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Refractive Error

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141. Influence of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive error on visual impairment in a Brazilian population. (PubMed)

Influence of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive error on visual impairment in a Brazilian population. The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of blindness and visual impairment are widely based on best-corrected visual acuity excluding uncorrected refractive errors (URE) as a visual impairment cause. Recently, URE was included as a cause of visual impairment, thus emphasizing the burden of visual impairment due to refractive error (RE) worldwide is substantially higher (...) exam, including no corrected visual acuity (NCVA), best corrected vision acuity (BCVA), automatic and manual refractive examination. The definition adopted for URE was applied to individuals with NCVA > 0.15 logMAR and BCVA ≤ 0.15 logMAR after refractive correction and unmet refractive error (UREN), individuals who had visual impairment or blindness (NCVA > 0.5 logMAR) and BCVA ≤ 0.5 logMAR after optical correction.A total of 70.2% of subjects had normal NCVA. URE was detected in 13.8%. Prevalence

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2014 BMC Ophthalmology

142. Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractive errors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Global and regional estimates of prevalence of refractive errors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. The aim of the study was a systematic review of refractive errors across the world according to the WHO regions.To extract articles on the prevalence of refractive errors for this meta-analysis, international databases were searched from 1990 to 2016. The results of the retrieved studies were merged using a random effect model and reported as estimated pool prevalence (EPP) with 95% confidence (...) ) in Africa to 45.6% (95% CI: 44.1-47.1) in the Americas and 44.8% (95% CI: 36.6-53.1) in South-East Asia. The results of meta-regression showed that the prevalence of myopia increased from 1993 (10.4%) to 2016 (34.2%) (P = 0.097).This report showed that astigmatism was the most common refractive errors in children and adults followed by hyperopia and myopia. The highest prevalence of myopia and astigmatism was seen in South-East Asian adults. The highest prevalence of hyperopia in children and adults

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2018 Journal of current ophthalmology

143. Prevalence Refractive Errors among Medical Students of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study (PubMed)

Prevalence Refractive Errors among Medical Students of Qassim University, Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study To study the prevalence of various errors of refraction among the medical students studying at the college of medicine, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia.This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at Qassim University clinics over a period of two months. The study population comprised 162 male and female students from different academic years. The students were (...) . Of the total sample, only 1 (0.617%) student had diabetes mellitus, and 6 (3.70%) students gave a history of previous ocular surgery. Myopia was found to be the commonest error of refraction 53.7% with hyperopia next to it.Myopia is found to be a common error of refraction in young adults. A regular checkup is essential to timely correct the error and to prevent deterioration of the vision.

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2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

144. Neutralizing Peripheral Refraction Eliminates Refractive Scotomata in Tilted Disc Syndrome (PubMed)

correction and with an additional -1.00, -2.00 or -3.00 D negative lens added as correction lenses. Peripheral refractive errors along the horizontal meridian were determined using peripheral retinoscopy and thus allowed calculation of residual peripheral refraction with different levels of refractive correction. Visual field defects were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using sensitivities and probability scores in both patient groups.A smaller residual refractive error after the application (...) of negative addition lenses correlated with improvement in visual field defects in terms of sensitivity and probability scores in patients with tilted disc syndrome. Patients with established neurological deficits (retrograde degeneration) showed improvement in sensitivities but not in probability scores.Neutralizing the refractive error at the region of posterior retinal bowing due to tilted disc syndrome reduces the apparent visual field defect. This may be a useful and rapid test to help differentiate

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2018 Optometry and Vision Science

145. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in underserved rural areas (PubMed)

The prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors in underserved rural areas To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors, need for spectacles, and the determinants of unmet need in underserved rural areas of Iran.In a cross-sectional study, multistage cluster sampling was done in 2 underserved rural areas of Iran. Then, all subjects underwent vision testing and ophthalmic examinations including the measurement of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (...) % in myopic and hyperopic participants, respectively. The prevalence of unmet need was 27% in myopic, 15.8% in hyperopic, and 25.46% in astigmatic participants. Multiple logistic regression showed that education and type of refractive errors were associated with uncorrected refractive errors; the odds of uncorrected refractive errors were highest in illiterate participants, and the odds of unmet need were 12.13, 5.1, and 4.92 times higher in myopic, hyperopic and astigmatic participants as compared

