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Refractive Error

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101. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico (PubMed)

Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico.Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D (...) ), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D). A negative cylinder was selected as a notation.The proportion (95% confidence interval) among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0), emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8), myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9) and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5). Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old), however, hyperopia increased among the aging

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

102. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children aged 3-10 years in western Saudi Arabia (PubMed)

Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children aged 3-10 years in western Saudi Arabia To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) among children 3-10 years and to affirm the necessity of a national school-based visual screening program for school-aged children. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medina, Saudi Arabia in 2015. Children were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling from 8 kindergarten and 8 primary (...) (1.5%), and myopia (0.7%). Risk of uncorrected refractive error was positively associated with age, and this was noted in astigmatism, myopia, and anisometropia. In addition, the risk of hypermetropia was associated with boys and that of myopia was associated with girls. Conclusions: The prevalence of UREs, particularly astigmatism, was high among children aged 3-10 years in Medina, with significant age differences. Vision screening programs targeting kindergarten and primary schoolchildren

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2017 Saudi medical journal

103. Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Number Needed to Screen among Rural High School Children in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study (PubMed)

Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Number Needed to Screen among Rural High School Children in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study Avoidable blindness is mainly due to uncorrected refractive errors (URE). School Eye Screening (SES) can be used as an initiative to address this issue.To determine prevalence of URE and Number Needed to Screen (NNS) to find one child with low vision or blindness from URE among rural school children.A cross-sectional study was performed in 22 government schools (...) examination by a clinician.Of the 4739 children on rolls, 601 were absent; all 4138 (87.3%) who were present underwent screening; 2.3% (98) {95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8 to 2.8} failed the screening test in at least one eye and were referred for examination. Only 28 (28.6%) of 98 children who were referred came for examination to the hospital. In the 2 of the 22 schools where the visual deficit was validated, there were no false positives. The prevalence of refractive error in these two schools

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2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

104. Refractive errors and biometry of primary angle-closure disease in a mixed Malaysian population (PubMed)

Refractive errors and biometry of primary angle-closure disease in a mixed Malaysian population To assess the refractive status, anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) of patients with primary angle-closure disease (PACD).Retrospective cohort. Data was collected from charts of all PACD patients treated from April 2013 to December 2015. Analysis was done on 137 patient charts with complete biometric data. Patient demographics, PACD type, refractive status (spherical equivalent), ACD

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

105. Correlations between Preoperative Angle Parameters and Postoperative Unpredicted Refractive Errors after Cataract Surgery in Open Angle Glaucoma (AOD 500) (PubMed)

Correlations between Preoperative Angle Parameters and Postoperative Unpredicted Refractive Errors after Cataract Surgery in Open Angle Glaucoma (AOD 500) To assess the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction for cataract surgery with open angle glaucoma (OAG) and to identify preoperative angle parameters correlated with postoperative unpredicted refractive errors.This study comprised 45 eyes from 45 OAG subjects and 63 eyes from 63 non-glaucomatous cataract subjects (controls). We (...) investigated differences in preoperative predicted refractive errors and postoperative refractive errors for each group. Preoperative predicted refractive errors were obtained by biometry (IOL-master) and compared to postoperative refractive errors measured by auto-refractometer 2 months postoperatively. Anterior angle parameters were determined using swept source optical coherence tomography. We investigated correlations between preoperative angle parameters [angle open distance (AOD); trabecular iris

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2017 Yonsei medical journal

106. Refractive errors characteristic of the patients at the Children’s Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Kauno klinikos Hospital (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 (PubMed)

Refractive errors characteristic of the patients at the Children’s Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Kauno klinikos Hospital (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 The purpose of our study was to assess the distribution and patterns of refractive errors in children for the proper planning of paediatric eye care at the centre.The study was conducted in the hospital of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences in Kaunas, from 1 January 2012 (...) of astigmatism was 25.5% (95% CI: 24.41; 26.59) (p < 0.001). Astigmatism was associated with female gender (20.1%; 95%. CI: 19.1; 21.1) and too big pregnancy weight (22.1%.; 95%. CI: 21.06; 23.14) (p < 0.001).Of the 14-18 age group, 44.7% of the patients were myopic. Of the 0-1 age group, 84.6% were hypermetropic. Astigmatism was detected in about 25.5% of children. The prevalence of refractive errors was associated with age, gender, gestation age, gestation weight, and parental refractive error.

