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Refractive Error

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121. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China. (PubMed)

Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China. We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China.A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n (...) = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction.The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

122. Global Patterns in Health Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error. (PubMed)

Global Patterns in Health Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error. To evaluate the global patterns in health burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) by year, age and sex, region, and socioeconomic status, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).Global, regional, or national DALY numbers, crude DALY rates, and age-standardized DALY rates caused by URE, by year, or age and sex, were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Human development index (HDI) in 2013 as a national (...) Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Africa were higher than that at a global level. Multiple comparisons indicated higher age-standardized DALY rates in lower HDI countries. Age-standardized DALY rates were inversely related to HDI (standardized β = -0.616, P < 0.001).The global health of URE is improving but crude DALY rates are keeping constant, implying that health progress does not mean fewer demands of refractive services. Worldwide, older age, female sex, and lower socioeconomic status are associated

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

123. Refractive errors. (PubMed)

Refractive errors. All over the world, refractive errors are among the most frequently occuring treatable distur - bances of visual function. Ametropias have a prevalence of nearly 70% among adults in Germany and are thus of great epidemiologic and socio-economic relevance.In the light of their own clinical experience, the authors review pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search employing the terms "ametropia, "anisometropia," "refraction," "visual acuity," and epidemiology (...) ."In 2011, only 31% of persons over age 16 in Germany did not use any kind of visual aid; 63.4% wore eyeglasses and 5.3% wore contact lenses. Refractive errors were the most common reason for consulting an ophthalmologist, accounting for 21.1% of all outpatient visits. A pinhole aperture (stenopeic slit) is a suitable instrument for the basic diagnostic evaluation of impaired visual function due to optical factors. Spherical refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia), cylindrical refractive errors

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2016 Deutsches Arzteblatt international

124. Anterior Chamber Depth, Lens Thickness, and Related Measures in African American Females With Long Anterior Zonules: A Matched Study With Control for Refractive Error. (PubMed)

Anterior Chamber Depth, Lens Thickness, and Related Measures in African American Females With Long Anterior Zonules: A Matched Study With Control for Refractive Error. To investigate anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous body length (VBL), and axial length (AL) in African American females with long anterior zonules (LAZ) while controlling for refractive error.The eyes of 50 African American females with LAZ were compared with 50 controls matched with age, race, sex (...) , and refractive error. Central ACD, LT, VBL, and AL measurements were obtained in a masked manner using a-scan ultrasonography.LAZ cases had a mean age±SD of 67.1±7.6 years (range, 52 to 85 y) and a mean refractive error of +1.85±1.41 D (-1.75 to +4.75 D). Parameters were similar for controls. Mean ACD for cases was 2.45±0.34 mm and 2.57±0.38 mm for controls. Mean LT for cases was 4.94±0.43 mm and 4.83±0.45 mm for controls. Mean VBL for cases was 15.00±0.72 mm and 15.17±0.76 mm for controls. Mean AL for cases

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2016 Journal of Glaucoma

125. Refractive Errors and Concomitant Strabismus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Refractive Errors and Concomitant Strabismus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the risk of development of concomitant strabismus due to refractive errors. Eligible studies published from 1946 to April 1, 2016 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE that evaluated any kinds of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia) as an independent factor for concomitant exotropia and concomitant esotropia. Totally 5065

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2016 Scientific reports

126. Refractive error characteristics in patients with congenital blepharoptosis before and after ptosis repair surgery. (PubMed)

Refractive error characteristics in patients with congenital blepharoptosis before and after ptosis repair surgery. We examined the effect of surgical repair on the pattern of refractive errors in Korean patients with congenital blepharoptosis.We reviewed the clinical records of 54 patients with congenital blepharoptosis who attended our hospital from 2006 to 2012 and underwent a detailed refractive examination before and after ptosis repair surgery. Among them, 21 of the patients whose (...) refractive data was available for both before and after the surgery were included in order to observe the effect of ptosis repair surgery on refractive error characteristics. The astigmatism groups were divided into three subgroups: with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism (OA). We also evaluated the severity of astigmatism.Before surgery, the ptotic eyes had more severe astigmatism and a greater percentage of OA than the fellow eyes. The changes in astigmatism magnitude

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2016 BMC Ophthalmology

127. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. (PubMed)

Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive (...) error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery

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2016 Nature communications

128. Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia. (PubMed)

Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia. We investigated longitudinal changes of refractive error in children with accommodative esotropia (ET) throughout the first 12 years of life, its dependence on age at onset of ET, and whether amblyopia or anisometropia are associated with defective emmetropization.Longitudinal refractive errors in children with accommodative ET were analyzed retrospectively. Eligibility (...) ± 1.28 and +5.67 ± 1.26 D, respectively), there were different developmental changes in refractive error. Neither group had a significant decrease in hyperopia before age 7 years, but after 7 years, the infantile group experienced a myopic shift of -0.43 D/y. The late-onset group did not experience a myopic shift at 7 to 12 years. Among amblyopic children, a slower myopic shift was observed for the amblyopic eye. Among anisometropic children, the more hyperopic eye experienced more myopic shift than

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

129. Evaluation of Refractive Errors and Ocular Biometric Outcomes after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Refractive Errors and Ocular Biometric Outcomes after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity. To assess ocular biometric outcomes following intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) monotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and compare these results with those of laser photocoagulated infants and with the ones with spontaneously regressed ROP.Premature infants including those who underwent IVB monotherapy (Group 1) or laser photocoagulation (Group 2) for ROP (...) and infants with spontaneously regressed ROP (Group 3) were recruited for the study. Refractive errors and ocular biometric parameters (Axial length [AL], anterior chamber depth [ACD], and lens thickness [LT]) were measured at adjusted 1 year of age in all subjects.There was no significant difference of spherical equivalent (SE) value between the groups (P = 0.781). The incidence of high myopia was 7.4% in Group 1 and 12.7% in Group 2 (P = 0.081). No infants exhibited high myopia in Group 3. LT

2016 Strabismus

130. Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. (PubMed)

Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. The purpose of this systematic review was to estimate worldwide the number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18, ≥3/60) or blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE), to estimate trends in prevalence from 1990 to 2010, and to analyze regional differences. The review focuses on uncorrected refractive error which (...) to all MSVI ranged from 44.2 to 48.1% in all regions except in South Asia which was at 65.4% (95% CI: 62-72%). : We conclude that in 2010, uncorrected refractive error continues as the leading cause of vision impairment and the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting a total of 108 million people or 1 in 90 persons.

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2016 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

131. "Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". (PubMed)

"Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". To report the outcomes of full ophthalmic examination for preschool children in LA County who failed screening with the Retinomax Autorefractor.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Between August 2012 and May 2013, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) preschool vision program screened 11 260 preschool children aged 3-5 years in Los Angeles County using the Retinomax Autorefractor only (...) . Of the amblyopic subjects, 77% were unilateral.Screening of preschoolers with the Retinomax led to diagnosis and early treatment of uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia. By treating children early, amblyopia may be prevented, quality of life improved, and academic achievements enhanced.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2016 American Journal of Ophthalmology

132. Mechanism for a Rare, Idiosyncratic Complication Following Hyperopic LASIK: Diurnal Shift in Refractive Error Due to Epithelial Thickness Profile Changes. (PubMed)

Mechanism for a Rare, Idiosyncratic Complication Following Hyperopic LASIK: Diurnal Shift in Refractive Error Due to Epithelial Thickness Profile Changes. Case series report of normal-appearing eyes after hyperopic LASIK exhibiting diurnal shift in refractive error found to correlate with diurnal shifts in epithelial thickness profile.Patients complaining of diurnal shift in vision during the course of the day with more hyperopia on waking and decreasing hyperopia in the evening in the absence (...) of abnormal epithelial or slit-lamp findings were examined. Diurnal concomitant measurement of refraction, topography, and Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound scanning (VHFDU) (ArcScan Inc., Morrison, CO) epithelial thickness profile mapping was undertaken throughout the day. A full review of the clinical database revealed 8 eyes of 5 patients with such symptoms. The authors report the findings in 6 eyes of 4 patients with such symptoms.Excimer ablation was performed with standard aspheric

2016 Journal of Refractive Surgery

133. Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. (PubMed)

Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. The objective of the study was to examine whether a nutritional antioxidant supplementation could improve visual function in healthy dogs as measured by electroretinography (ERG) and autorefraction. A total of twelve Beagles, 6 to 8 years of age, with normal eyes upon indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp biomicroscopy, were age and sex matched and randomly assigned to receive a feeding (...) regimen for 6 months with or without a daily antioxidant supplementation. Portable, mini-Ganzfeld ERG and a Welch Allyn hand-held autorefractor were used to test retinal response and refractive error in the dogs at baseline and at the end of the supplementation period. All ERG a-wave amplitudes obtained were increased in the treatment group compared with those of dogs in the control group, with significant improvements in the scotopic high and photopic single flash cone ERG responses (P < 0·05

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2016 Journal of nutritional science

