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Refractive Error

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81. Post-operative Refractive Prediction Error After Phacovitrectomy: A Retrospective Study (PubMed)

Post-operative Refractive Prediction Error After Phacovitrectomy: A Retrospective Study Many authors have reported on a myopic post-operative refractive prediction error when combining phacoemulsification with pars plana vitrectomy (phacovitrectomy). In this study we evaluate the amount of this error in our facility and try to elucidate the various factors involved.This was a retrospective study which included 140 patients who underwent phacovitrectomy (39 with macular holes, 88 with puckers (...) , and 13 with floaters). Post-operative refractive error was defined as the difference between the actual spherical equivalent (SEQ) and expected SEQ based on the SRK/T and Holladay-II formulas. Both univariate (paired t test, independent t test, one-way analysis of variance, or Mann-Whitney test) and multivariate (regression analysis) statistical analyses were performed.Overall, a refractive error of - 0.13 dpt (p = 0.033) and - 0.26 dpt (p < 0.01) were found in the SRK/T and Holladay-II formulas

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2017 Ophthalmology and therapy

82. Refractive Error and Biometry in Retinopathy of Prematurity

Refractive Error and Biometry in Retinopathy of Prematurity Refractive Error and Biometry in Retinopathy of Prematurity - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Refractive Error and Biometry (...) of Ranibizumab (IVR), versus bevacizumab (IVB), at a corrected age of 3 years. Methods: A retrospective case series compared cycloplegic refractive statuses and biometric statuses in patients who received either IVR or IVB for Type 1 ROP, from April 2011 to April 2014. Comparison of refractive errors and biometric findings between the two groups was performmed and multivariate analysis of possible factors contributive to visual acuity was also performmed Study Design Go to Layout table for study information

2017 Clinical Trials

83. Clinical Outcomes of an Optimized Prolate Ablation Procedure for Correcting Residual Refractive Errors Following Laser Surgery (PubMed)

Clinical Outcomes of an Optimized Prolate Ablation Procedure for Correcting Residual Refractive Errors Following Laser Surgery The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of an optimized prolate ablation procedure for correcting residual refractive errors following laser surgery.We analyzed 24 eyes of 15 patients who underwent an optimized prolate ablation procedure for the correction of residual refractive errors following laser in situ keratomileusis, laser-assisted (...) and refractive errors decreased significantly at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Total coma aberration increased at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, while changes in all other aberrations were not statistically significant. Similarly, no significant changes in point spread function were detected, but modulation transfer function increased significantly at the postoperative time points measured.The optimized prolate ablation procedure was effective in terms of improving visual acuity and objective visual

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

84. Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations (PubMed)

Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations There have been several studies investigating static, baseline pupil diameter in visually-normal individuals across refractive error. However, none have assessed the dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR). In the present study, both static and dynamic pupillary parameters of the PLR were assessed in both the visually-normal (VN) and the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI (...) ) populations and compared as a function of refractive error.The VN population comprised 40 adults (22-56 years of age), while the mTBI population comprised 32 adults (21-60 years of age) over a range of refractive errors (-9.00D to +1.25D). Seven pupillary parameters (baseline static diameter, latency, amplitude, and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) were assessed and compared under four white-light stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, and bright step

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2017 Journal of optometry

85. Lower urinary cotinine level is associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors in Korean adolescents (PubMed)

Lower urinary cotinine level is associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors in Korean adolescents PurposeTo investigate the association between urinary cotinine levels as an objective biological marker for exposure to nicotine and refractive status.Patients and methodsThis cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. A total of 1139 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years were enrolled. Urinary cotinine (...) concentrations and other potential risk factors for myopia were examined. Correlation analyses and multivariate regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between urinary cotinine level and refractive error.ResultsSpherical equivalent correlated significantly with urinary cotinine concentration (r=0.104, P=0.011). Lower urinary cotinine level was associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors (P for trend=0.003). After adjusting for age, sex, area of residence, physical

