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Refractive Error

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121. Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. (PubMed)

Antioxidant supplementation increases retinal responses and decreases refractive error changes in dogs. The objective of the study was to examine whether a nutritional antioxidant supplementation could improve visual function in healthy dogs as measured by electroretinography (ERG) and autorefraction. A total of twelve Beagles, 6 to 8 years of age, with normal eyes upon indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp biomicroscopy, were age and sex matched and randomly assigned to receive a feeding (...) regimen for 6 months with or without a daily antioxidant supplementation. Portable, mini-Ganzfeld ERG and a Welch Allyn hand-held autorefractor were used to test retinal response and refractive error in the dogs at baseline and at the end of the supplementation period. All ERG a-wave amplitudes obtained were increased in the treatment group compared with those of dogs in the control group, with significant improvements in the scotopic high and photopic single flash cone ERG responses (P < 0·05

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2016 Journal of nutritional science

122. Fixation stability and refractive error after cataract surgery in high myopic eyes. (PubMed)

Fixation stability and refractive error after cataract surgery in high myopic eyes. To analyze the refractive error in highly myopic eyes after cataract surgery and investigate the possible impact of fixation stability on it.Secondary data analysis from a previous prospective study.Clinical data of 98 eyes of 98 consecutive patients with high myopia and 42 eyes of 42 controls, which underwent cataract surgery, were analyzed. Refractive error was calculated 1 month after surgery based on both (...) Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T) and Holladay 1 formulas. Fixation stability was evaluated using the Macular Integrity Assessment microperimeter system, which assessed the fixation pattern in terms of 63% and 95% of the bivariate contour ellipse area (BCEA). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of postoperative refractive error.The highly myopic cataract group had greater hyperopic refractive errors (P < .001 for both formulas) and larger 63

2016 American Journal of Ophthalmology

123. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. (PubMed)

A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia. Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR) corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error (...) and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I (2) test. Potential publication bias was finally examined by Egger's test. Results. A total of 9 articles were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR showed that there was no significant association between maternal smoking and childhood refractive error. However, children whose mother smoked during pregnancy were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12-1.93) times and 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23-1.66) times more likely to suffer from

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2016 Journal of ophthalmology

124. Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. (PubMed)

Accuracy and Utility of Self-report of Refractive Error. Large-scale generic studies offer detailed information on potential risk factors for refractive error across the life course, but ophthalmic examination in such cases to determine the refractive error phenotype is challenging and costly. Thus, refractive status is commonly assigned using questionnaires. In a population survey, often only a few condition-specific self-reported questions can be included, so the questions used must (...) population-based studies to increase opportunities for integrated research on refractive error leading to development of novel prevention or treatment strategies.

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2016 JAMA ophthalmology

125. Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study (PubMed)

Seven-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error among an elderly Chinese population in Shihpai, Taiwan: The Shihpai Eye Study To report the 7-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error in a metropolitan Chinese elderly population.The Shihpai Eye Study 2006 included 460/824 (55.8%) subjects (age range 72-94 years old) of 1361 participants in the 1999 baseline survey for a follow-up eye examination. Visual acuity was assessed using a Snellen chart, uncorrected refractive error (...) was defined as presenting visual acuity (naked eye if without spectacles and with distance spectacles if worn) in the better eye of <6/12 that improved to no impairment (≥6/12) after refractive correction.The 7-year incidence of uncorrected refractive error was 10.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-13.4%). 92.7% of participants with uncorrection and 77.8% with undercorrection were able to improve at least two lines of visual acuity by refractive correction. In multivariate analysis controlling

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2016 Eye

126. Paediatric Refractive Errors in an Eye Clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria (PubMed)

Paediatric Refractive Errors in an Eye Clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria Paediatric ophthalmology is an emerging subspecialty in Nigeria and as such there is paucity of data on refractive errors in the country. This study set out to determine the pattern of refractive errors in children attending an eye clinic in South West Nigeria.A descriptive study of 180 consecutive subjects seen over a 2-year period. Presenting complaints, presenting visual acuity (PVA), age and sex were recorded. Clinical (...) examination of the anterior and posterior segments of the eyes, extraocular muscle assessment and refraction were done. The types of refractive errors and their grades were determined. Corrected VA was obtained. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in proportions, chi square with p value <0.05.The age range of subjects was between 3 and 16 years with mean age = 11.7 and SD = 0.51; with males making up 33.9%.The commonest presenting complaint was blurring of distant vision (40%), presenting

