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Refractive Error

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101. Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery (IPG385)

Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery (IPG385) Overview | Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery | Guidance | NICE Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery Interventional procedures guidance [IPG385] Published date: March 2011 Share Save Guidance The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales (...) , Scotland and Northern Ireland on Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery. Description Refractive errors include common conditions such as myopia (short sightedness) and hyperopia (long sightedness) that impede the accuracy of vision without spectacles or contact lenses. Laser surgery aims to establish visual accuracy by changing the shape of the cornea (the clear outer layer at the front of the eye), so that light rays are more precisely directed onto the retina

2011 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

102. Calculation of axial length using a single group refractive index versus using different refractive indices for each ocular segment: theoretical study and refractive outcomes. (PubMed)

Calculation of axial length using a single group refractive index versus using different refractive indices for each ocular segment: theoretical study and refractive outcomes. To investigate the difference between the segmented axial length (AL) and the displayed AL on an optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) biometer and to compare the refractive prediction errors calculated using the segmented and displayed ALs.Retrospective case series.Four thousand nine hundred ninety-two eyes from (...) 4992 patients in the theoretical study and 1758 eyes from 1758 patients in the refractive prediction error comparison.First, we calculated the segmented AL as the sum of geometrical ocular segments converted from the optical path length (OPL) in each medium. To convert the OPL to a geometrical distance in each medium, we used 4 sets of group refractive indices. Then, the mean absolute prediction error (MAE) was calculated with the displayed AL and segmented AL using 6 intraocular lens power

2018 Ophthalmology

103. Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa (PubMed)

Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa PurposeTo compare focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive errors among students in an underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsThe study was a descriptive comparative cross-sectional study conducted in October/November 2014 among secondary school students of Ijaiye-Orile, Oyo State, Nigeria. Students were selected (...) using systematic random sampling method. Ocular examination and measurement of refractive error was carried out on each student using a focometer and an autorefractor.ResultsA total of 230 students were studied. Mean age of the students was 15.1±1.9 years with a range of 13-21 years. Refractive error was detected in 95 (41.3%) of the students using autorefractor and in 81 (35.2%) with focometer. Among those found to have refractive error using autorefractor, 75 (78.9%) students had a difference

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2016 Eye

104. Exploration and detection of potential regulatory variants in refractive error GWAS (PubMed)

Exploration and detection of potential regulatory variants in refractive error GWAS Refractive error (RE) is a complex multifactorial disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided significant insight into the genetic architecture and identified plenty of robust genetic variations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex disease. A major current challenge is to convert those resources into causal variants and target genes. We used RegulomeDB and HaploReg

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2016 Scientific reports

105. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study (PubMed)

Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi.A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA (...) ) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was <20/60 in either eye and ocular examination to ascertain the cause of VI. Barriers to utilization of services for refractive error were recorded with questionnaires.Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96%) individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation). VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95

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2016 Indian journal of ophthalmology

106. Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium (PubMed)

Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 (...)  = 6.6E-08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E-21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant

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2016 Scientific reports

107. Refractive Errors in Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 (PubMed)

Refractive Errors in Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 Our study provides epidemiologic data on the prevalence of refractive errors in all age group ≥5 years in Korea.In 2008 to 2012, a total of 33,355 participants aged ≥5 years underwent ophthalmologic examinations. Using the right eye, myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) less than -0.5 or -1.0 diopters (D) in subjects aged 19 years and older or as an SE less than -0.75 or -1.25 D (...) in subjects aged 5 to 18 years according to non-cycloplegic refraction. Other refractive errors were defined as follows: high myopia as an SE less than -6.0 D; hyperopia as an SE larger than +0.5 D; and astigmatism as a cylindrical error less than -1.0 D. The prevalence and risk factors of myopia were evaluated.Prevalence rates with a 95% confidence interval were determined for myopia (SE <-0.5 D, 51.9% [51.2 to 52.7]; SE <-1.0 D, 39.6% [38.8 to 40.3]), high myopia (5.0% [4.7 to 5.3]), hyperopia (13.4

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2016 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

108. The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Brückner test (PubMed)

The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Brückner test The aim of this study was to compare the results of enhanced Brückner test (EBT) performed by a pediatrician and an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist.In this prospective double-masked cohort study, a pediatrician and a pediatric ophthalmologist performed the EBT in a classroom of a school in semi-dark lighting condition using a direct ophthalmoscope. The results (...) . The prevalence of the test positive was 25.9%. The sensitivity of the pediatrician was 90.2%, specificity was 97.7%, predictive value of the positive test was 93.2%, and predictive value of the negative test was 96.6%. The clinical agreement (kappa) between the pediatric ophthalmologist and the pediatrician was 0.9.The results of the EBT performed by pediatrician were comparable to that of an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist. Opportunistic screening of refractive errors using EBT by a pediatrician can