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2017 Acta Medica Lituanica

107. A review of results after implantation of a secondary intraocular lens to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery (PubMed)

A review of results after implantation of a secondary intraocular lens to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery The purpose of this study was to provide clinical outcomes data related to secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for the correction of residual refractive error after cataract surgery.A chart review was conducted to identify all eyes implanted with the monofocal spherical or toric AddOn® secondary IOL. Data were collated from charts where uncomplicated (...) initial cataract surgery was completed. Measures of interest included the original IOL implanted, the postoperative refractive error (before secondary IOL implantation) and the associated corrected and uncorrected visual acuities (VAs). Postoperative data of interest included the residual refractive error, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA).Refractive and VA data from 1 week to 3 months post-surgery were available for 46 of 70 eyes implanted with a secondary

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2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

108. Effect of age, sex, and refractive errors on central corneal thickness measured by Oculus Pentacam® (PubMed)

Effect of age, sex, and refractive errors on central corneal thickness measured by Oculus Pentacam® Central corneal thickness (CCT) can be used to assess the corneal physiological condition as well as the pathological changes associated with ocular diseases. It has an influence on the measurement of intraocular pressure and is being used as a screening tool for refractive surgery candidates. The aim of this study was to determine the median CCT among normal Pakistani population (...) and to correlate CCT with age, sex, and refractive errors.We conducted a retrospective analysis of 5,171 healthy eyes in 2,598 patients who came to Hashmanis Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The age of the patients ranged from 6 to 70 years. The refractive error was gauged by an auto-refractometer, and CCT was measured using Oculus Pentacam®.The median CCT of our study was 541.0 μm with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44.0 μm. The median age was 26.0 years (IQR: 8.0). Median spherical equivalent (SE

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2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

109. Associations between Optic Nerve Head–Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity (PubMed)

Associations between Optic Nerve Head–Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity To evaluate the associations between optic disc (OD)-related anatomical parameters (interartery angle [IAA] between superior and inferior temporal retinal arteries, OD tilt [TL], rotation [ROT], and torsion [TO], OD surface curvature [CUR], and central retinal vessel trunk entry point location [CRVTL] on OD) and the spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE

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2017 Translational vision science & technology

110. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population (PubMed)

The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population Uncorrected refractive error (URE) is a major health problem among school children. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and patterns of URE across 4 gradients of residential densities (urban, exurban, suburban and rural). This was a cross-sectional study of school children from 3 districts in Yogyakarta and 1 district near Yogyakarta, Indonesia (...) compared with exurban and rural. The proportion of URE among urban, suburban, exurban and rural area were 10.1%, 12.3%, 3.8%, and 1%, respectively, and it was significant when compared to the proportion of ametropia and corrected refractive error across residential densities (P=0.003). The risk of URE development in urban, suburban, exurban, and rural were 2.218 (95%CI: 0.914-5.385), 3.019 (95%CI: 1.266-7.197), 0.502 (95%CI: 0.195-1.293), and 0.130 (95%CI:0.017-0.972), respectively. Urban school

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

111. Screening for refractive errors in preschool children with the vision screener. (PubMed)

Screening for refractive errors in preschool children with the vision screener. The Vision Screener is a new, commercial version of the Power Refractor, an off-axis, hand-held video refractor to screen for amblyogenic refractive errors. The aim of our study was to determine the reproducibility of the measurements, compare them to cycloplegic refraction, and evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of amblyogenic refractive errors.Included in the study were 161 preschool

2017 Strabismus

112. Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery (IPG385)

Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery (IPG385) Overview | Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery | Guidance | NICE Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery Interventional procedures guidance [IPG385] Published date: March 2011 Share Save Guidance The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has issued full guidance to the NHS in England, Wales (...) , Scotland and Northern Ireland on Laser correction of refractive error following non-refractive ophthalmic surgery. Description Refractive errors include common conditions such as myopia (short sightedness) and hyperopia (long sightedness) that impede the accuracy of vision without spectacles or contact lenses. Laser surgery aims to establish visual accuracy by changing the shape of the cornea (the clear outer layer at the front of the eye), so that light rays are more precisely directed onto the retina

2011 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Interventional Procedures

113. Calculation of axial length using a single group refractive index versus using different refractive indices for each ocular segment: theoretical study and refractive outcomes. (PubMed)

Calculation of axial length using a single group refractive index versus using different refractive indices for each ocular segment: theoretical study and refractive outcomes. To investigate the difference between the segmented axial length (AL) and the displayed AL on an optical low-coherence reflectometry (OLCR) biometer and to compare the refractive prediction errors calculated using the segmented and displayed ALs.Retrospective case series.Four thousand nine hundred ninety-two eyes from (...) 4992 patients in the theoretical study and 1758 eyes from 1758 patients in the refractive prediction error comparison.First, we calculated the segmented AL as the sum of geometrical ocular segments converted from the optical path length (OPL) in each medium. To convert the OPL to a geometrical distance in each medium, we used 4 sets of group refractive indices. Then, the mean absolute prediction error (MAE) was calculated with the displayed AL and segmented AL using 6 intraocular lens power

2018 Ophthalmology

114. Presbyopic refractive lens exchange with trifocal intraocular lens implantation after corneal laser vision correction: Refractive results and biometry analysis. (PubMed)

refraction spherical equivalent, uncorrected near (UNVA) and distance (UDVA) visual acuities, corrected distance visual acuity, safety, efficacy, and precision. The biometry analysis included the refractive prediction error (RPE), median absolute error (MedAE), and percentage of eyes within a certain RPE range for the formulas from the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) online calculator.The study comprised 241 eyes. Six months postoperatively, 60.0% of eyes were within ±0.25 (...) Presbyopic refractive lens exchange with trifocal intraocular lens implantation after corneal laser vision correction: Refractive results and biometry analysis. To evaluate the refractive and biometry results of presbyopic refractive lens exchange (RLE) with trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in eyes with previous myopic or hyperopic corneal laser vision correction (LVC).Memira AS, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.Retrospective case series.The refractive results included the manifest