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2016 Ethiopian journal of health sciences

127. Comparison the post operative refractive errors in same size corneal transplantation through deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty methods after sutures removing in keratoconus patients (PubMed)

Comparison the post operative refractive errors in same size corneal transplantation through deep lamellar keratoplasty and penetrating keratoplasty methods after sutures removing in keratoconus patients Corneal transplantation is a surgery in which cornea is replaced by a donated one and can be completely penetrating keratoplasty (PK) or included a part of cornea deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLK). Although the functional results are limited by some complications, it is considered as one (...) of the most successful surgeries. This study aimed to compare the refractive errors after same size corneal transplantation through DLK and PK methods in keratoconus patients over 20 years.This descriptive, analytical study was conducted in Feiz Hospital, Sadra and Persian Clinics of Isfahan in 2013-2014. In this study, 35 patients underwent corneal transplantation by PK and 35 patients by DLK, after removing the sutures, the patients were compared in terms of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA

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2016 Advanced biomedical research

128. Refractive Error

Refractive Error Refractive Error Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Refractive Error Refractive Error Aka: Refractive (...) Error , Refraction , Emmetropia , Hyperopia , Farsighted , Astigmatism From Related Chapters II. Definitions Refraction Measured in Diopters Bending of light rays Junction of two transparent media Media must have different densities to bend light Human eye refracts light at two locations (66% of eye's focusing power) Fixed focusing power Crystalline lens (33% of eye's focusing power) Accommodation changes lens shape to focus objects Refractive power of lens Reciprocal of focal length measured

2018 FP Notebook

129. Ocular dominance, coexistent retinal disease, and refractive errors in patients with cataract surgery. (PubMed)

Ocular dominance, coexistent retinal disease, and refractive errors in patients with cataract surgery. The purpose of this article is to highlight some common issues when planning cataract surgery in patients with preexisting ocular pathologies and to assess the role of ocular dominance in cataract surgery.In addition to routine ocular examination, determination of ocular dominance and orthoptic evaluation for tropias, phorias, amblyopia, and diplopia can be helpful in planning for cataract (...) surgery as these factors can affect postoperative outcomes. Although once controversial, cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is often a well tolerated and effective option for patients with coexistent retinal conditions including epiretinal membrane, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and macular holes.It is mandatory to recognize phorias, tropias, anisometropia, and amblyopia when planning cataract surgery. Visual potential, ocular dominance, refractive errors, and other

2016 Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

130. Main visual symptoms associated to refractive errors and spectacle need in a Brazilian population (PubMed)

Main visual symptoms associated to refractive errors and spectacle need in a Brazilian population To determine the main visual symptoms in a Brazilian population sample, associated to refractive errors (REs) and spectacle need to suggest priorities in preventive programs.A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the southeast region of Brazil, using a systematic sampling of households, between March 2004 and July 2005. The population was defined as individuals aged between 1

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2016 International journal of ophthalmology

131. Central corneal thickness of Iraqi population in relation to age, gender, refractive errors, and corneal curvature: a hospital-based cross-sectional study (PubMed)

Central corneal thickness of Iraqi population in relation to age, gender, refractive errors, and corneal curvature: a hospital-based cross-sectional study Central corneal thickness (CCT) is an important indicator of corneal status. Its measurement provides valid information about corneal physiological condition and possible changes associated with diseases, traumas, and hypoxia. It is an integral part for interpretation of intraocular pressure and glaucoma patient management (...) and in prerefractive procedure assessment.The aim of this study is to determine the mean CCT among a normal Iraqi population and to correlate between CCT and age, gender, refraction, and corneal curvature.This cross-sectional study was carried out at Ibn Al-Haitham Teaching Eye Hospital. A total of 418 eyes from 209 healthy individuals with an age range from 20 to 75 years were studied. CCT was measured by ultrasound pachymeter. Refraction was measured using an auto-refractor and confirmed by trial lenses