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2016 Indian journal of ophthalmology

109. Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China. (PubMed)

Age-Specific Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Error in Children Aged 3-10 Years in Shanghai, China. We assessed changes in age-specific prevalence of refractive error at the time of starting school, by comparing preschool and school age cohorts in Shanghai, China.A cross-sectional study was done in Jiading District, Shanghai during November and December 2013. We randomly selected 7 kindergartens and 7 primary schools, with probability proportionate to size. Chinese children (n (...) = 8398) aged 3 to 10 years were enumerated, and 8267 (98.4%) were included. Children underwent distance visual acuity assessment and refraction measurement by cycloplegic autorefraction and subjective refraction.The prevalence of uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), presenting visual acuity, and best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye of ≤20/40 was 19.8%, 15.5%, and 1.7%, respectively. Among those with UCVA ≤ 20/40, 93.2% could achieve visual acuity of ≥20/32 with refraction. Only 28.7% (n = 465

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

110. Global Patterns in Health Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error. (PubMed)

Global Patterns in Health Burden of Uncorrected Refractive Error. To evaluate the global patterns in health burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) by year, age and sex, region, and socioeconomic status, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).Global, regional, or national DALY numbers, crude DALY rates, and age-standardized DALY rates caused by URE, by year, or age and sex, were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Human development index (HDI) in 2013 as a national (...) Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Africa were higher than that at a global level. Multiple comparisons indicated higher age-standardized DALY rates in lower HDI countries. Age-standardized DALY rates were inversely related to HDI (standardized β = -0.616, P < 0.001).The global health of URE is improving but crude DALY rates are keeping constant, implying that health progress does not mean fewer demands of refractive services. Worldwide, older age, female sex, and lower socioeconomic status are associated

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

111. Refractive errors. (PubMed)

Refractive errors. All over the world, refractive errors are among the most frequently occuring treatable distur - bances of visual function. Ametropias have a prevalence of nearly 70% among adults in Germany and are thus of great epidemiologic and socio-economic relevance.In the light of their own clinical experience, the authors review pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search employing the terms "ametropia, "anisometropia," "refraction," "visual acuity," and epidemiology (...) ."In 2011, only 31% of persons over age 16 in Germany did not use any kind of visual aid; 63.4% wore eyeglasses and 5.3% wore contact lenses. Refractive errors were the most common reason for consulting an ophthalmologist, accounting for 21.1% of all outpatient visits. A pinhole aperture (stenopeic slit) is a suitable instrument for the basic diagnostic evaluation of impaired visual function due to optical factors. Spherical refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia), cylindrical refractive errors

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2016 Deutsches Arzteblatt international

112. Anterior Chamber Depth, Lens Thickness, and Related Measures in African American Females With Long Anterior Zonules: A Matched Study With Control for Refractive Error. (PubMed)

Anterior Chamber Depth, Lens Thickness, and Related Measures in African American Females With Long Anterior Zonules: A Matched Study With Control for Refractive Error. To investigate anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), vitreous body length (VBL), and axial length (AL) in African American females with long anterior zonules (LAZ) while controlling for refractive error.The eyes of 50 African American females with LAZ were compared with 50 controls matched with age, race, sex (...) , and refractive error. Central ACD, LT, VBL, and AL measurements were obtained in a masked manner using a-scan ultrasonography.LAZ cases had a mean age±SD of 67.1±7.6 years (range, 52 to 85 y) and a mean refractive error of +1.85±1.41 D (-1.75 to +4.75 D). Parameters were similar for controls. Mean ACD for cases was 2.45±0.34 mm and 2.57±0.38 mm for controls. Mean LT for cases was 4.94±0.43 mm and 4.83±0.45 mm for controls. Mean VBL for cases was 15.00±0.72 mm and 15.17±0.76 mm for controls. Mean AL for cases

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2016 Journal of Glaucoma

113. Refractive Errors and Concomitant Strabismus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Refractive Errors and Concomitant Strabismus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the risk of development of concomitant strabismus due to refractive errors. Eligible studies published from 1946 to April 1, 2016 were identified from MEDLINE and EMBASE that evaluated any kinds of refractive errors (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism and anisometropia) as an independent factor for concomitant exotropia and concomitant esotropia. Totally 5065

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2016 Scientific reports

114. Refractive error characteristics in patients with congenital blepharoptosis before and after ptosis repair surgery. (PubMed)

Refractive error characteristics in patients with congenital blepharoptosis before and after ptosis repair surgery. We examined the effect of surgical repair on the pattern of refractive errors in Korean patients with congenital blepharoptosis.We reviewed the clinical records of 54 patients with congenital blepharoptosis who attended our hospital from 2006 to 2012 and underwent a detailed refractive examination before and after ptosis repair surgery. Among them, 21 of the patients whose (...) refractive data was available for both before and after the surgery were included in order to observe the effect of ptosis repair surgery on refractive error characteristics. The astigmatism groups were divided into three subgroups: with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule (ATR), and oblique astigmatism (OA). We also evaluated the severity of astigmatism.Before surgery, the ptotic eyes had more severe astigmatism and a greater percentage of OA than the fellow eyes. The changes in astigmatism magnitude

