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Refractive Error

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41. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Age-related Macular Degeneration and Refractive Error, Socio-demographic Features, and Biochemical Variables in a Turkish Population (PubMed)

Evaluation of the Relationship Between Age-related Macular Degeneration and Refractive Error, Socio-demographic Features, and Biochemical Variables in a Turkish Population To investigate the relationship between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and refractive error and axial length, as well as the socio-demographic characteristics and biochemical variables that may affect this relationship.A total of 196 eyes of 98 patients over 50 years of age who were diagnosed with AMD at our clinic (...) were included in this cross-sectional study. Early and late AMD findings were categorized according to the age-related eye disease study grading scale. Objective refractive error was measured by autorefractometer, confirmed by subjective examination, and spherical equivalent was calculated. Refractive errors of -0.50 D to 0.50 D were classified as emmetropia, <-0.50 D as myopia, and >0.50 D as hyperopia. Axial length was measured by ultrasonic biometry and values ≤23.00 mm were classified as short

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2018 Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology

42. Agreement and Repeatability of Two Biometers to Measure Anterior Segment Components: Refractive Error Effect (PubMed)

Agreement and Repeatability of Two Biometers to Measure Anterior Segment Components: Refractive Error Effect BACKGROUND To assess the repeatability and agreement between a new high-resolution optical coherence tomographer (OCT) and a Scheimpflug topographer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty phakic and healthy participants were measured in this study, and one eye per participant was analyzed. Depending on their refractive error, each participant was allocated into a myopic, hyperopic, or emmetropic (...) pachymetry was about 15 µm, and for the OCT, it was about 4 µm for all groups. On average, the Sirius Scheimpflug instrument measured shallower anterior chamber depth (about 0.10 mm), shorter angle-to-angle (about 0.5 mm), thinner corneas (approximately 10 µm), and narrower angles (around 5 degrees) for all refractive groups. CONCLUSIONS The repeatability of the Cirrus OCT and Sirius Scheimpflug instrument was good and independent of the refractive error. Nevertheless, to judge whether these instruments

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2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

43. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in an adult population in southern India (PubMed)

Prevalence and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in an adult population in southern India To investigate prevalence and risk factors for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in southern India.Randomly sampled villages were enumerated to identify people aged ≥40 years. Participants were interviewed for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended a hospital-based ophthalmic examination including visual acuity measurement and objective and subjective measurement of refractive

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2018 Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics

44. Refractive Error among Male Primary School Students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors (PubMed)

Refractive Error among Male Primary School Students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors Refractive error is a common and serious eye disorder that affects more than 153 million people globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and pattern of refractive error among male primary school children in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected group of 395 students (aged 6-14 years) in Jazan region, Southwest (...) Saudi Arabia. An optometrist and medical students assessed the refraction error using an autorefractor, a Snellen E chart and retinoscopy.The overall prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in either eye was, 22% higher among rural students. The most prevalent refractive error was hyperopia (32.2%) followed by myopic astigmatism (31%) then myopia (17.2%). Next were hyperopic astigmatism (16.1%) and mixed astigmatism (3.5%). The following variables were associated with a higher risk of refractive

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2018 The open ophthalmology journal

45. Comparison of changes in refractive error and corneal curvature following small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery (PubMed)

Comparison of changes in refractive error and corneal curvature following small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery To compare visual acuity, refractive error, corneal curvature, and the stability of these parameters during the early postoperative period following small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) surgery.One hundred and five eyes and 110 eyes were enrolled in SMILE (...) with decreased stability of postoperative refractive error and corneal curvature relative to SMILE.

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

47. The prevalence of vision impairment and refractive error in 3654 first year students at Tianjin Medical University (PubMed)

The prevalence of vision impairment and refractive error in 3654 first year students at Tianjin Medical University To determine the prevalence of vision impairment (VI) and refractive error in first year university students at the Tianjin Medical University.This is a cross-sectional observational cohort study of VI and refractive error among first year university students at the Tianjin Medical University. The first year university students were involved in this study and were given a detailed (...) cataract, retinal atrophy or degeneration, strabismus, congenital nystagmus, refractive surgery orthokeratology. Totally 3286 (89.93%) subjects had VI due to refractive error. Only 218 (5.97%) students were emmetropia. Moreover, refractive error was the main cause for the VI (95.63%). Totally 3242 (92.52%) students were myopia and the prevalence of mild, moderate, and high myopia subgroup was 27.05%, 44.35%, and 21.26% respectively. Totally 44 (1.29%) subjects were hyperopic. The rates of uncorrected

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2018 International journal of ophthalmology