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2017 Journal of current ophthalmology

146. The prevalence of refractive errors in 5–15 year-old population of two underserved rural areas of Iran (PubMed)

The prevalence of refractive errors in 5–15 year-old population of two underserved rural areas of Iran To determine the prevalence of hyperopia and myopia and their associations with age and gender in 5- to 15-year-old children in underserved rural areas in Iran.In this cross-sectional study, sampling was done using a multistage cluster sampling method from two underprivileged rural regions in Iran, and 3851 persons over 1 year old of age were invited to the study. After inviting (...) ).The present report is a brief description of the status of refractive errors in children residing in underprivileged villages of two rural districts in Iran. As presented, the prevalence of myopia is not high, although the prevalence of hyperopia is in the mid-range compared to previous studies.

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2017 Journal of current ophthalmology

147. Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium. (PubMed)

Genome-wide association study for refractive astigmatism reveals genetic co-determination with spherical equivalent refractive error: the CREAM consortium. To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640 (...) equivalent refractive error, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co

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2015 Human genetics

148. Direct Comparison of SVOne Obtained Refraction to Subjective Manifest Refraction

Update Posted : July 19, 2017 See Sponsor: Smart Vision Labs Information provided by (Responsible Party): Smart Vision Labs Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of the study is to compare the final glasses prescription based on refraction obtained with SVOne device to the final prescription obtained via subjective manifest refraction. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Refractive Errors Diagnostic Test: Refraction Detailed Description: Uncorrected refractive error (...) is the leading cause of vision impairment and the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting 1 in 90 individuals (1). In the US population approximately 14 million individuals aged 12 years or older have visual impairment (defined as distance visual acuity of 20/50 or worse), of which more than 11 million individuals (2) could have their vision improved to 20/40 or better with refractive correction. Uncorrected refractive error impacts all aspects of life, including, but not limited to, loss

2017 Clinical Trials

149. Is an objective refraction optimised using the visual Strehl ratio better than a subjective refraction? (PubMed)

Is an objective refraction optimised using the visual Strehl ratio better than a subjective refraction? To prospectively examine whether using the visual image quality metric, visual Strehl (VSX), to optimise objective refraction from wavefront error measurements can provide equivalent or better visual performance than subjective refraction and which refraction is preferred in free viewing.Subjective refractions and wavefront aberrations were measured on 40 visually-normal eyes of 20 subjects (...) over the subjective by 72% of myopic eyes when not dilated. For four habitually undercorrected high hyperopic eyes, the VSX-objective refraction was more positive in spherical power and VA poorer than with the subjective refraction.A method of simultaneously optimising sphere, cylinder, and axis from wavefront error measurements, using the visual image quality metric VSX, is described. In myopic subjects, visual performance, as measured by HC and LC VA, with this VSX-objective refraction was found

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2017 Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)

150. Human eye ocular component analysis for refractive state and refractive surgery (PubMed)

depth (S1) and the vitreous length (S2). Gaussian optics was used to calculate the change rate of refractive error per unit amount of ocular components of a human eye (the rate function M). A new criterion of myopia was presented via an effective axial length.For typical corneal and lens power of 42 and 21.9 diopters, the rate function Mj (j=1 to 6) were calculated for a 1% change of r1, r2, R1, R2, t, T (in diopters) M1=+0.485, M2=-0.063, M3=+0.053, M4=+0.091, M5=+0.012, and M6=-0.021 diopters (...) Human eye ocular component analysis for refractive state and refractive surgery To analyze the clinical factors influencing the human vision corrections via the changing of ocular components of human eye in various applications; and to analyze refractive state via a new effective axial length.An effective eye model was introduced by the ocular components of human eye including refractive indexes, surface radius (r1, r2, R1, R2) and thickness (t, T) of the cornea and lens, the anterior chamber

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

151. Wavefront excimer laser refractive surgery for adults with refractive errors [Cochrane protocol]

Wavefront excimer laser refractive surgery for adults with refractive errors [Cochrane protocol] Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any associated files or external websites. Email salutation (e.g. "Dr Smith" or "Joanne") for correspondence: Organisation web address (...) is the typical model of choice for pre-clinical meta-analyses. This is because in the fixed-effect model, it is assumed that the differences in observed effect between studies is solely due to sampling error (i.e. differences in sample size), and that the true effect is the same (fixed) across all studies. However, this assumption is unlikely to hold true for data from animal studies, which generally include various species, strains and treatment regimes, for which different true effects are likely to exist