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2017 Eye

86. Choroidal Thickness Variation According to Refractive Error Measured by Spectral Domain-optical Coherence Tomography in Korean Children (PubMed)

Choroidal Thickness Variation According to Refractive Error Measured by Spectral Domain-optical Coherence Tomography in Korean Children To assess choroidal thickness (CT) variation according to refractive errors using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography.Eighty-nine eyes (in 89 children) <±6 diopter were categorized into three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia, according to refractive error, and underwent choroidal scans using enhanced-depth imaging-optical coherence (...) choroid, regardless of the refractive error. The thickest location in the hyperopia group was the fovea; however, the temporal choroid was thickest in the emmetropia and myopia groups.

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

87. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay (PubMed)

Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness.A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old), with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA) and refractive error. The first screening examination performed (...) ) in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D) was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total). The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D) was 15.8% (0.6% of the total). Visual impairment (VI) (0.05≤VA≤0.3) was found in 12/114 (0.4%) of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%), retinal problems (17%, 2/12), albinism (17%, 2/12) and unknown (8%, 1/12).A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

88. Distance associated heterophoria measured with polarized Cross test of MKH method and its relationship to refractive error and age (PubMed)

Distance associated heterophoria measured with polarized Cross test of MKH method and its relationship to refractive error and age Due to the expansion of modern optotype liquid crystal display with the help of positive polarization, measurement of heterophorias (HTFs) by means of polarization, and thus partial dissociation of perceptions, has become more and more accessible. Our aims were to establish the prevalence of distance associated HTF by measuring with polarized Cross test of MKH (...) [measuring and correcting methodology after H-J Haase] method and its association with age and refractive error in clinical population of wide age range.A cross-sectional study was carried out with 170 clinical subjects aged 15-78 years with an average age of 40.7±16.62 years. All the participants had best-corrected visual acuity better than 20/25, stereopsis ≤60 second of arc, no heterotropia, not undergone vision therapy, and had no eye disease. The distance associated HTF was measured with the Cross

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2017 Clinical Optometry

89. Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study (PubMed)

Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study Myopia prevalence has increased in the past 20 years, with many studies linking the increase to reduced time spent outdoors. A number of recent observational studies have shown an inverse association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and myopia. However, in such studies it is difficult to separate the effects of time outdoors and vitamin D levels. In this work we use Mendelian (...) randomization (MR) to assess if genetically determined 25(OH)D levels contribute to the degree of myopia.We performed MR using results from a meta-analysis of refractive error (RE) genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 37 382 and 8 376 adult participants of European and Asian ancestry, respectively, published by the Consortium for Refractive Error And Myopia (CREAM). We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DHCR7, CYP2R1, GC and CYP24A1 genes with known effects on 25(OH)D

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2017 International journal of epidemiology

90. Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico (PubMed)

Refractive errors among children, adolescents and adults attending eye clinics in Mexico To assess the proportion of refractive errors in the Mexican population that visited primary care optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico.Refractive data from 676 856 patients aged 6 to 90y were collected from optometry clinics in fourteen states of Mexico between 2014 and 2015. The refractive errors were classified by the spherical equivalent (SE), as follows: sphere+½ cylinder. Myopia (SE>-0.50 D (...) ), hyperopia (SE>+0.50 D), emmetropia (-0.50≤SE≤+0.50), and astigmatism alone (cylinder≥-0.25 D). A negative cylinder was selected as a notation.The proportion (95% confidence interval) among all of the subjects was hyperopia 21.0% (20.9-21.0), emmetropia 40.7% (40.5-40.8), myopia 24.8% (24.7-24.9) and astigmatism alone 13.5% (13.4-13.5). Myopia was the most common refractive error and frequency seemed to increase among the young population (10 to 29 years old), however, hyperopia increased among the aging

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

91. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children aged 3-10 years in western Saudi Arabia (PubMed)

Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among children aged 3-10 years in western Saudi Arabia To determine the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) among children 3-10 years and to affirm the necessity of a national school-based visual screening program for school-aged children. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medina, Saudi Arabia in 2015. Children were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling from 8 kindergarten and 8 primary (...) (1.5%), and myopia (0.7%). Risk of uncorrected refractive error was positively associated with age, and this was noted in astigmatism, myopia, and anisometropia. In addition, the risk of hypermetropia was associated with boys and that of myopia was associated with girls. Conclusions: The prevalence of UREs, particularly astigmatism, was high among children aged 3-10 years in Medina, with significant age differences. Vision screening programs targeting kindergarten and primary schoolchildren

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2017 Saudi medical journal

92. Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Number Needed to Screen among Rural High School Children in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study (PubMed)

Prevalence of Refractive Errors and Number Needed to Screen among Rural High School Children in Southern India: A Cross-sectional Study Avoidable blindness is mainly due to uncorrected refractive errors (URE). School Eye Screening (SES) can be used as an initiative to address this issue.To determine prevalence of URE and Number Needed to Screen (NNS) to find one child with low vision or blindness from URE among rural school children.A cross-sectional study was performed in 22 government schools (...) examination by a clinician.Of the 4739 children on rolls, 601 were absent; all 4138 (87.3%) who were present underwent screening; 2.3% (98) {95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.8 to 2.8} failed the screening test in at least one eye and were referred for examination. Only 28 (28.6%) of 98 children who were referred came for examination to the hospital. In the 2 of the 22 schools where the visual deficit was validated, there were no false positives. The prevalence of refractive error in these two schools

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2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

93. Refractive errors and biometry of primary angle-closure disease in a mixed Malaysian population (PubMed)

Refractive errors and biometry of primary angle-closure disease in a mixed Malaysian population To assess the refractive status, anterior chamber depth (ACD) and axial length (AL) of patients with primary angle-closure disease (PACD).Retrospective cohort. Data was collected from charts of all PACD patients treated from April 2013 to December 2015. Analysis was done on 137 patient charts with complete biometric data. Patient demographics, PACD type, refractive status (spherical equivalent), ACD

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

94. Correlations between Preoperative Angle Parameters and Postoperative Unpredicted Refractive Errors after Cataract Surgery in Open Angle Glaucoma (AOD 500) (PubMed)

Correlations between Preoperative Angle Parameters and Postoperative Unpredicted Refractive Errors after Cataract Surgery in Open Angle Glaucoma (AOD 500) To assess the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power prediction for cataract surgery with open angle glaucoma (OAG) and to identify preoperative angle parameters correlated with postoperative unpredicted refractive errors.This study comprised 45 eyes from 45 OAG subjects and 63 eyes from 63 non-glaucomatous cataract subjects (controls). We (...) investigated differences in preoperative predicted refractive errors and postoperative refractive errors for each group. Preoperative predicted refractive errors were obtained by biometry (IOL-master) and compared to postoperative refractive errors measured by auto-refractometer 2 months postoperatively. Anterior angle parameters were determined using swept source optical coherence tomography. We investigated correlations between preoperative angle parameters [angle open distance (AOD); trabecular iris

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2017 Yonsei medical journal

95. Refractive errors characteristic of the patients at the Children’s Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Kauno klinikos Hospital (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 (PubMed)

Refractive errors characteristic of the patients at the Children’s Ophthalmology Outpatient Department of Kauno klinikos Hospital (Lithuanian University of Health Sciences) from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 The purpose of our study was to assess the distribution and patterns of refractive errors in children for the proper planning of paediatric eye care at the centre.The study was conducted in the hospital of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences in Kaunas, from 1 January 2012 (...) of astigmatism was 25.5% (95% CI: 24.41; 26.59) (p < 0.001). Astigmatism was associated with female gender (20.1%; 95%. CI: 19.1; 21.1) and too big pregnancy weight (22.1%.; 95%. CI: 21.06; 23.14) (p < 0.001).Of the 14-18 age group, 44.7% of the patients were myopic. Of the 0-1 age group, 84.6% were hypermetropic. Astigmatism was detected in about 25.5% of children. The prevalence of refractive errors was associated with age, gender, gestation age, gestation weight, and parental refractive error.