48. Studying the factors related to refractive error regression after PRK surgery. (PubMed)

Studying the factors related to refractive error regression after PRK surgery. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is used for a wide range of refractive errors such as low to moderate myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. While many improvements have been made in laser application and accuracy as well as the modes of corneal flap removal, and although the results are somewhat predictable, regression of refractive errors is still a common complaint among the patients undergoing refractive surgery (...) with Excimer Laser. We aimed to determine related factors of regression following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in different types of refractive errors.This cross-sectional study included patients who had undergone PRK more than 6 months previously and investigated refractive error regression and related factors. The participants were those who had PRK eye surgery for the first time from 2013 to 2016 using Technolas 217z100. A refraction value of spherical equivalent > 0.75 D after cycloplegic

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

49. Deep Learning for Predicting Refractive Error From Retinal Fundus Images. (PubMed)

Deep Learning for Predicting Refractive Error From Retinal Fundus Images. We evaluate how deep learning can be applied to extract novel information such as refractive error from retinal fundus imaging.Retinal fundus images used in this study were 45- and 30-degree field of view images from the UK Biobank and Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) clinical trials, respectively. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction in UK Biobank and subjective refraction in AREDS. We trained a deep (...) learning algorithm to predict refractive error from a total of 226,870 images and validated it on 24,007 UK Biobank and 15,750 AREDS images. Our model used the "attention" method to identify features that are correlated with refractive error.The resulting algorithm had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.56 diopters (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.56) for estimating spherical equivalent on the UK Biobank data set and 0.91 diopters (95% CI: 0.89-0.93) for the AREDS data set. The baseline expected MAE

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

50. The Video Head Impulse Test and the Influence of Daily Use of Spectacles to Correct a Refractive Error (PubMed)

The Video Head Impulse Test and the Influence of Daily Use of Spectacles to Correct a Refractive Error To determine the influence of daily use of spectacles to correct a refractive error, on the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain measured with the video head impulse test (vHIT).This prospective study enrolled subjects between 18 and 80 years old with and without a refractive error. Subjects were classified into three groups: (1) contact lenses, (2) spectacles, and (3) control group without (...) group (n = 16), spectacles group (n = 48), and contact lenses group (n = 15) (p = 0.111). Both the spectacles group and contact lenses group showed no statistically significant correlation between VOR gain and amount of refractive error, for rightwards (p = 0.071) and leftwards (p = 0.716) head rotations. There was no statistical significant difference in VOR gain between testing monocularly or binocularly (p = 0.132) and between testing with or without wearing contact lenses (p = 0.800

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2018 Frontiers in neurology

51. Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error (PubMed)

Müller glia-derived PRSS56 is required to sustain ocular axial growth and prevent refractive error A mismatch between optical power and ocular axial length results in refractive errors. Uncorrected refractive errors constitute the most common cause of vision loss and second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Although the retina is known to play a critical role in regulating ocular growth and refractive development, the precise factors and mechanisms involved are poorly defined. We have (...) previously identified a role for the secreted serine protease PRSS56 in ocular size determination and PRSS56 variants have been implicated in the etiology of both hyperopia and myopia, highlighting its importance in refractive development. Here, we use a combination of genetic mouse models to demonstrate that Prss56 mutations leading to reduced ocular size and hyperopia act via a loss of function mechanism. Using a conditional gene targeting strategy, we show that PRSS56 derived from Müller glia

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2018 PLoS genetics

52. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Amblyopia among Refractive Errors in an Eastern European Population (PubMed)

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Amblyopia among Refractive Errors in an Eastern European Population Background and objective: Amblyopia is the leading cause of visual impairment in children and adults and is very common during childhood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and the risk factors of amblyopia in a pediatric population with refractive errors from an Eastern European country. Materials and methods: A total of 1231 children aged 5⁻16 years, who had refractive errors (...) program can provide the relevant information for future mothers that will allow for a better management of the condition. We also wanted to highlight the need for amblyopia screening starting from the age of 3 years in case of significant parental refractive errors, strabismus, prematurity, and maternal risk factors.

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2018 Medicina

53. Effects of the Tyrosinase-Dependent Dopaminergic System on Refractive Error Development in Guinea Pigs. (PubMed)

Effects of the Tyrosinase-Dependent Dopaminergic System on Refractive Error Development in Guinea Pigs. To determine if myopia in albino guinea pigs is linked to altered ocular dopamine (DA) levels in both the retinal and uveal dopaminergic systems.Retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid were dissected from eyes of 2-week-old albino myopic (AM) and pigmented hyperopic (PH) guinea pigs. The levels of DA, dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were (...) determined. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tyrosinase activities were also measured. PH animals received daily unilateral peribulbar injections of either kojic acid (tyrosinase inhibitor) or vehicle for 2 to 4 weeks. Refractive errors and ocular axial dimensions were measured by eccentric infrared photoretinoscopy and A-scan ultrasonography.Retinal DA levels were similar between the two strains, but AM eyes had higher levels of DOPAC. RPE/choroid DA and tyrosinase activity in AM eyes were lower than in PH