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

115. Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa (PubMed)

Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa PurposeTo compare focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive errors among students in an underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsThe study was a descriptive comparative cross-sectional study conducted in October/November 2014 among secondary school students of Ijaiye-Orile, Oyo State, Nigeria. Students were selected (...) using systematic random sampling method. Ocular examination and measurement of refractive error was carried out on each student using a focometer and an autorefractor.ResultsA total of 230 students were studied. Mean age of the students was 15.1±1.9 years with a range of 13-21 years. Refractive error was detected in 95 (41.3%) of the students using autorefractor and in 81 (35.2%) with focometer. Among those found to have refractive error using autorefractor, 75 (78.9%) students had a difference

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2016 Eye

116. Exploration and detection of potential regulatory variants in refractive error GWAS (PubMed)

Exploration and detection of potential regulatory variants in refractive error GWAS Refractive error (RE) is a complex multifactorial disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have provided significant insight into the genetic architecture and identified plenty of robust genetic variations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with complex disease. A major current challenge is to convert those resources into causal variants and target genes. We used RegulomeDB and HaploReg

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2016 Scientific reports

117. Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study (PubMed)

Prevalence of visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error: Results from Delhi-Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment Study To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) due to uncorrected refractive error (URE) and to assess the barriers to utilization of services in the adult urban population of Delhi.A population-based rapid assessment of VI was conducted among people aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of East Delhi district. Presenting visual acuity (PVA (...) ) was assessed in each eye using Snellen's "E" chart. Pinhole examination was done if PVA was <20/60 in either eye and ocular examination to ascertain the cause of VI. Barriers to utilization of services for refractive error were recorded with questionnaires.Of 2421 individuals enumerated, 2331 (96%) individuals were examined. Females were 50.7% among them. The mean age of all examined subjects was 51.32 ± 10.5 years (standard deviation). VI in either eye due to URE was present in 275 individuals (11.8%, 95

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2016 Indian journal of ophthalmology

118. Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium (PubMed)

Childhood gene-environment interactions and age-dependent effects of genetic variants associated with refractive error and myopia: The CREAM Consortium Myopia, currently at epidemic levels in East Asia, is a leading cause of untreatable visual impairment. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 39 loci associated with refractive error and myopia. Here, the age-of-onset of association between genetic variants at these 39 loci and refractive error was investigated in 5200 (...)  = 6.6E-08) and 2.3% (P = 6.9E-21) of the variance in refractive error at ages 7 and 15, respectively, supporting increased effects from these genetic variants at older ages. Replication in multi-ancestry samples (combined N = 5599) yielded evidence of childhood onset for 6 of 12 variants present in both Asians and Europeans. There was no indication that variant or GRS effects altered depending on time outdoors, however 5 variants showed nominal evidence of interactions with nearwork (top variant

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2016 Scientific reports

119. Refractive Errors in Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 (PubMed)

Refractive Errors in Koreans: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 Our study provides epidemiologic data on the prevalence of refractive errors in all age group ≥5 years in Korea.In 2008 to 2012, a total of 33,355 participants aged ≥5 years underwent ophthalmologic examinations. Using the right eye, myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent (SE) less than -0.5 or -1.0 diopters (D) in subjects aged 19 years and older or as an SE less than -0.75 or -1.25 D (...) in subjects aged 5 to 18 years according to non-cycloplegic refraction. Other refractive errors were defined as follows: high myopia as an SE less than -6.0 D; hyperopia as an SE larger than +0.5 D; and astigmatism as a cylindrical error less than -1.0 D. The prevalence and risk factors of myopia were evaluated.Prevalence rates with a 95% confidence interval were determined for myopia (SE <-0.5 D, 51.9% [51.2 to 52.7]; SE <-1.0 D, 39.6% [38.8 to 40.3]), high myopia (5.0% [4.7 to 5.3]), hyperopia (13.4

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2016 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

120. The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Brückner test (PubMed)

The opportunistic screening of refractive errors in school-going children by pediatrician using enhanced Brückner test The aim of this study was to compare the results of enhanced Brückner test (EBT) performed by a pediatrician and an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist.In this prospective double-masked cohort study, a pediatrician and a pediatric ophthalmologist performed the EBT in a classroom of a school in semi-dark lighting condition using a direct ophthalmoscope. The results (...) . The prevalence of the test positive was 25.9%. The sensitivity of the pediatrician was 90.2%, specificity was 97.7%, predictive value of the positive test was 93.2%, and predictive value of the negative test was 96.6%. The clinical agreement (kappa) between the pediatric ophthalmologist and the pediatrician was 0.9.The results of the EBT performed by pediatrician were comparable to that of an experienced pediatric ophthalmologist. Opportunistic screening of refractive errors using EBT by a pediatrician can

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2016 Indian journal of ophthalmology

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