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Refractive Error

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81. Prevalence and associated risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors among people with diabetes in Shanghai. (PubMed)

Prevalence and associated risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors among people with diabetes in Shanghai. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of undercorrected refractive error (URE) among people with diabetes in the Baoshan District of Shanghai, where data for undercorrected refractive error are limited.The study was a population-based survey of 649 persons (aged 60 years or older) with diabetes in Baoshan, Shanghai in 2009. One copy of the questionnaire was completed (...) one line using appropriate spectacles. Under multiple logistic regression analysis, older age, female gender, non-farmer, increasing degree of myopia, lens opacities status, diabetic retinopathy (DR), body mass index (BMI) index lower than normal, and poor glycaemic control were associated with higher URE levels. Wearing distance eyeglasses was a protective factor for URE.The undercorrected refractive error in diabetic adults was high in Shanghai. Health education and regular refractive assessment

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2017 BMC Ophthalmology

82. Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review. This review has identified the best existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments in refractive error. The article highlights the limitations of the existing instruments and discusses the way forward.A systematic review was conducted to identify the types of PROs used in refractive error, to determine the quality of the existing PRO instruments in terms of their psychometric properties (...) , and to determine the limitations in the content of the existing PRO instruments.Articles describing a PRO instrument measuring 1 or more domains of quality of life in people with refractive error were identified by electronic searches on the MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. The information on content development, psychometric properties, validity, reliability, and responsiveness of those PRO instruments was extracted from the selected articles. The analysis was done based

2017 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

83. Comparison of noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction in categorizing refractive error data in children. (PubMed)

Comparison of noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction in categorizing refractive error data in children. To systematically analyse the differences between cycloplegic and noncycloplegic refractive errors (RE) in children and to determine if the predictive value of noncycloplegic RE in categorizing RE can be improved.Random cluster sampling was used to select 6825 children aged 4-15 years. Autorefraction was performed under both noncycloplegic and cycloplegic (induced with 1 (...) % of the eyes correctly classified. A higher VA cut-off (i.e., ≤6/18) resulted in 97.5% of eyes classified correctly.Noncycloplegic assessment of RE in children overestimates myopia and results in a high error rate for emmetropic and hyperopic RE. Adjusting for age and applying uncorrected VA cut-offs to noncycloplegic assessments improves detection of myopic RE and may help in identifying myopic RE in situations where cycloplegia is not available but does not help in identifying the magnitude of refractive

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2017 Acta ophthalmologica

84. The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews. (PubMed)

The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews should inform American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP) guidelines. The quality of systematic reviews related to the forthcoming Preferred Practice Pattern® guideline (PPP) Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery is unknown. We sought to identify reliable systematic reviews to assist the AAO Refractive Errors & Refractive (...) Surgery PPP.Systematic reviews were eligible if they evaluated the effectiveness or safety of interventions included in the 2012 PPP Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery. To identify potentially eligible systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision United States Satellite database of systematic reviews. Two authors identified eligible reviews and abstracted information about the characteristics and quality of the reviews independently using the Systematic Review Data Repository. We

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2017 BMC Ophthalmology

85. Development of refractive errors - what can we learn from inherited retinal dystrophies? (PubMed)

Development of refractive errors - what can we learn from inherited retinal dystrophies? It is unknown which retinal cells are involved in the retina-to-sclera signaling cascade causing myopia. As inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD) are characterized by dysfunction of a single retinal cell type and have a high risk of refractive errors, a study investigating the affected cell type, causal gene, and refractive error in IRDs may provide insight herein.Case-control study.Study Population: Total (...) ]) and CACNA1F (SE -5.33 D [SD 3.10]) coincided with the highest degree of myopia and in CABP4 (SE 4.81 D [SD 0.35]) with the highest degree of hyperopia.Refractive errors, in particular myopia, are common in IRD. The bipolar synapse and the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptor may serve as critical sites for myopia development.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2017 American Journal of Ophthalmology

86. The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. (PubMed)

The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. It has been proposed that the peripheral retina, responding to local optical defocus, contributes to myopia and associated altered eye growth in humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the changes in central (on-axis) and peripheral ocular dimensions in guinea pigs wearing a concentric bifocal spectacle lens design with power restricted to the periphery.Five groups (...) of guinea pigs (n = 83) wore either a unifocal (UF) spectacle lens (-4, 0, or +4 Diopters [D]), or a peripheral defocus (PF) spectacle lens that had a plano center (diameter of 5 mm) with either -4 or +4 D in the surround (-4/0 or +4/0 D). The overall optical diameter of all lenses was 12 mm. Lenses were worn over one eye from 8 to 18 days of age for negative and plano lenses, or from 8 to 22 days of age for positive lenses. Refractive error was measured centrally and 30° off-axis in the temporal

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

87. Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. (PubMed)

Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously.To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California.The Chinese American Eye Study (...) , a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016. This study included data from 4582 participants who underwent an eye examination to obtain axial length (AL), central corneal thickness, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal power (CP), noncycloplegic subjective refraction, and lens nuclear