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

54. Estimating heritability of refractive error in Koreans: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (PubMed)

Estimating heritability of refractive error in Koreans: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. To estimate the familial correlation and heritability of refractive error in general Korean population.From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 13 258 subjects of 7920 families, who were aged ≥19 years, were included in the study. Using variance components analysis, the additive genetic effect, or heritability, and the common and unique environmental (...) effects on refractive error were examined, adopting common environments shared by cohabiting family or by siblings.The proportions of hyperopia, myopia and high myopia in Koreans were 0.8%, 45.2% and 5.7% respectively. The correlation coefficients of spherical equivalent (SE) were 0.257 for parent-offspring pairs, 0.410 for sibling pairs and 0.112 for spouse pairs (p < 0.001 for all). Common environment shared by siblings affected the variation of SE significantly (p < 0.001), but that shared

2018 Acta ophthalmologica

55. Refractive Errors in University Students in Central China: The Anyang University Students Eye Study. (PubMed)

Refractive Errors in University Students in Central China: The Anyang University Students Eye Study. To assess the prevalence of refractive errors and associated factors in university students in urban areas of Anyang, Central China.This is a cross-sectional university-based study of 16- to 26-year-old students in China. Subjects from two universities were invited to undergo a comprehensive eye examination. Cycloplegic refraction was acquired by autorefractor with two drops of 1% cyclopentolate

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

56. Gender inequality in global burden of uncorrected refractive error. (PubMed)

Gender inequality in global burden of uncorrected refractive error. To explore gender inequality in global burden of uncorrected refractive error (URE) by year, age, and socioeconomic status using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).International, comparative burden-of-disease study.Global, regional, and national gender-specific DALY numbers; crude DALY rates; and age-standardized DALY rates caused by URE, by year and age, were extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Human

2018 American Journal of Ophthalmology

57. Refractive error and visual impairment in Ireland schoolchildren. (PubMed)

Refractive error and visual impairment in Ireland schoolchildren. To report refractive error prevalence and visual impairment in Republic of Ireland (henceforth 'Ireland') schoolchildren.The Ireland Eye Study examined 1626 participants (881 boys, 745 girls) in two age groups, 6-7 years (728) and 12-13 years (898), in Ireland between June 2016 and January 2018. Participating schools were selected by stratified random sampling, representing a mix of school type (primary/postprimary), location (...) Eye Study is the first population-based study to report on refractive error prevalence and visual impairment in Ireland. Myopia prevalence is similar to comparable studies of white European children, but the levels of presenting visual impairment are markedly higher than those reported for children living in Northern Ireland, suggesting barriers exist in accessing eye care.© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2018. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions

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2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

58. Prevalence of refractive errors in Tibetan adolescents. (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive errors in Tibetan adolescents. The prevalence of adolescent eye disease in remote areas of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has rarely been reported. To understand the prevalence of common eye diseases in Tibet, we performed ocular-disease screening on students from primary and secondary schools in Tibet, and compared the prevalence to that in the Central China Plain (referred to here as the "plains area").The refractive status of students was evaluated with a Spot™ vision (...) screener. The test was conducted three or fewer times for both eyes of each student and results with best correction were recorded.A total of 3246 students from primary and secondary schools in the Tibet Naidong district were screened, yielding a refractive error rate of 28.51%, which was significantly lower than that of the plains group (28.51% vs. 56.92%, p < 0.001). In both groups, the prevalence of refractive errors among females was higher than that among males.We found that Tibetan adolescents

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

59. Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for treatment of myopic refractive error: Findings from 12-month prospective study using an epithelium-off protocol. (PubMed)

Photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking for treatment of myopic refractive error: Findings from 12-month prospective study using an epithelium-off protocol. To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of photorefractive intrastromal corneal crosslinking (CXL) in patients with low myopia.Ruhr University Eye Hospital, Bochum, Germany.Prospective case series.Healthy eyes with myopia were treated with photorefractive intrastromal CXL using the Mosaic System. Riboflavin 0.1% solution (...) no significant changes in endothelial cell density (P = 1.00) or number of cells (P = .95) at 12 months postoperatively, and no adverse events were reported.Photorefractive intrastromal CXL was a safe and efficacious treatment of refractive error in patients with low myopia.Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

60. Changes in refractive error and axial length after horizontal muscle surgery for strabismus. (PubMed)

Changes in refractive error and axial length after horizontal muscle surgery for strabismus. To investigate changes in refractive error following horizontal muscle surgery and to analyze the relationship between these changes and axial length.Patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent bilateral lateral rectus recession (LR group) or unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection (RR group) were investigated prospectively. The patients were followed for at least 3 (...)  months postoperatively; refractive error, axial length, mean corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure were evaluated at each examination. Postoperative changes in both groups were compared.A total of 64 eyes of 47 patients were included-34 eyes in the LR group and 30 eyes in the RR group. In both groups refractive error, axial length, and mean corneal astigmatism significantly increased 1 day postoperatively, although the changes in all three parameters

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

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