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Refractive Error

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61. The Video Head Impulse Test and the Influence of Daily Use of Spectacles to Correct a Refractive Error (PubMed)

The Video Head Impulse Test and the Influence of Daily Use of Spectacles to Correct a Refractive Error To determine the influence of daily use of spectacles to correct a refractive error, on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain measured with the video head impulse test (vHIT).This prospective study enrolled subjects between 18 and 80 years old with and without a refractive error. Subjects were classified into three groups: (1) contact lenses, (2) spectacles, and (3) control group without (...) group (n = 16), spectacles group (n = 48), and contact lenses group (n = 15) (p = 0.111). Both the spectacles group and contact lenses group showed no statistically significant correlation between VOR gain and amount of refractive error, for rightwards (p = 0.071) and leftwards (p = 0.716) head rotations. There was no statistical significant difference in VOR gain between testing monocularly or binocularly (p = 0.132) and between testing with or without wearing contact lenses (p = 0.800

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

62. Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error (PubMed)

Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have (...) previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development. Here, we use a combination of genetic mouse models to demonstrate that Prss56 mutations leading to reduced ocular size and hyperopia act via a loss of function mechanism. Using a conditional gene targeting strategy, we show that PRSS56 derived from Müller glia

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2018 PLoS genetics

63. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Amblyopia among Refractive Errors in an Eastern European Population (PubMed)

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Amblyopia among Refractive Errors in an Eastern European Population Background and objective: Amblyopia is the leading cause of visual impairment in children and adults and is very common during childhood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and the risk factors of amblyopia in a pediatric population with refractive errors from an Eastern European country. Materials and methods: A total of 1231 children aged 5⁻16 years, who had refractive errors (...) program can provide the relevant information for future mothers that will allow for a better management of the condition. We also wanted to highlight the need for amblyopia screening starting from the age of 3 years in case of significant parental refractive errors, strabismus, prematurity, and maternal risk factors.

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2018 Medicina

64. Effects of the Tyrosinase-Dependent Dopaminergic System on Refractive Error Development in Guinea Pigs. (PubMed)

Effects of the Tyrosinase-Dependent Dopaminergic System on Refractive Error Development in Guinea Pigs. To determine if myopia in albino guinea pigs is linked to altered ocular dopamine (DA) levels in both the retinal and uveal dopaminergic systems.Retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid were dissected from eyes of 2-week-old albino myopic (AM) and pigmented hyperopic (PH) guinea pigs. The levels of DA, dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were (...) determined. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tyrosinase activities were also measured. PH animals received daily unilateral peribulbar injections of either kojic acid (tyrosinase inhibitor) or vehicle for 2 to 4 weeks. Refractive errors and ocular axial dimensions were measured by eccentric infrared photoretinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography.Retinal DA levels were similar between the two strains, but AM eyes had higher levels of DOPAC. RPE/choroid DA and tyrosinase activity in AM eyes were lower than in PH

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

65. Estimating heritability of refractive error in Koreans: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (PubMed)

Estimating heritability of refractive error in Koreans: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. To estimate the familial correlation and heritability of refractive error in general Korean population.From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 13 258 subjects of 7920 families, who were aged ≥19 years, were included in the study. Using variance components analysis, the additive genetic effect, or heritability, and the common and unique environmental (...) effects on refractive error were examined, adopting common environments shared by cohabiting family or by siblings.The proportions of hyperopia, myopia and high myopia in Koreans were 0.8%, 45.2% and 5.7% respectively. The correlation coefficients of spherical equivalent (SE) were 0.257 for parent-offspring pairs, 0.410 for sibling pairs and 0.112 for spouse pairs (p < 0.001 for all). Common environment shared by siblings affected the variation of SE significantly (p < 0.001), but that shared

2018 Acta ophthalmologica

66. Refractive Errors in University Students in Central China: The Anyang University Students Eye Study. (PubMed)

Refractive Errors in University Students in Central China: The Anyang University Students Eye Study. To assess the prevalence of refractive errors and associated factors in university students in urban areas of Anyang, Central China.This is a cross-sectional university-based study of 16- to 26-year-old students in China. Subjects from two universities were invited to undergo a comprehensive eye examination. Cycloplegic refraction was acquired by autorefractor with two drops of 1% cyclopentolate

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

67. Gender inequality in global burden of uncorrected refractive error. (PubMed)

Gender inequality in global burden of uncorrected refractive error. To explore gender inequality in global burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) by year, age, and socioeconomic status using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).International, comparative burden-of-disease study.Global, regional, and national gender-specific DALY numbers; crude DALY rates; and age-standardized DALY rates caused by URE, by year and age, were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Human