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2016 BMC Ophthalmology

115. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. (PubMed)

Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error. Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive (...) error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery

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2016 Nature communications

116. Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia. (PubMed)

Longitudinal Development of Refractive Error in Children With Accommodative Esotropia: Onset, Amblyopia, and Anisometropia. We investigated longitudinal changes of refractive error in children with accommodative esotropia (ET) throughout the first 12 years of life, its dependence on age at onset of ET, and whether amblyopia or anisometropia are associated with defective emmetropization.Longitudinal refractive errors in children with accommodative ET were analyzed retrospectively. Eligibility (...) ± 1.28 and +5.67 ± 1.26 D, respectively), there were different developmental changes in refractive error. Neither group had a significant decrease in hyperopia before age 7 years, but after 7 years, the infantile group experienced a myopic shift of -0.43 D/y. The late-onset group did not experience a myopic shift at 7 to 12 years. Among amblyopic children, a slower myopic shift was observed for the amblyopic eye. Among anisometropic children, the more hyperopic eye experienced more myopic shift than

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

117. Evaluation of Refractive Errors and Ocular Biometric Outcomes after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity. (PubMed)

Evaluation of Refractive Errors and Ocular Biometric Outcomes after Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity. To assess ocular biometric outcomes following intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) monotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and compare these results with those of laser photocoagulated infants and with the ones with spontaneously regressed ROP.Premature infants including those who underwent IVB monotherapy (Group 1) or laser photocoagulation (Group 2) for ROP (...) and infants with spontaneously regressed ROP (Group 3) were recruited for the study. Refractive errors and ocular biometric parameters (Axial length [AL], anterior chamber depth [ACD], and lens thickness [LT]) were measured at adjusted 1 year of age in all subjects.There was no significant difference of spherical equivalent (SE) value between the groups (P = 0.781). The incidence of high myopia was 7.4% in Group 1 and 12.7% in Group 2 (P = 0.081). No infants exhibited high myopia in Group 3. LT

2016 Strabismus

118. Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. (PubMed)

Global Vision Impairment and Blindness Due to Uncorrected Refractive Error, 1990-2010. The purpose of this systematic review was to estimate worldwide the number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity <6/18, ≥3/60) or blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE), to estimate trends in prevalence from 1990 to 2010, and to analyze regional differences. The review focuses on uncorrected refractive error which (...) to all MSVI ranged from 44.2 to 48.1% in all regions except in South Asia which was at 65.4% (95% CI: 62-72%). : We conclude that in 2010, uncorrected refractive error continues as the leading cause of vision impairment and the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, affecting a total of 108 million people or 1 in 90 persons.

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2016 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

119. "Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". (PubMed)

"Refractive Errors and Amblyopia in the UCLA Preschool Vision Program; First Year Results". To report the outcomes of full ophthalmic examination for preschool children in LA County who failed screening with the Retinomax Autorefractor.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Between August 2012 and May 2013, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) preschool vision program screened 11 260 preschool children aged 3-5 years in Los Angeles County using the Retinomax Autorefractor only (...) . Of the amblyopic subjects, 77% were unilateral.Screening of preschoolers with the Retinomax led to diagnosis and early treatment of uncorrected refractive errors and amblyopia. By treating children early, amblyopia may be prevented, quality of life improved, and academic achievements enhanced.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2016 American Journal of Ophthalmology

120. Mechanism for a Rare, Idiosyncratic Complication Following Hyperopic LASIK: Diurnal Shift in Refractive Error Due to Epithelial Thickness Profile Changes. (PubMed)

Mechanism for a Rare, Idiosyncratic Complication Following Hyperopic LASIK: Diurnal Shift in Refractive Error Due to Epithelial Thickness Profile Changes. Case series report of normal-appearing eyes after hyperopic LASIK exhibiting diurnal shift in refractive error found to correlate with diurnal shifts in epithelial thickness profile.Patients complaining of diurnal shift in vision during the course of the day with more hyperopia on waking and decreasing hyperopia in the evening in the absence (...) of abnormal epithelial or slit-lamp findings were examined. Diurnal concomitant measurement of refraction, topography, and Artemis very high-frequency digital ultrasound scanning (VHFDU) (ArcScan Inc., Morrison, CO) epithelial thickness profile mapping was undertaken throughout the day. A full review of the clinical database revealed 8 eyes of 5 patients with such symptoms. The authors report the findings in 6 eyes of 4 patients with such symptoms.Excimer ablation was performed with standard aspheric

2016 Journal of Refractive Surgery

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