2017 PROSPERO

152. Behavior disorders in children with significant refractive errors (PubMed)

Behavior disorders in children with significant refractive errors To evaluate the frequency of behavioral disorders in children with significant refractive error and to compare the results with those of emmetropic children.In this prospective, comparative study from January to September 2013, refractive errors of all 5-12-year-old children who referred to a general eye clinic were recorded. A validated Persian version of the Rutter A scale was filled out by the parents for the evaluation (...) of the child's behavioral disorders. The Rutter A scale scores of children with significant refractive error were compared with those of emmetropic eyes. Student t test, Chi square test, and Fisher's exact test were used for analysis. Differences with a P value less than 0.05 were considered significant.One hundred eighty-three patients, including 101 patients with significant refractive error and 82 emmetropic subjects, were studied. Overall, 44 patients (24%) had behavioral disorders, according

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2016 Journal of current ophthalmology

153. Comparison of Refractive Error Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity Patients Treated with Diode and Red Lasers. (PubMed)

Comparison of Refractive Error Changes in Retinopathy of Prematurity Patients Treated with Diode and Red Lasers. To compare refractive error changes in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) patients treated with diode and red lasers.A randomized double-masked clinical trial was performed, and infants with threshold or prethreshold type 1 ROP were assigned to red or diode laser groups. Gestational age, birth weight, pretreatment cycloplegic refraction, time of treatment, disease stage, zone (...) and disease severity were recorded. Patients received either red or diode laser treatment and were regularly followed up for retina assessment and refraction. The information at month 12 of corrected age was considered for comparison.One hundred and fifty eyes of 75 infants were enrolled in the study. Seventy-four eyes received diode and 76 red laser therapy. The mean gestational age and birth weight of the infants were 28.6 ± 3.2 weeks and 1,441 ± 491 g, respectively. The mean baseline refractive error

2016 Ophthalmologica. Journal international d'ophtalmologie. International journal of ophthalmology. Zeitschrift für Augenheilkunde

154. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK (PubMed)

(FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), topography (Placido-disk based) and tomography (...) (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months.Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters

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2016 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

155. Comparing habitual and i. Scription refractions. (PubMed)

Comparing habitual and i. Scription refractions. Many patients voice concerns regarding poor night vision, even when they see 20/20 or better in the exam room. During mesopic and scotopic conditions the pupil size increases, increasing the effects on visual performance of uncorrected (residual) refractive errors. The i.Scription refraction method claims to optimize traditional refractions for mesopic and scotopic conditions, by using the information that the Zeiss i.Profilerplus gathers (...) of ocular aberrations (low and high order). The aim of this study was to investigate any differences between habitual and i.Scription refractions and their relationship to night vision complaints.Habitual, subjective, and i.Scription refractions were obtained from both eyes of eighteen subjects. Low and high order aberrations of the subjects were recorded with the Zeiss i.Profilerplus. The root mean square (RMS) metric was calculated for small (3 mm) and maximum pupil sizes. Subjects rated

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2019 BMC Ophthalmology

156. Primary Topography-Guided LASIK: Treating Manifest Refractive Astigmatism Versus Topography-Measured Anterior Corneal Astigmatism. (PubMed)

achieved an angle of error greater than 15° (25.4% vs 8.1%; P = .004), had postoperative residual astigmatism of 0.75 D or less (18.2% vs 7.4%; P = .03), and needed an excimer laser re-treatment (11% vs 1.6%; P = .007).Topography-guided myopic astigmatism LASIK treated on the topography-measured anterior corneal astigmatism axis resulted in inferior refractive and visual outcomes compared to treating on the clinical manifest refractive astigmatism axis. [J Refract Surg. 2019;35(1):15-23.].© 2019 (...) Primary Topography-Guided LASIK: Treating Manifest Refractive Astigmatism Versus Topography-Measured Anterior Corneal Astigmatism. To investigate whether topography-guided laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with anterior corneal astigmatism measured on the WaveLight Contoura (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) leads to better refractive outcomes compared to treating on the clinically measured manifest refractive astigmatism axis in eyes with primary myopic astigmatism.Retrospective