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2017 JAMA ophthalmology

88. Visual Impairment, Undercorrected Refractive Errors, and Activity Limitations in Older Adults: Findings From the Three-City Alienor Study. (PubMed)

Visual Impairment, Undercorrected Refractive Errors, and Activity Limitations in Older Adults: Findings From the Three-City Alienor Study. As vision is required in almost all activities of daily living, visual impairment (VI) may be one of the major treatable factors for preventing activity limitations. We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk of VI associated with activity limitations and the extent to which limitations are avoidable with optimal optical correction of undercorrected (...) for potential confounders, VI was associated with each domain of activity limitations, except basic activities of daily living (ADL) limitations. These associations were found for even minimal levels of VI. PAR was estimated at 10.1% (95% CI: 5.2-10.6) for mobility limitations, at 26.0% (95% CI: 13.5-41.2) for instrumental ADL (IADL) limitations, and at 24.9% (95% CI: 10.5-47.1) for social participation restrictions. GIF for improvement of undercorrected refractive errors was 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8-8.5

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

89. Macular Ganglion Cell and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Refractive Errors-An Optical Coherence Tomography Study. (PubMed)

Macular Ganglion Cell and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Refractive Errors-An Optical Coherence Tomography Study. To study the distribution of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in children with refractive errors.Two hundred forty-three healthy eyes from 139 children with refractive error ranging from -10.00 to +5.00 D were recruited from the National University Hospital Eye Surgery (...) , P-value 0.115). None of the RNFL parameters were correlated with AL.This study establishes normative macular GC-IPL and RNFL thickness in children with refractive errors. Our results suggest that high definition optical coherence tomography RNFL parameters and minimum GC-IPL are not affected by AL or myopia in children, and therefore warrants further evaluation in pediatric glaucoma patients.

2017 Journal of Glaucoma

90. Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery. (PubMed)

Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery. We investigate the changes in refractive error and clinical evaluation in partially accommodative esotropia(PAET) after surgery. A total of 68 patients PAET who received at least 2 years of follow-up after surgery were enrolled in this study. We performed a retrospective study in patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral medial rectus recession for a non-accommodative component (...) of PAET between January 2005 and March 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence of dominancy (dominant, non-dominant, alternative eye), and presence of amblyopia (amblyopic, fellow, normal eye). Changes and changing pattern in SE refractive error were analyzed in all patients and compared between groups. Patients were divided into two groups, those weaned off of hyperopic glasses and those who continued using them, then factors that significantly influenced the continued use

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2016 PLoS ONE

91. Refractive error in underserved adults: causes and potential solutions. (PubMed)

Refractive error in underserved adults: causes and potential solutions. To evaluate the epidemiology of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) in adults both in the United States and globally, health outcomes impacted by URE, common barriers to treatment, and propose potential interventions.URE is the main cause of visual impairment and the second leading cause of blindness globally. Rates of URE are rising, and cause disability that reduces productivity, economic earnings, and the quality of life (...) refractive error could decrease rates of URE.

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2017 Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

92. Post-operative Refractive Prediction Error After Phacovitrectomy: A Retrospective Study (PubMed)

Post-operative Refractive Prediction Error After Phacovitrectomy: A Retrospective Study Many authors have reported on a myopic post-operative refractive prediction error when combining phacoemulsification with pars plana vitrectomy (phacovitrectomy). In this study we evaluate the amount of this error in our facility and try to elucidate the various factors involved.This was a retrospective study which included 140 patients who underwent phacovitrectomy (39 with macular holes, 88 with puckers (...) , and 13 with floaters). Post-operative refractive error was defined as the difference between the actual spherical equivalent (SEQ) and expected SEQ based on the SRK/T and Holladay-II formulas. Both univariate (paired t test, independent t test, one-way analysis of variance, or Mann-Whitney test) and multivariate (regression analysis) statistical analyses were performed.Overall, a refractive error of - 0.13 dpt (p = 0.033) and - 0.26 dpt (p < 0.01) were found in the SRK/T and Holladay-II formulas

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2017 Ophthalmology and therapy

93. Refractive Error and Biometry in Retinopathy of Prematurity

Refractive Error and Biometry in Retinopathy of Prematurity Refractive Error and Biometry in Retinopathy of Prematurity - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Refractive Error and Biometry (...) of Ranibizumab (IVR), versus bevacizumab (IVB), at a corrected age of 3 years. Methods: A retrospective case series compared cycloplegic refractive statuses and biometric statuses in patients who received either IVR or IVB for Type 1 ROP, from April 2011 to April 2014. Comparison of refractive errors and biometric findings between the two groups was performmed and multivariate analysis of possible factors contributive to visual acuity was also performmed Study Design Go to Layout table for study information

2017 Clinical Trials

94. Clinical Outcomes of an Optimized Prolate Ablation Procedure for Correcting Residual Refractive Errors Following Laser Surgery (PubMed)

