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Refractive Error

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41. Association of low birth weight with myopic refractive error and lower visual acuity in adulthood: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). (PubMed)

Association of low birth weight with myopic refractive error and lower visual acuity in adulthood: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Low birth weight (BW) is linked to impaired organ development in childhood, including altered ocular morphological and functional development. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low BW has long-term effects on visual acuity and refraction in adulthood.The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, observational cohort (...) none with visual acuity.Our data demonstrated that low BW is linked to visual acuity and refractive long-term outcomes long after childhood. Individuals with low BW are more likely to have lower visual acuity and a higher myopic refractive error in adulthood. Adults with high BW are more likely to have a more hyperopic refractive error.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2019. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

42. Longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure and association with systemic factors and refractive error: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study. (PubMed)

Longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure and association with systemic factors and refractive error: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study. To investigate the longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and its associations with refractive error and systemic determinants in a Chinese geriatric population.Prospective cohort study.Guangzhou Government Servant Physical Check-up Center, Guangzhou, China.4413 government employees aged no less than 40 years (41.9% female) attending annual physical

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2018 BMJ open

43. Relative Proportion Of Different Types Of Refractive Errors In Subjects Seeking Laser Vision Correction (PubMed)

Relative Proportion Of Different Types Of Refractive Errors In Subjects Seeking Laser Vision Correction Refractive errors are a form of optical defect affecting more than 2.3 billion people worldwide. As refractive errors are a major contributor of mild to moderate vision impairment, assessment of their relative proportion would be helpful in the strategic planning of health programs.To determine the pattern of the relative proportion of types of refractive errors among the adult candidates (...) seeking laser assisted refractive correction in a private clinic setting in Saudi Arabia.The clinical charts of 687 patients (1374 eyes) with mean age 27.6 ± 7.5 years who desired laser vision correction and underwent a pre-LASIK work-up were reviewed retrospectively. Refractive errors were classified as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) was applied to define refractive errors.Distribution percentage of different types of refractive errors; myopia

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2018 The open ophthalmology journal

44. Correlation between dry eye and refractive error in Saudi young adults using noninvasive Keratograph 4 (PubMed)

Correlation between dry eye and refractive error in Saudi young adults using noninvasive Keratograph 4 The purpose is to study the correlation between dry eye and refractive errors in young adults using noninvasive Keratograph.In this cross sectional study, a total of 126 participants in the age range of 19-25 years and who were free of ocular surface disease, were recruited from King Saud University Campus. Refraction was defined by the spherical equivalent (SE) as the following: 49 emmetropic (...) reduction in the average NIBUT in myopes and hypermetropes in comparison to emmetropes.The current results succeeded to demonstrate a correlation between refractive errors and dryness level.

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

45. Refractive error is associated with intracranial volume (PubMed)

Refractive error is associated with intracranial volume Myopia is part of the spectrum of refractive error. Myopia is associated with psychometric intelligence and, the link between brain anatomy and myopia has been hypothesized. Here we aimed to identify the associations between brain structures and refractive error in developed young adults. In a study cohort of 1,319 normal educated young adults, the refractive error showed a significant negative correlation with total intracranial volume (...) and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume but not with total gray matter volume (GMV) or total white matter volume (WMV). Time spent studying was associated with refractive error but could not explain the aforementioned associations with brain volume parameters. The R2 values of the simple regression between spherical equivalent and outcome variables for each sex in non-whole brain imaging analyses were less than 0.05 in all cases and thus were weak. Psychometric intelligence was not associated

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2018 Scientific reports

46. Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland (PubMed)

Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland Background: To investigate the distribution of refractive errors and their characteristics in older adults from a Polish population. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1107 men and women were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, 998 subjects underwent refraction. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SER) refraction ≤-0.5 dioptres (D (...) 1.18-2.95) and presence of cataract (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.24-4.63) were independent risk factors associated with myopia. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors found in our study is similar to those reported in other Caucasian populations and differs from Asian populations. Myopia was positively associated with younger age, female gender and presence of cataract.