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2017 Acta Medica Lituanica

96. A review of results after implantation of a secondary intraocular lens to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery (PubMed)

A review of results after implantation of a secondary intraocular lens to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery The purpose of this study was to provide clinical outcomes data related to secondary intraocular lens (IOL) implantation for the correction of residual refractive error after cataract surgery.A chart review was conducted to identify all eyes implanted with the monofocal spherical or toric AddOn® secondary IOL. Data were collated from charts where uncomplicated (...) initial cataract surgery was completed. Measures of interest included the original IOL implanted, the postoperative refractive error (before secondary IOL implantation) and the associated corrected and uncorrected visual acuities (VAs). Postoperative data of interest included the residual refractive error, the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA).Refractive and VA data from 1 week to 3 months post-surgery were available for 46 of 70 eyes implanted with a secondary

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2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

97. Effect of age, sex, and refractive errors on central corneal thickness measured by Oculus Pentacam® (PubMed)

Effect of age, sex, and refractive errors on central corneal thickness measured by Oculus Pentacam® Central corneal thickness (CCT) can be used to assess the corneal physiological condition as well as the pathological changes associated with ocular diseases. It has an influence on the measurement of intraocular pressure and is being used as a screening tool for refractive surgery candidates. The aim of this study was to determine the median CCT among normal Pakistani population (...) and to correlate CCT with age, sex, and refractive errors.We conducted a retrospective analysis of 5,171 healthy eyes in 2,598 patients who came to Hashmanis Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The age of the patients ranged from 6 to 70 years. The refractive error was gauged by an auto-refractometer, and CCT was measured using Oculus Pentacam®.The median CCT of our study was 541.0 μm with an interquartile range (IQR) of 44.0 μm. The median age was 26.0 years (IQR: 8.0). Median spherical equivalent (SE

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2017 Clinical ophthalmology (Auckland, N.Z.)

98. Associations between Optic Nerve Head–Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity (PubMed)

Associations between Optic Nerve Head–Related Anatomical Parameters and Refractive Error over the Full Range of Glaucoma Severity To evaluate the associations between optic disc (OD)-related anatomical parameters (interartery angle [IAA] between superior and inferior temporal retinal arteries, OD tilt [TL], rotation [ROT], and torsion [TO], OD surface curvature [CUR], and central retinal vessel trunk entry point location [CRVTL] on OD) and the spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE

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2017 Translational vision science & technology

99. The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population (PubMed)

The prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in urban, suburban, exurban and rural primary school children in Indonesian population Uncorrected refractive error (URE) is a major health problem among school children. This study was aimed to determine the frequency and patterns of URE across 4 gradients of residential densities (urban, exurban, suburban and rural). This was a cross-sectional study of school children from 3 districts in Yogyakarta and 1 district near Yogyakarta, Indonesia (...) compared with exurban and rural. The proportion of URE among urban, suburban, exurban and rural area were 10.1%, 12.3%, 3.8%, and 1%, respectively, and it was significant when compared to the proportion of ametropia and corrected refractive error across residential densities (P=0.003). The risk of URE development in urban, suburban, exurban, and rural were 2.218 (95%CI: 0.914-5.385), 3.019 (95%CI: 1.266-7.197), 0.502 (95%CI: 0.195-1.293), and 0.130 (95%CI:0.017-0.972), respectively. Urban school

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

100. Screening for refractive errors in preschool children with the vision screener. (PubMed)

Screening for refractive errors in preschool children with the vision screener. The Vision Screener is a new, commercial version of the Power Refractor, an off-axis, hand-held video refractor to screen for amblyogenic refractive errors. The aim of our study was to determine the reproducibility of the measurements, compare them to cycloplegic refraction, and evaluate the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of amblyogenic refractive errors.Included in the study were 161 preschool

2017 Strabismus

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