Clinical Outcomes of an Optimized Prolate Ablation Procedure for Correcting Residual Refractive Errors Following Laser Surgery The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of an optimized prolate ablation procedure for correcting residual refractive errors following laser surgery.We analyzed 24 eyes of 15 patients who underwent an optimized prolate ablation procedure for the correction of residual refractive errors following laser in situ keratomileusis, laser-assisted (...) and refractive errors decreased significantly at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Total coma aberration increased at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, while changes in all other aberrations were not statistically significant. Similarly, no significant changes in point spread function were detected, but modulation transfer function increased significantly at the postoperative time points measured.The optimized prolate ablation procedure was effective in terms of improving visual acuity and objective visual

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

95. Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations (PubMed)

Influence of refractive error on pupillary dynamics in the normal and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) populations There have been several studies investigating static, baseline pupil diameter in visually-normal individuals across refractive error. However, none have assessed the dynamic pupillary light reflex (PLR). In the present study, both static and dynamic pupillary parameters of the PLR were assessed in both the visually-normal (VN) and the mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI (...) ) populations and compared as a function of refractive error.The VN population comprised 40 adults (22-56 years of age), while the mTBI population comprised 32 adults (21-60 years of age) over a range of refractive errors (-9.00D to +1.25D). Seven pupillary parameters (baseline static diameter, latency, amplitude, and peak and average constriction and dilation velocities) were assessed and compared under four white-light stimulus conditions (dim pulse, dim step, bright pulse, and bright step

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2017 Journal of optometry

96. Lower urinary cotinine level is associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors in Korean adolescents (PubMed)

Lower urinary cotinine level is associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors in Korean adolescents PurposeTo investigate the association between urinary cotinine levels as an objective biological marker for exposure to nicotine and refractive status.Patients and methodsThis cross-sectional study analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2008 and 2011. A total of 1139 Korean adolescents aged 12-18 years were enrolled. Urinary cotinine (...) concentrations and other potential risk factors for myopia were examined. Correlation analyses and multivariate regression analysis were performed to investigate the association between urinary cotinine level and refractive error.ResultsSpherical equivalent correlated significantly with urinary cotinine concentration (r=0.104, P=0.011). Lower urinary cotinine level was associated with a trend toward more myopic refractive errors (P for trend=0.003). After adjusting for age, sex, area of residence, physical

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2017 Eye

97. Choroidal Thickness Variation According to Refractive Error Measured by Spectral Domain-optical Coherence Tomography in Korean Children (PubMed)

Choroidal Thickness Variation According to Refractive Error Measured by Spectral Domain-optical Coherence Tomography in Korean Children To assess choroidal thickness (CT) variation according to refractive errors using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography.Eighty-nine eyes (in 89 children) <±6 diopter were categorized into three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, and myopia, according to refractive error, and underwent choroidal scans using enhanced-depth imaging-optical coherence (...) choroid, regardless of the refractive error. The thickest location in the hyperopia group was the fovea; however, the temporal choroid was thickest in the emmetropia and myopia groups.

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

98. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay (PubMed)

Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness.A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old), with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA) and refractive error. The first screening examination performed (...) ) in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D) was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total). The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D) was 15.8% (0.6% of the total). Visual impairment (VI) (0.05≤VA≤0.3) was found in 12/114 (0.4%) of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%), retinal problems (17%, 2/12), albinism (17%, 2/12) and unknown (8%, 1/12).A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area

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2017 International journal of ophthalmology

99. Distance associated heterophoria measured with polarized Cross test of MKH method and its relationship to refractive error and age (PubMed)

Distance associated heterophoria measured with polarized Cross test of MKH method and its relationship to refractive error and age Due to the expansion of modern optotype liquid crystal display with the help of positive polarization, measurement of heterophorias (HTFs) by means of polarization, and thus partial dissociation of perceptions, has become more and more accessible. Our aims were to establish the prevalence of distance associated HTF by measuring with polarized Cross test of MKH (...) [measuring and correcting methodology after H-J Haase] method and its association with age and refractive error in clinical population of wide age range.A cross-sectional study was carried out with 170 clinical subjects aged 15-78 years with an average age of 40.7±16.62 years. All the participants had best-corrected visual acuity better than 20/25, stereopsis ≤60 second of arc, no heterotropia, not undergone vision therapy, and had no eye disease. The distance associated HTF was measured with the Cross

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2017 Clinical Optometry

100. Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study (PubMed)

Genetically low vitamin D concentrations and myopic refractive error: a Mendelian randomization study Myopia prevalence has increased in the past 20 years, with many studies linking the increase to reduced time spent outdoors. A number of recent observational studies have shown an inverse association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and myopia. However, in such studies it is difficult to separate the effects of time outdoors and vitamin D levels. In this work we use Mendelian (...) randomization (MR) to assess if genetically determined 25(OH)D levels contribute to the degree of myopia.We performed MR using results from a meta-analysis of refractive error (RE) genome-wide association study (GWAS) that included 37 382 and 8 376 adult participants of European and Asian ancestry, respectively, published by the Consortium for Refractive Error And Myopia (CREAM). We used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DHCR7, CYP2R1, GC and CYP24A1 genes with known effects on 25(OH)D

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2017 International journal of epidemiology

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