated pool prevalence (EPP) with 95% confidence (...) ) in Africa to 45.6% (95% CI: 44.1-47.1) in the Americas and 44.8% (95% CI: 36.6-53.1) in South-East Asia. The results of meta-regression showed that the prevalence of myopia increased from 1993 (10.4%) to 2016 (34.2%) (P = 0.097).This report showed that astigmatism was the most common refractiveerrors in children and adults followed by hyperopia and myopia. The highest prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was seen in South-East Asian adults. The highest prevalence of hyperopia in children and adults
Prevalence RefractiveErrors among Medical Students of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study To study the prevalence of various errors of refraction among the medical students studying at the college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Qassim University clinics over a period of two months. The study population comprised 162 male and female students from different academic years. The students were (...) . Of the total sample, only 1 (0.617%) student had diabetes mellitus, and 6 (3.70%) students gave a history of previous ocular surgery. Myopia was found to be the commonest error of refraction 53.7% with hyperopia next to it.Myopia is found to be a common error of refraction in young adults. A regular checkup is essential to timely correct the error and to prevent deterioration of the vision.
correction and with an additional -1.00, -2.00 or -3.00 D negative lens added as correction lenses. Peripheral refractiveerrors along the horizontal meridian were determined using peripheral retinoscopy and thus allowed calculation of residual peripheral refraction with different levels of refractive correction. Visual field defects were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using sensitivities and probability scores in both patient groups.A smaller residual refractiveerror after the application (...) of negative addition lenses correlated with improvement in visual field defects in terms of sensitivity and probability scores in patients with tilted disc syndrome. Patients with established neurological deficits (retrograde degeneration) showed improvement in sensitivities but not in probability scores.Neutralizing the refractiveerror at the region of posterior retinal bowing due to tilted disc syndrome reduces the apparent visual field defect. This may be a useful and rapid test to help differentiate
The prevalence of uncorrected refractiveerrors in underserved rural areas To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractiveerrors, need for spectacles, and the determinants of unmet need in underserved rural areas of Iran.In a cross-sectional study, multistage cluster sampling was done in 2 underserved rural areas of Iran. Then, all subjects underwent vision testing and ophthalmic examinations including the measurement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (...) % in myopic and hyperopic participants, respectively. The prevalence of unmet need was 27% in myopic, 15.8% in hyperopic, and 25.46% in astigmatic participants. Multiple logistic regression showed that education and type of refractiveerrors were associated with uncorrected refractiveerrors; the odds of uncorrected refractiveerrors were highest in illiterate participants, and the odds of unmet need were 12.13, 5.1, and 4.92 times higher in myopic, hyperopic and astigmatic participants as compared
The prevalence of refractiveerrors in 5â€“15Â year-old population of two underserved rural areas of Iran To determine the prevalence of hyperopia and myopia and their associations with age and gender in 5- to 15-year-old children in underserved rural areas in Iran.In this cross-sectional study, sampling was done using a multistage cluster sampling method from two underprivileged rural regions in Iran, and 3851 persons over 1 year old of age were invited to the study. After inviting (...) ).The present report is a brief description of the status of refractiveerrors in children residing in underprivileged villages of two rural districts in Iran. As presented, the prevalence of myopia is not high, although the prevalence of hyperopia is in the mid-range compared to previous studies.
Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractiveerror: the CREAM consortium. To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640 (...) equivalent refractiveerror, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractiveerror was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co
to treat a wider range of refractiveerrors. Small incision lenticule extraction uses a femtosecond laser to shape a refractive lenticule, which is removed through a small wound. The potential advantages of this procedure include greater tectonic strength and less dry eye. In the future, intracorneal implants could be used to treat hyperopia or presbyopia. Phakic intraocular implants and refractive lens exchange might be useful options in carefully selected patients for correcting high degrees (...) Refractive surgery. Refractive surgery has evolved beyond laser refractive techniques over the past decade. Laser refractive surgery procedures (such as laser in-situ keratomileusis), surface ablation techniques (such as laser epithelial keratomileusis), and photorefractive keratectomy have now been established as fairly safe procedures that produce excellent visual outcomes for patients with low-to-moderate amounts of ametropia. Additionally, a broader selection of options are now available