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

47. Self‐assessment of refractive errors using a simple optical approach (PubMed)

Self‐assessment of refractive errors using a simple optical approach This explorative study investigated procedures for the self-assessment of spherocylindrical refractive errors.Eighteen participants with a mean age of 34.0 ± 8.8 years were enrolled. Adjustable Alvarez lenses were mounted in a rotatable ring holder and two procedures were tested for the self-adjustment: (1) rotation of the lens in three meridians: 0°, 60° and 120° and (2) rotation of the optotypes in the same meridians (...) . Starting from maximum positive power, the participants were required to decrease the power of the Alvarez lens until the optotypes (0.0 logMAR) appeared to be clear the first time. Best-corrected visual acuity (BVA) was measured using a psychophysical staircase procedure. Bland-Altmann analysis was carried out in order to calculate the limits of agreement between the self-refraction method and the standard subjective refraction.Using procedure 1, 77 per cent of the subjects achieved a VA ≥ 0.1 logMAR

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2018 Clinical & Experimental Optometry

48. The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss (PubMed)

The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss We quantified the interrelationship between retinal blood vessel (BV) anatomical variation, spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error, and functional diagnostic parameters in glaucoma to identify optimal parameters for the improvement of optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) norms.A trained observer marked the intersections of the main superior

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2018 Translational vision science & technology

49. Amblyopia, Strabismus and Refractive Errors in Congenital Ptosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed)

Amblyopia, Strabismus and Refractive Errors in Congenital Ptosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Congenital ptosis may be associated with abnormalities of visual development and function, including amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors. However, the prevalence estimates of these abnormalities vary widely. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors in congenital ptosis. Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline (...) %CI 3.0-69.8%), followed by 22.7% (95%CI 18.5-27.8%) for amblyopia, 22.2% (95%CI 7.8-63.1%) for astigmatism, 19.6% (95%CI 16.5-23.2%) for strabismus, 17.3% (95% CI 13.1-22.9%) for anisometropia and 4.0% for hyperopia (95%CI 1.8-7.1%). Significant heterogeneity was identified across most estimates. Our findings suggest that amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors in congenital ptosis are present in much higher percentage. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and timely

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2018 Scientific reports

50. Performance of Photoscreener in Detection of Refractive Error in All Age Groups and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Children in a Tribal District of Odisha: The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) # 3 (PubMed)

Performance of Photoscreener in Detection of Refractive Error in All Age Groups and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Children in a Tribal District of Odisha: The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) # 3 To evaluate effectiveness of Welch Allyn Spot Vision Screener in detecting refractive error in all age groups and amblyopia risk factors in children in a tribal district of India.All participants received dry retinoscopy and photorefraction; children also received cycloplegic retinoscopy. Statistical (...) for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus [AAPOS] criteria) was 93.3% and 96.9% respectively. Sensitivity of Spot screener in detection of amblyopia was 72%.Photoscreener has 87% accuracy in refraction in children. Its value could be used for subjective correction tests.Photoscreening could complement traditional retinoscopy to address refractive error in children in a resource-limited facility region.

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2018 Translational vision science & technology

51. Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent

Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent - A Longitudinal Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies (...) before adding more. Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent - A Longitudinal Study The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03589937 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted

2018 Clinical Trials

52. Evaluation of the Relationship Between Age-related Macular Degeneration and Refractive Error, Socio-demographic Features, and Biochemical Variables in a Turkish Population (PubMed)

Evaluation of the Relationship Between Age-related Macular Degeneration and Refractive Error, Socio-demographic Features, and Biochemical Variables in a Turkish Population To investigate the relationship between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and refractive error and axial length, as well as the socio-demographic characteristics and biochemical variables that may affect this relationship.A total of 196 eyes of 98 patients over 50 years of age who were diagnosed with AMD at our clinic (...) were included in this cross-sectional study. Early and late AMD findings were categorized according to the age-related eye disease study grading scale. Objective refractive error was measured by autorefractometer, confirmed by subjective examination, and spherical equivalent was calculated. Refractive errors of -0.50 D to 0.50 D were classified as emmetropia, <-0.50 D as myopia, and >0.50 D as hyperopia. Axial length was measured by ultrasonic biometry and values ≤23.00 mm were classified as short

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2018 Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology

53. Agreement and Repeatability of Two Biometers to Measure Anterior Segment Components: Refractive Error Effect (PubMed)

Agreement and Repeatability of Two Biometers to Measure Anterior Segment Components: Refractive Error Effect BACKGROUND To assess the repeatability and agreement between a new high-resolution optical coherence tomographer (OCT) and a Scheimpflug topographer. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty phakic and healthy participants were measured in this study, and one eye per participant was analyzed. Depending on their refractive error, each participant was allocated into a myopic, hyperopic, or emmetropic (...) pachymetry was about 15 µm, and for the OCT, it was about 4 µm for all groups. On average, the Sirius Scheimpflug instrument measured shallower anterior chamber depth (about 0.10 mm), shorter angle-to-angle (about 0.5 mm), thinner corneas (approximately 10 µm), and narrower angles (around 5 degrees) for all refractive groups. CONCLUSIONS The repeatability of the Cirrus OCT and Sirius Scheimpflug instrument was good and independent of the refractive error. Nevertheless, to judge whether these instruments