2019 Journal of Refractive Surgery

157. Evaluation of Different IOL Calculation Formulas of the ASCRS Calculator in Eyes After Corneal Refractive Laser Surgery for Myopia With Multifocal IOL Implantation. (PubMed)

were performed of the accuracy of three methods using surgically induced change in refraction (ie, Masket, Modified Masket, and Barrett True-K formulas) and three methods using no previous data (ie, Shammas, Haigis-L, and Barrett True-K No History formulas). The average of all formulas was also analyzed and compared.Thirty-six eyes of 36 patients were included. All formulas, except for the Masket, Modified Masket, and Barrett True-K formulas, had myopic mean numerical errors that were significantly (...) different from zero (P ⩽ .01). The median absolute error of the Shammas formula (0.52 diopters [D]) was significantly higher compared to all of the other formulas (P < .05), except for the Haigis-L formula (P = .09). Comparing the formulas using no previous data, the Barrett True-K No History formula had the lowest median absolute error (0.33 D, P < .001).The Shammas formula showed the least accuracy in predicting IOL power in eyes with multifocal IOL implantation after previous corneal refractive laser

2019 Journal of Refractive Surgery

158. Short-term Refractive Effects of Propranolol Hydrochloride Prophylaxis on Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Preterm Newborns. (PubMed)

Short-term Refractive Effects of Propranolol Hydrochloride Prophylaxis on Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Preterm Newborns. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the major problems of surviving premature infants with several ophthalmic morbidities such as increased risk of refractive errors, strabismus, and cortical visual impairment. Use of propranolol hydrochloride (PH) for the prevention of ROP is a new promising treatment modality. However, long-term effects are still to be defined (...) . In our study, we aimed to investigate the short-term refractive effects of PH used for ROP prophylaxis in very preterm newborns.This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Very preterm newborns with a birthweight less than or equal to 1500 g and/or born prior to 32 gestational weeks were included in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: control group (CG, n = 37) given placebo and PH group (PHG, n = 34) given PH starting from 4 weeks after birth

2019 Current eye research

159. ASCRS calculator formula accuracy in multifocal intraocular lens implantation in hyperopic corneal refractive laser surgery eyes. (PubMed)

Total Eye Care, Driebergen, the Netherlands.This study compared the accuracy of 3 formulas using historical refractive data (ie, Masket, modified Masket, and Barrett True-K) and 3 formulas using no previous refractive data (ie, Shammas, Haigis-L, and Barrett True-K no-history).Sixty-four eyes were included. The variance of the prediction error of the various formulas was similar and ranged from 0.27 D2 to 0.33 D2 (P = .99). The modified Masket formula had a significantly higher median absolute (...) prediction error than the Masket formula, Barrett True-K formula, and mean value of all formulas (P < .001).All formulas showed comparable accuracy in predicting IOL power in eyes after hyperopic corneal refractive laser surgery except for the modified Masket formula, which performed less accurately than the Masket formula, Barrett True-K formula, and mean value of all formulas.Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

160. Refractive Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery vs. Conventional Manual Surgery: Comparing Efficacy and Safety in 3144 Eyes. (PubMed)

Refractive Laser-Assisted Cataract Surgery vs. Conventional Manual Surgery: Comparing Efficacy and Safety in 3144 Eyes. To report on outcomes of efficacy and safety in one of the largest series of eyes undergoing either conventional manual cataract surgery (MCS) or refractive femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (ReLACS).Retrospective, consecutive, interventional comparative case series.This study included 3144 consecutive eyes of which 1580 were treated via MCS and 1564 were treated via (...) ReLACS at Uptown Surgical Centre in Vaughan, Canada. Preoperative characteristics, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), mean absolute spherical error (MAE), rates of intraoperative posterior capsular rupture (PCR), and postoperative complications were evaluated.Across all eyes, ReLACS was superior to MCS for reducing surgical time (MCS: 7.7±0.1 min vs. ReLACS: 6.8±0.1 min, p<0.001), being less associated with postoperative cystoid macular edema (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.14-0.91, p=0.031), and for reducing

2019 American Journal of Ophthalmology

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