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Refractive Error

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61. Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of Refractive Errors (PubMed)

Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of Refractive Errors The cornea is the target of most surgeries for refractive disorders, as myopia. It is estimated that almost 1 million patients undergo corneal refractive surgery each year in the United States. Refractive surgery includes photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) that produces intense postoperative pain. This review presents the main pain mechanisms behind PRK-related pain and the available (...) steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic analgesics, cold balanced saline solution, topical anesthetic, gabapentin, and morphine to treat postoperative pain in PRK.The percentage of responders has seldom been reported, and few studies allow for the formal calculation of the number necessary to treat. Postoperative intense pain after PRK laser surgery remains the main challenge to its widespread use for the correction of refractive errors.

2016 EvidenceUpdates

62. Implantable collamer lens for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery (PubMed)

Implantable collamer lens for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery To assess the safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery.This study evaluated 19 eyes of 12 patients who underwent ICL implantation after corneal refractive surgeries. They were followed up for 1y to 5y of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest (...) refractive error, flat and steep K value, axial length, intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell density, adverse events after ICL surgery.The mean follow-up period was 39.05±19.22 mo (range, 1-5y). Spherical equivalent refractive error changed from -7.45±3.02 D preoperatively to -0.85±1.10 D 1wk to 1mo after ICL implantation, with the safety and efficacy indices being 1.12 and 1.15, respectively. A total of 52.63% of eyes were within ±0.5 D of the predicted spherical equivalents, 73.68% were

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2016 International journal of ophthalmology

63. Wavefront-optimized surface retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery: a retrospective study (PubMed)

Wavefront-optimized surface retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery: a retrospective study Retreatments are sometimes necessary to correct residual or induced refractive errors following refractive surgery. Many different combinations of primary treatment methods and retreatment techniques have been studied, however, few studies have investigated wavefront-optimized (WFO) technology for retreatment following primary refractive surgery. This study aimed (...) to report the outcomes of WFO photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery with PRK, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK).We reviewed records of patients who underwent WFO PRK retreatments using the Allegretto Wave Eye-Q 400 Hz Excimer Laser System (Alcon Surgical) between January 2008 and April 2011 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Madigan Army Medical Center. Outcomes were

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2016 Eye and Vision

64. Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensarâ„¢ AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error (PubMed)

Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensarâ„¢ AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error In this study we evaluate the visual outcomes, safety, efficacy, and stability of implanting of second sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) to correct unsatisfied ametropic patients after phacoemulsification. Methods. Retrospective study of 15 eyes (15 patients) underwent secondary intraocular lens implanted into the ciliary sulcus. The IOL used (...) was a Sensar IOL three-piece foldable hydrophobic acrylic IOL. The first IOL in all patients was acrylic intrabagal IOL implanted in uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery. Results. Fifteen eyes (15 patients) were involved in this study. Preoperatively, mean log⁡MAR UDVA and CDVA were 0.88 ± 0.22 and 0.19 ± 0.13, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 28 months (range: 24 to 36 months). At the end of the follow-up, all eyes achieved log⁡MAR UDVA of 0.20 ± 0.12 with postoperative refraction ranging from

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2016 Journal of ophthalmology

65. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses

Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses Obyn C, Smit Y, Post P, Kohn L, Defourny N, Christiaens W, Paulus D Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation (...) of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Obyn C, Smit Y, Post P, Kohn L, Defourny N, Christiaens W, Paulus D. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). KCE Reports 215. 2013 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Keratectomy, Subepithelial, Laser-Assisted; Laser Therapy; Lenses, Intraocular; Photorefractive Keratectomy

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

66. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 1: Perceptions and experiences

Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 1: Perceptions and experiences Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 1: Perceptions and experiences Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 1: Perceptions and experiences Christiaens W, Kohn L, Obyn C, De Winter L, Gussé S, Defourny N, De Laet C, Paulus D Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation (...) of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Christiaens W, Kohn L, Obyn C, De Winter L, Gussé S, Defourny N, De Laet C, Paulus D. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 1: Perceptions and experiences. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). KCE Reports 202. 2013 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Humans; Refractive Errors; Refractive Surgical Procedures Language Published English Country

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

67. Response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome. (PubMed)

Response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome. To describe the immediate response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS).Children born between May and December 2015 with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS and enrolled in a multidisciplinary early intervention program were included in this study. All children received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including dynamic (...) retinoscopy and cycloplegic refraction. Children were prescribed their full correction if they met the criteria for refractive error, and additional plus 3.00 overcorrection for strabismus, accommodative dysfunction, and/or low vision. Monocular and binocular visual responses to Lea Grating Test at 30 cm, with and without eyeglasses, were measured on day 1 of glasses wear.A total of 60 children were evaluated (mean age at evaluation, 11.5 ± 1.1 months; range, 9.0-16.0 months). Lea Grating Test responses

2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

68. Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for the treatment of myopic refractive errors: Six-month interim findings. (PubMed)

Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for the treatment of myopic refractive errors: Six-month interim findings. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking (CXL) in low myopia.Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany.Prospective case series.Healthy eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism had photorefractive intrastromal CXL using the Mosaic system to apply ultraviolet-A (UVA) 365 nm (30 mW/cm2) irradiance (total calculated UVA dose (...) of 10 J/cm2 or 15 J/cm2) with riboflavin 0.1% solution. Efficacy was determined by the change in the manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corneal curvature. Safety was determined by the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), slitlamp biomicroscopy, endothelial cell count, and adverse events.Twenty-six eyes of 14 patients with a mean age of 30.8 years ± 9.3 (SD) were included. There were statistically significant improvements in UDVA 1, 3

2017 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

69. Visual symptoms associated with refractive errors among Thangka artists of Kathmandu valley. (PubMed)

Visual symptoms associated with refractive errors among Thangka artists of Kathmandu valley. Prolong near work, especially among people with uncorrected refractive error is considered a potential source of visual symptoms. The present study aims to determine the visual symptoms and the association of those with refractive errors among Thangka artists.In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 242 (46.1%) participants of 525 thangka artists examined, with age ranged between 16 years to 39 years (...) which comprised of 112 participants with significant refractive errors and 130 absolutely emmetropic participants, were enrolled from six Thangka painting schools. The visual symptoms were assessed using a structured questionnaire consisting of nine items and scoring from 0 to 6 consecutive scales. The eye examination included detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, objective and subjective refraction, and assessment of heterophoria, vergence and accommodation. Symptoms were presented

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2017 BMC Ophthalmology

70. Prevalence and associated risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors among people with diabetes in Shanghai. (PubMed)

Prevalence and associated risk factors of undercorrected refractive errors among people with diabetes in Shanghai. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of undercorrected refractive error (URE) among people with diabetes in the Baoshan District of Shanghai, where data for undercorrected refractive error are limited.The study was a population-based survey of 649 persons (aged 60 years or older) with diabetes in Baoshan, Shanghai in 2009. One copy of the questionnaire was completed (...) one line using appropriate spectacles. Under multiple logistic regression analysis, older age, female gender, non-farmer, increasing degree of myopia, lens opacities status, diabetic retinopathy (DR), body mass index (BMI) index lower than normal, and poor glycaemic control were associated with higher URE levels. Wearing distance eyeglasses was a protective factor for URE.The undercorrected refractive error in diabetic adults was high in Shanghai. Health education and regular refractive assessment

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2017 BMC Ophthalmology

71. Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review. (PubMed)

Patient-reported Outcomes for Assessment of Quality of Life in Refractive Error: A Systematic Review. This review has identified the best existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments in refractive error. The article highlights the limitations of the existing instruments and discusses the way forward.A systematic review was conducted to identify the types of PROs used in refractive error, to determine the quality of the existing PRO instruments in terms of their psychometric properties (...) , and to determine the limitations in the content of the existing PRO instruments.Articles describing a PRO instrument measuring 1 or more domains of quality of life in people with refractive error were identified by electronic searches on the MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases. The information on content development, psychometric properties, validity, reliability, and responsiveness of those PRO instruments was extracted from the selected articles. The analysis was done based

2017 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

72. Comparison of noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction in categorizing refractive error data in children. (PubMed)

Comparison of noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction in categorizing refractive error data in children. To systematically analyse the differences between cycloplegic and noncycloplegic refractive errors (RE) in children and to determine if the predictive value of noncycloplegic RE in categorizing RE can be improved.Random cluster sampling was used to select 6825 children aged 4-15 years. Autorefraction was performed under both noncycloplegic and cycloplegic (induced with 1 (...) % of the eyes correctly classified. A higher VA cut-off (i.e., ≤6/18) resulted in 97.5% of eyes classified correctly.Noncycloplegic assessment of RE in children overestimates myopia and results in a high error rate for emmetropic and hyperopic RE. Adjusting for age and applying uncorrected VA cut-offs to noncycloplegic assessments improves detection of myopic RE and may help in identifying myopic RE in situations where cycloplegia is not available but does not help in identifying the magnitude of refractive

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2017 Acta ophthalmologica

73. The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews. (PubMed)

The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews should inform American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP) guidelines. The quality of systematic reviews related to the forthcoming Preferred Practice Pattern® guideline (PPP) Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery is unknown. We sought to identify reliable systematic reviews to assist the AAO Refractive Errors & Refractive (...) Surgery PPP.Systematic reviews were eligible if they evaluated the effectiveness or safety of interventions included in the 2012 PPP Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery. To identify potentially eligible systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision United States Satellite database of systematic reviews. Two authors identified eligible reviews and abstracted information about the characteristics and quality of the reviews independently using the Systematic Review Data Repository. We

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2017 BMC Ophthalmology

74. Development of refractive errors - what can we learn from inherited retinal dystrophies? (PubMed)

Development of refractive errors - what can we learn from inherited retinal dystrophies? It is unknown which retinal cells are involved in the retina-to-sclera signaling cascade causing myopia. As inherited retinal dystrophies (IRD) are characterized by dysfunction of a single retinal cell type and have a high risk of refractive errors, a study investigating the affected cell type, causal gene, and refractive error in IRDs may provide insight herein.Case-control study.Study Population: Total (...) ]) and CACNA1F (SE -5.33 D [SD 3.10]) coincided with the highest degree of myopia and in CABP4 (SE 4.81 D [SD 0.35]) with the highest degree of hyperopia.Refractive errors, in particular myopia, are common in IRD. The bipolar synapse and the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptor may serve as critical sites for myopia development.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2017 American Journal of Ophthalmology