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

68. Refractive error and visual impairment in Ireland schoolchildren. (PubMed)

Refractive error and visual impairment in Ireland schoolchildren. To report refractive error prevalence and visual impairment in Republic of Ireland (henceforth 'Ireland') schoolchildren.The Ireland Eye Study examined 1626 participants (881 boys, 745 girls) in two age groups, 6-7 years (728) and 12-13 years (898), in Ireland between June 2016 and January 2018. Participating schools were selected by stratified random sampling, representing a mix of school type (primary/postprimary), location (...) Eye Study is the first population-based study to report on refractive error prevalence and visual impairment in Ireland. Myopia prevalence is similar to comparable studies of white European children, but the levels of presenting visual impairment are markedly higher than those reported for children living in Northern Ireland, suggesting barriers exist in accessing eye care.© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions

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2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

69. Prevalence of refractive errors in Tibetan adolescents. (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive errors in Tibetan adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent eye disease in remote areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has rarely been reported. To understand the prevalence of common eye diseases in Tibet, we performed ocular-disease screening on students from primary and secondary schools in Tibet, and compared the prevalence to that in the Central China Plain (referred to here as the "plains area").The refractive status of students was evaluated with a Spot™ vision (...) screener. The test was conducted three or fewer times for both eyes of each student and results with best correction were recorded.A total of 3246 students from primary and secondary schools in the Tibet Naidong district were screened, yielding a refractive error rate of 28.51%, which was significantly lower than that of the plains group (28.51% vs. 56.92%, p < 0.001). In both groups, the prevalence of refractive errors among females was higher than that among males.We found that Tibetan adolescents

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

70. Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for treatment of myopic refractive error: Findings from 12-month prospective study using an epithelium-off protocol. (PubMed)

Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for treatment of myopic refractive error: Findings from 12-month prospective study using an epithelium-off protocol. To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking (CXL) in patients with low myopia.Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany.Prospective case series.Healthy eyes with myopia were treated with photorefractive intrastromal CXL using the Mosaic System. Riboflavin 0.1% solution (...) no significant changes in endothelial cell density (P = 1.00) or number of cells (P = .95) at 12 months postoperatively, and no adverse events were reported.Photorefractive intrastromal CXL was a safe and efficacious treatment of refractive error in patients with low myopia.Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

71. Changes in refractive error and axial length after horizontal muscle surgery for strabismus. (PubMed)

Changes in refractive error and axial length after horizontal muscle surgery for strabismus. To investigate changes in refractive error following horizontal muscle surgery and to analyze the relationship between these changes and axial length.Patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (LR group) or unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection (RR group) were investigated prospectively. The patients were followed for at least 3 (...)  months postoperatively; refractive error, axial length, mean corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure were evaluated at each examination. Postoperative changes in both groups were compared.A total of 64 eyes of 47 patients were included-34 eyes in the LR group and 30 eyes in the RR group. In both groups refractive error, axial length, and mean corneal astigmatism significantly increased 1 day postoperatively, although the changes in all three parameters

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

72. Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of Refractive Errors (PubMed)

Mechanisms of Corneal Pain and Implications for Postoperative Pain After Laser Correction of Refractive Errors The cornea is the target of most surgeries for refractive disorders, as myopia. It is estimated that almost 1 million patients undergo corneal refractive surgery each year in the United States. Refractive surgery includes photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) that produces intense postoperative pain. This review presents the main pain mechanisms behind PRK-related pain and the available (...) steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, systemic analgesics, cold balanced saline solution, topical anesthetic, gabapentin, and morphine to treat postoperative pain in PRK.The percentage of responders has seldom been reported, and few studies allow for the formal calculation of the number necessary to treat. Postoperative intense pain after PRK laser surgery remains the main challenge to its widespread use for the correction of refractive errors.

2016 EvidenceUpdates

73. Implantable collamer lens for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery (PubMed)

Implantable collamer lens for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery To assess the safety, efficacy, predictability and stability of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for residual refractive error after corneal refractive surgery.This study evaluated 19 eyes of 12 patients who underwent ICL implantation after corneal refractive surgeries. They were followed up for 1y to 5y of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), manifest (...) refractive error, flat and steep K value, axial length, intraocular pressure, corneal endothelial cell density, adverse events after ICL surgery.The mean follow-up period was 39.05±19.22 mo (range, 1-5y). Spherical equivalent refractive error changed from -7.45±3.02 D preoperatively to -0.85±1.10 D 1wk to 1mo after ICL implantation, with the safety and efficacy indices being 1.12 and 1.15, respectively. A total of 52.63% of eyes were within ±0.5 D of the predicted spherical equivalents, 73.68% were

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2016 International journal of ophthalmology

74. Wavefront-optimized surface retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery: a retrospective study (PubMed)

Wavefront-optimized surface retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery: a retrospective study Retreatments are sometimes necessary to correct residual or induced refractive errors following refractive surgery. Many different combinations of primary treatment methods and retreatment techniques have been studied, however, few studies have investigated wavefront-optimized (WFO) technology for retreatment following primary refractive surgery. This study aimed (...) to report the outcomes of WFO photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) retreatments of refractive error following previous laser refractive surgery with PRK, laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), or laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK).We reviewed records of patients who underwent WFO PRK retreatments using the Allegretto Wave Eye-Q 400 Hz Excimer Laser System (Alcon Surgical) between January 2008 and April 2011 at Walter Reed Army Medical Center and Madigan Army Medical Center. Outcomes were