134. Fixation stability and refractive error after cataract surgery in high myopic eyes. (PubMed)

Fixation stability and refractive error after cataract surgery in high myopic eyes. To analyze the refractive error in highly myopic eyes after cataract surgery and investigate the possible impact of fixation stability on it.Secondary data analysis from a previous prospective study.Clinical data of 98 eyes of 98 consecutive patients with high myopia and 42 eyes of 42 controls, which underwent cataract surgery, were analyzed. Refractive error was calculated 1 month after surgery based on both (...) Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T) and Holladay 1 formulas. Fixation stability was evaluated using the Macular Integrity Assessment microperimeter system, which assessed the fixation pattern in terms of 63% and 95% of the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of postoperative refractive error.The highly myopic cataract group had greater hyperopic refractive errors (P < .001 for both formulas) and larger 63

2016 American Journal of Ophthalmology

135. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. (PubMed)

A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR) corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error (...) and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I (2) test. Potential publication bias was finally examined by Egger's test. Results. A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR showed that there was no significant association between maternal smoking and childhood refractive error. However, children whose mother smoked during pregnancy were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12-1.93) times and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23-1.66) times more likely to suffer from

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2016 Journal of ophthalmology

136. Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. (PubMed)

Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. Large-scale generic studies offer detailed information on potential risk factors for refractive error across the life course, but ophthalmic examination in such cases to determine the refractive error phenotype is challenging and costly. Thus, refractive status is commonly assigned using questionnaires. In a population survey, often only a few condition-specific self-reported questions can be included, so the questions used must (...) population-based studies to increase opportunities for integrated research on refractive error leading to development of novel prevention or treatment strategies.

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2016 JAMA ophthalmology

137. Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study (PubMed)

Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study To report the 7-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error in a metropolitan Chinese elderly population.The Shihpai Eye Study 2006 included 460/824 (55.8%) subjects (age range 72-94 years old) of 1361 participants in the 1999 baseline survey for a follow-up eye examination. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart, uncorrected refractive error (...) was defined as presenting visual acuity (naked eye if without spectacles and with distance spectacles if worn) in the better eye of <6/12 that improved to no impairment (≥6/12) after refractive correction.The 7-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error was 10.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-13.4%). 92.7% of participants with uncorrection and 77.8% with undercorrection were able to improve at least two lines of visual acuity by refractive correction. In multivariate analysis controlling

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2016 Eye

138. Paediatric Refractive Errors in an Eye Clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria (PubMed)

Paediatric Refractive Errors in an Eye Clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria Paediatric ophthalmology is an emerging subspecialty in Nigeria and as such there is paucity of data on refractive errors in the country. This study set out to determine the pattern of refractive errors in children attending an eye clinic in South West Nigeria.A descriptive study of 180 consecutive subjects seen over a 2-year period. Presenting complaints, presenting visual acuity (PVA), age and sex were recorded. Clinical (...) examination of the anterior and posterior segments of the eyes, extraocular muscle assessment and refraction were done. The types of refractive errors and their grades were determined. Corrected VA was obtained. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in proportions, chi square with p value <0.05.The age range of subjects was between 3 and 16 years with mean age = 11.7 and SD = 0.51; with males making up 33.9%.The commonest presenting complaint was blurring of distant vision (40%), presenting

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2016 Ethiopian journal of health sciences

139. Comparison the post operative refractive errors in same size corneal transplantation through deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty methods after sutures removing in keratoconus patients (PubMed)

Comparison the post operative refractive errors in same size corneal transplantation through deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty methods after sutures removing in keratoconus patients Corneal transplantation is a surgery in which cornea is replaced by a donated one and can be completely penetrating keratoplasty (PK) or included a part of cornea deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK). Although the functional results are limited by some complications, it is considered as one (...) of the most successful surgeries. This study aimed to compare the refractive errors after same size corneal transplantation through DLK and PK methods in keratoconus patients over 20 years.This descriptive, analytical study was conducted in Feiz Hospital, Sadra and Persian Clinics of Isfahan in 2013-2014. In this study, 35 patients underwent corneal transplantation by PK and 35 patients by DLK, after removing the sutures, the patients were compared in terms of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA

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2016 Advanced biomedical research

140. Refractive Error

Refractive Error Refractive Error Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Refractive Error Refractive Error Aka: Refractive (...) Error , Refraction , Emmetropia , Hyperopia , Farsighted , Astigmatism From Related Chapters II. Definitions Refraction Measured in Diopters Bending of light rays Junction of two transparent media Media must have different densities to bend light Human eye refracts light at two locations (66% of eye's focusing power) Fixed focusing power Crystalline lens (33% of eye's focusing power) Accommodation changes lens shape to focus objects Refractive power of lens Reciprocal of focal length measured

2018 FP Notebook

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