75. The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. (PubMed)

The Effect of Spectacle Lenses Containing Peripheral Defocus on Refractive Error and Horizontal Eye Shape in the Guinea Pig. It has been proposed that the peripheral retina, responding to local optical defocus, contributes to myopia and associated altered eye growth in humans. To test this hypothesis, we measured the changes in central (on-axis) and peripheral ocular dimensions in guinea pigs wearing a concentric bifocal spectacle lens design with power restricted to the periphery.Five groups (...) of guinea pigs (n = 83) wore either a unifocal (UF) spectacle lens (-4, 0, or +4 Diopters [D]), or a peripheral defocus (PF) spectacle lens that had a plano center (diameter of 5 mm) with either -4 or +4 D in the surround (-4/0 or +4/0 D). The overall optical diameter of all lenses was 12 mm. Lenses were worn over one eye from 8 to 18 days of age for negative and plano lenses, or from 8 to 22 days of age for positive lenses. Refractive error was measured centrally and 30° off-axis in the temporal

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

76. Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. (PubMed)

Ocular Determinants of Refractive Error and Its Age- and Sex-Related Variations in the Chinese American Eye Study. Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously.To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California.The Chinese American Eye Study (...) , a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016. This study included data from 4582 participants who underwent an eye examination to obtain axial length (AL), central corneal thickness, vitreous chamber depth (VCD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), corneal power (CP), noncycloplegic subjective refraction, and lens nuclear

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2017 JAMA ophthalmology

77. Visual Impairment, Undercorrected Refractive Errors, and Activity Limitations in Older Adults: Findings From the Three-City Alienor Study. (PubMed)

Visual Impairment, Undercorrected Refractive Errors, and Activity Limitations in Older Adults: Findings From the Three-City Alienor Study. As vision is required in almost all activities of daily living, visual impairment (VI) may be one of the major treatable factors for preventing activity limitations. We aimed to evaluate the attributable risk of VI associated with activity limitations and the extent to which limitations are avoidable with optimal optical correction of undercorrected (...) for potential confounders, VI was associated with each domain of activity limitations, except basic activities of daily living (ADL) limitations. These associations were found for even minimal levels of VI. PAR was estimated at 10.1% (95% CI: 5.2-10.6) for mobility limitations, at 26.0% (95% CI: 13.5-41.2) for instrumental ADL (IADL) limitations, and at 24.9% (95% CI: 10.5-47.1) for social participation restrictions. GIF for improvement of undercorrected refractive errors was 6.1% (95% CI: 3.8-8.5

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

78. Macular Ganglion Cell and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Refractive Errors-An Optical Coherence Tomography Study. (PubMed)

Macular Ganglion Cell and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children With Refractive Errors-An Optical Coherence Tomography Study. To study the distribution of macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in children with refractive errors.Two hundred forty-three healthy eyes from 139 children with refractive error ranging from -10.00 to +5.00 D were recruited from the National University Hospital Eye Surgery (...) , P-value 0.115). None of the RNFL parameters were correlated with AL.This study establishes normative macular GC-IPL and RNFL thickness in children with refractive errors. Our results suggest that high definition optical coherence tomography RNFL parameters and minimum GC-IPL are not affected by AL or myopia in children, and therefore warrants further evaluation in pediatric glaucoma patients.

2017 Journal of Glaucoma

79. Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery. (PubMed)

Long-Term Changes in Refractive Error and Clinical Evaluation in Partially Accommodative Esotropia after Surgery. We investigate the changes in refractive error and clinical evaluation in partially accommodative esotropia(PAET) after surgery. A total of 68 patients PAET who received at least 2 years of follow-up after surgery were enrolled in this study. We performed a retrospective study in patients who underwent unilateral or bilateral medial rectus recession for a non-accommodative component (...) of PAET between January 2005 and March 2013. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence of dominancy (dominant, non-dominant, alternative eye), and presence of amblyopia (amblyopic, fellow, normal eye). Changes and changing pattern in SE refractive error were analyzed in all patients and compared between groups. Patients were divided into two groups, those weaned off of hyperopic glasses and those who continued using them, then factors that significantly influenced the continued use

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2016 PLoS ONE

80. Refractive error in underserved adults: causes and potential solutions. (PubMed)

Refractive error in underserved adults: causes and potential solutions. To evaluate the epidemiology of uncorrected refractive errors (URE) in adults both in the United States and globally, health outcomes impacted by URE, common barriers to treatment, and propose potential interventions.URE is the main cause of visual impairment and the second leading cause of blindness globally. Rates of URE are rising, and cause disability that reduces productivity, economic earnings, and the quality of life (...) refractive error could decrease rates of URE.

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2017 Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

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