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2016 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

132. Effect of Refractive Correction Error on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: A Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Study (PubMed)

Effect of Refractive Correction Error on Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness: A Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Study BACKGROUND Identifying and assessing retinal nerve fiber layer defects are important for diagnosing and managing glaucoma. We aimed to investigate the effect of refractive correction error on retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measured with Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS We included 68 participants: 32 (...) healthy (normal) and 36 glaucoma patients. RNFL thickness was measured using Spectralis SD-OCT circular scan. Measurements were made with a refractive correction of the spherical equivalent (SE), the SE+2.00D and the SE-2.00D. RESULTS Average RNFL thickness was significantly higher in the normal group (105.88±10.47 μm) than in the glaucoma group (67.67±17.27 μm, P<0.001). In the normal group, +2.00D of refractive correction error significantly affected measurements of average (P<0.001) and inferior

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2016 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

133. The Effect of Age, Accommodation and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye (PubMed)

The Effect of Age, Accommodation and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye To quantify changes in ocular dimensions associated with age, refractive error, and accommodative response, in vivo, in 30- to 50-year-old human subjects.The right eyes of 91 adults were examined using ultrasonography, phakometry, keratometry, pachymetry, interferometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Accommodation was measured subjectively with a push-up (...) test and objectively using open-field autorefraction. Regression analyses were used to assess differences in ocular parameters with age, refractive error, and accommodation.With age, crystalline lens thickness increased (0.03 mm/yr), anterior lens curvature steepened (0.11 mm/yr), anterior chamber depth decreased (0.02 mm/yr), and lens equivalent refractive index decreased (0.001/yr) (all p < 0.01). With increasing myopia, there were significant increases in axial length (0.37 mm/D), vitreous

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2016 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

134. High Prevalence of Refractive Errors in 7 Year Old Children in Iran (PubMed)

High Prevalence of Refractive Errors in 7 Year Old Children in Iran The latest WHO report indicates that refractive errors are the leading cause of visual impairment throughout the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism in 7 yr old children in Iran.In a cross-sectional study in 2013 with multistage cluster sampling, first graders were randomly selected from 8 cities in Iran. All children were tested by an optometrist for uncorrected (...) and corrected vision, and non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refraction. Refractive errors in this study were determined based on spherical equivalent (SE) cyloplegic refraction.From 4614 selected children, 89.0% participated in the study, and 4072 were eligible. The prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were 3.04% (95% CI: 2.30-3.78), 6.20% (95% CI: 5.27-7.14), and 17.43% (95% CI: 15.39-19.46), respectively. Prevalence of myopia (P=0.925) and astigmatism (P=0.056) were not statistically

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2016 Iranian journal of public health

135. Association of refractive error with vision-related quality of life in junior high school students (PubMed)

Association of refractive error with vision-related quality of life in junior high school students To evaluate the relationship between refractive error and vision-related quality of life in 16-year-old students in Taiwan.A cross-sectional study was designed for 16-year junior-high-school students in Taiwan. Myopia was defined as a spherical refractive error (SRE) < -0.50 D, hyperopia as SRE > +1.0 D, and emmetropia as SRE -0.5-+1.0 D in the better eye. Vision-related quality of life (...) was assessed using the Taiwan Chinese version of the 25-Item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire.Of the 688 participants, 466 (68%) had myopia and 22 (3%) had hyperopia. In logistic-regression models adjusted for gender, parents' education, family income, and parental refractive error, myopia was an independent risk factor of poorer vision-related quality of life for both near vision (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.22-2.45) and distance vision (odds ratio 3.11, 95

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2016 Taiwan journal of ophthalmology

136. Review of effects of anti-VEGF treatment on refractive error (PubMed)

Review of effects of anti-VEGF treatment on refractive error To examine the effect of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents on refractive error in the setting of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) through a review of the literature, a PubMed search was performed of appropriate search terms, and the results of all relevant studies were extracted and compiled. Eleven relevant articles were identified in the literature, totaling 466 eyes, treated with varied anti-VEGF agents (...) (bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept) with mean spherical equivalent refractions ranging from +0.75 D to -3.57 D, with prevalence of high myopia ranging from 0 to 35%. Anti-VEGF monotherapy for ROP leads to low levels of myopia, and there may be a differential effect of specific anti-VEGF agents utilized on refractive outcomes.