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2016 Eye and Vision

75. Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensarâ„¢ AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error (PubMed)

Refractive Results: Safety and Efficacy of Secondary Piggyback Sensarâ„¢ AR40 Intraocular Lens Implantation to Correct Pseudophakic Refractive Error In this study we evaluate the visual outcomes, safety, efficacy, and stability of implanting of second sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) to correct unsatisfied ametropic patients after phacoemulsification. Methods. Retrospective study of 15 eyes (15 patients) underwent secondary intraocular lens implanted into the ciliary sulcus. The IOL used (...) was a Sensar IOL three-piece foldable hydrophobic acrylic IOL. The first IOL in all patients was acrylic intrabagal IOL implanted in uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery. Results. Fifteen eyes (15 patients) were involved in this study. Preoperatively, mean log⁡MAR UDVA and CDVA were 0.88 ± 0.22 and 0.19 ± 0.13, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 28 months (range: 24 to 36 months). At the end of the follow-up, all eyes achieved log⁡MAR UDVA of 0.20 ± 0.12 with postoperative refraction ranging from

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2016 Journal of ophthalmology

76. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses

Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses Obyn C, Smit Y, Post P, Kohn L, Defourny N, Christiaens W, Paulus D Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation (...) of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Obyn C, Smit Y, Post P, Kohn L, Defourny N, Christiaens W, Paulus D. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 2: laser surgery and intraocular lenses. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). KCE Reports 215. 2013 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Keratectomy, Subepithelial, Laser-Assisted; Laser Therapy; Lenses, Intraocular; Photorefractive Keratectomy

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

77. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 1: Perceptions and experiences

Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? Part 1: Perceptions and experiences Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 1: Perceptions and experiences Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 1: Perceptions and experiences Christiaens W, Kohn L, Obyn C, De Winter L, Gussé S, Defourny N, De Laet C, Paulus D Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA. No evaluation (...) of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Christiaens W, Kohn L, Obyn C, De Winter L, Gussé S, Defourny N, De Laet C, Paulus D. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – Part 1: Perceptions and experiences. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). KCE Reports 202. 2013 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Humans; Refractive Errors; Refractive Surgical Procedures Language Published English Country

2013 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

78. Response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome. (PubMed)

Response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome. To describe the immediate response to correction of refractive errors and hypoaccommodation in children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS).Children born between May and December 2015 with a confirmed diagnosis of CZS and enrolled in a multidisciplinary early intervention program were included in this study. All children received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including dynamic (...) retinoscopy and cycloplegic refraction. Children were prescribed their full correction if they met the criteria for refractive error, and additional plus 3.00 overcorrection for strabismus, accommodative dysfunction, and/or low vision. Monocular and binocular visual responses to Lea Grating Test at 30 cm, with and without eyeglasses, were measured on day 1 of glasses wear.A total of 60 children were evaluated (mean age at evaluation, 11.5 ± 1.1 months; range, 9.0-16.0 months). Lea Grating Test responses

2017 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

79. Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for the treatment of myopic refractive errors: Six-month interim findings. (PubMed)

Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for the treatment of myopic refractive errors: Six-month interim findings. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking (CXL) in low myopia.Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany.Prospective case series.Healthy eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism had photorefractive intrastromal CXL using the Mosaic system to apply ultraviolet-A (UVA) 365 nm (30 mW/cm2) irradiance (total calculated UVA dose (...) of 10 J/cm2 or 15 J/cm2) with riboflavin 0.1% solution. Efficacy was determined by the change in the manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), and corneal curvature. Safety was determined by the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), slitlamp biomicroscopy, endothelial cell count, and adverse events.Twenty-six eyes of 14 patients with a mean age of 30.8 years ± 9.3 (SD) were included. There were statistically significant improvements in UDVA 1, 3

2017 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

80. Visual symptoms associated with refractive errors among Thangka artists of Kathmandu valley. (PubMed)

Visual symptoms associated with refractive errors among Thangka artists of Kathmandu valley. Prolong near work, especially among people with uncorrected refractive error is considered a potential source of visual symptoms. The present study aims to determine the visual symptoms and the association of those with refractive errors among Thangka artists.In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 242 (46.1%) participants of 525 thangka artists examined, with age ranged between 16 years to 39 years (...) which comprised of 112 participants with significant refractive errors and 130 absolutely emmetropic participants, were enrolled from six Thangka painting schools. The visual symptoms were assessed using a structured questionnaire consisting of nine items and scoring from 0 to 6 consecutive scales. The eye examination included detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, objective and subjective refraction, and assessment of heterophoria, vergence and accommodation. Symptoms were presented

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2017 BMC Ophthalmology

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