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2018 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

54. Prevalence and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in an adult population in southern India (PubMed)

Prevalence and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in an adult population in southern India To investigate prevalence and risk factors for myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism in southern India.Randomly sampled villages were enumerated to identify people aged ≥40 years. Participants were interviewed for socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and attended a hospital-based ophthalmic examination including visual acuity measurement and objective and subjective measurement of refractive

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2018 Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics

55. Refractive Error among Male Primary School Students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors (PubMed)

Refractive Error among Male Primary School Students in Jazan, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence and Associated Factors Refractive error is a common and serious eye disorder that affects more than 153 million people globally. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and pattern of refractive error among male primary school children in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected group of 395 students (aged 6-14 years) in Jazan region, Southwest (...) Saudi Arabia. An optometrist and medical students assessed the refraction error using an autorefractor, a Snellen E chart and retinoscopy.The overall prevalence of uncorrected refractive error in either eye was, 22% higher among rural students. The most prevalent refractive error was hyperopia (32.2%) followed by myopic astigmatism (31%) then myopia (17.2%). Next were hyperopic astigmatism (16.1%) and mixed astigmatism (3.5%). The following variables were associated with a higher risk of refractive

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2018 The open ophthalmology journal

56. Comparison of changes in refractive error and corneal curvature following small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery (PubMed)

Comparison of changes in refractive error and corneal curvature following small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis surgery To compare visual acuity, refractive error, corneal curvature, and the stability of these parameters during the early postoperative period following small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) surgery.One hundred and five eyes and 110 eyes were enrolled in SMILE (...) with decreased stability of postoperative refractive error and corneal curvature relative to SMILE.

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

58. The prevalence of vision impairment and refractive error in 3654 first year students at Tianjin Medical University (PubMed)

The prevalence of vision impairment and refractive error in 3654 first year students at Tianjin Medical University To determine the prevalence of vision impairment (VI) and refractive error in first year university students at the Tianjin Medical University.This is a cross-sectional observational cohort study of VI and refractive error among first year university students at the Tianjin Medical University. The first year university students were involved in this study and were given a detailed (...) cataract, retinal atrophy or degeneration, strabismus, congenital nystagmus, refractive surgery orthokeratology. Totally 3286 (89.93%) subjects had VI due to refractive error. Only 218 (5.97%) students were emmetropia. Moreover, refractive error was the main cause for the VI (95.63%). Totally 3242 (92.52%) students were myopia and the prevalence of mild, moderate, and high myopia subgroup was 27.05%, 44.35%, and 21.26% respectively. Totally 44 (1.29%) subjects were hyperopic. The rates of uncorrected

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2018 International journal of ophthalmology

59. Studying the factors related to refractive error regression after PRK surgery. (PubMed)

Studying the factors related to refractive error regression after PRK surgery. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is used for a wide range of refractive errors such as low to moderate myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. While many improvements have been made in laser application and accuracy as well as the modes of corneal flap removal, and although the results are somewhat predictable, regression of refractive errors is still a common complaint among the patients undergoing refractive surgery (...) with Excimer Laser. We aimed to determine related factors of regression following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in different types of refractive errors.This cross-sectional study included patients who had undergone PRK more than 6 months previously and investigated refractive error regression and related factors. The participants were those who had PRK eye surgery for the first time from 2013 to 2016 using Technolas 217z100. A refraction value of spherical equivalent > 0.75 D after cycloplegic

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

60. Deep Learning for Predicting Refractive Error From Retinal Fundus Images. (PubMed)

Deep Learning for Predicting Refractive Error From Retinal Fundus Images. We evaluate how deep learning can be applied to extract novel information such as refractive error from retinal fundus imaging.Retinal fundus images used in this study were 45- and 30-degree field of view images from the UK Biobank and Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) clinical trials, respectively. Refractive error was measured by autorefraction in UK Biobank and subjective refraction in AREDS. We trained a deep (...) learning algorithm to predict refractive error from a total of 226,870 images and validated it on 24,007 UK Biobank and 15,750 AREDS images. Our model used the "attention" method to identify features that are correlated with refractive error.The resulting algorithm had a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.56 diopters (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.56) for estimating spherical equivalent on the UK Biobank data set and 0.91 diopters (95% CI: 0.89-0.93) for the AREDS data set. The baseline expected MAE

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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