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2016 Eye and brain

137. Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China (PubMed)

Five-Year Progression of Refractive Errors and Incidence of Myopia in School-Aged Children in Western China To determine the change in refractive error and the incidence of myopia among school-aged children in the Yongchuan District of Chongqing City, Western China.A population-based cross-sectional survey was initially conducted in 2006 among 3070 children aged 6 to 15 years. A longitudinal follow-up study was then conducted 5 years later between November 2011 and March 2012. Refractive error (...) was measured under cycloplegia with autorefraction. Age, sex, and baseline refractive error were evaluated as risk factors for progression of refractive error and incidence of myopia.Longitudinal data were available for 1858 children (60.5%). The cumulative mean change in refractive error was -2.21 (standard deviation [SD], 1.87) diopters (D) for the entire study population, with an annual progression of refraction in a myopic direction of -0.43 D. Myopic progression of refractive error was associated

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2016 Journal of Epidemiology

138. Steps towards Smarter Solutions in Optometry and Ophthalmology—Inter-Device Agreement of Subjective Methods to Assess the Refractive Errors of the Eye (PubMed)

Steps towards Smarter Solutions in Optometry and Ophthalmology—Inter-Device Agreement of Subjective Methods to Assess the Refractive Errors of the Eye To investigate the inter-device agreement and mean differences between a newly developed digital phoropter and the two standard methods (trial frame and manual phoropter).Refractive errors of two groups of participants were measured by two examiners (examiner 1 (E1): 36 subjects; examiner 2 (E2): 38 subjects). Refractive errors were assessed (...) using a trial frame, a manual phoropter and a digital phoropter. Inter-device agreement regarding the measurement of refractive errors was analyzed for differences in terms of the power vector components (spherical equivalent (SE) and the cylindrical power vector components J0 and J45) between the used methods. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC's) were calculated to evaluate correlations between the used methods.Analyzing the variances between the three methods for SE, J0 and J45 using a two

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2016 Healthcare

139. Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of Refractive Errors. (PubMed)

Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of Refractive Errors. The cornea is the target of most surgeries for refractive disorders, as myopia. It is estimated that almost 1 million patients undergo corneal refractive surgery each year in the United States. Refractive surgery includes photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) that produces intense postoperative pain. This review presents the main pain mechanisms behind PRK-related pain and the available (...) steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic analgesics, cold balanced saline solution, topical anesthetic, gabapentin, and morphine to treat postoperative pain in PRK.The percentage of responders has seldom been reported, and few studies allow for the formal calculation of the number necessary to treat. Postoperative intense pain after PRK laser surgery remains the main challenge to its widespread use for the correction of refractive errors.

2016 Clinical Journal of Pain

140. Prevalence of Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. (PubMed)

Prevalence of Refractive Error in Adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American Eye Study. To estimate the prevalence of refractive errors in adult Chinese Americans, and to evaluate factors associated with myopia and high myopia.A population-based, cross-sectional study.Chinese Americans 50 years and older residing in Monterey Park, California, were recruited. Noncycloplegic automated refraction with supplemental subjective refraction was performed. Myopia, high myopia, hyperopia, and high (...) %), 40.2% (38.7%-41.8%), 2.7% (2.2%-3.3%), 45.6% (44.1%-47.2%), and 3.7% (3.1%-4.3%), respectively. The prevalence of myopia and high myopia was lower among older individuals (P < .05). Reversed age trends were observed for the other refractive errors (P < .05). There was no sex difference in the prevalence of refractive errors, except for a higher prevalence of hyperopia among female subjects (P = .010). Age, acculturation, education, income, marital status, birth country, history of ocular disease

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2016 American Journal of Ophthalmology

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