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Refractive Error

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4981. Undercorrected refractive error in Singaporean Chinese adults: the Tanjong Pagar survey. (PubMed)

Undercorrected refractive error in Singaporean Chinese adults: the Tanjong Pagar survey. To study the prevalence of undercorrected refractive error and associated sociodemographic factors among Singaporean Chinese adults.Cross-sectional, population-based survey.Singaporean Chinese adults aged 40 to 79 years (n = 1152).The Singapore electoral register of Tanjong Pagar was used as a sampling frame, and disproportionate, stratified, clustered, random sampling was performed. There were 1717 (...) eligible adults and 1232 (71.8%) participated. Analysis was performed among 1152 adults with complete habitual and best-corrected visual acuity data.Undercorrected refractive error was defined as improvement of better eye visual acuity of at least 2 lines or more with best possible refractive correction.The age- and gender-adjusted rate of undercorrected refractive error standardized directly by age and gender was 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 15.0, 19.5). Undercorrected refractive error rates were

2004 Ophthalmology

4982. The relation between birth size and the results of refractive error and biometry measurements in children. (PubMed)

The relation between birth size and the results of refractive error and biometry measurements in children. To examine the association of birth parameters with biometry and refraction in Singapore Chinese schoolchildren.Chinese children aged 7-9 years (n = 1413) from three schools in Singapore were recruited. Birth parameter information on birth weight, head circumference, length at birth, and gestational age were obtained from standard hospital records. Cycloplegic autorefraction, keratometry (...) with refraction.Children who were born heavier, had larger head sizes or lengths at birth, or who were born more mature had longer axial lengths, and deeper vitreous chambers; but there were no differences in refraction at ages 7-9 years, possibly because of the observed compensatory flattening of the cornea.

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2004 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4983. Does refractive error influence the association of blood pressure and retinal vessel diameters? The Blue Mountains Eye Study. (PubMed)

Does refractive error influence the association of blood pressure and retinal vessel diameters? The Blue Mountains Eye Study. To determine if refractive errors influence the association of blood pressure and retinal vessel diameters.Population-based, cross-sectional study.Retinal photographs from the right eyes of participants (n = 3,654, aged 49+ years) in the Blue Mountains Eye Study taken during baseline examinations (1992 to 1994) were digitized. The diameter of all retinal vessels located (...) half to one disk diameter from the disk margin was measured using a computer-assisted imaging program. These measurements were combined to provide the average diameters of retinal arterioles and venules of that eye, and the ratio of their diameters, the arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR). The association of blood pressure and retinal vessel diameters was analyzed before and after correction for refraction using the Bengtsson formula.Before correction, each 10-mm Hg increase in mean arterial blood

2004 American Journal of Ophthalmology

4984. Photorefractive keratectomy for pediatric anisometropia: safety and impact on refractive error, visual acuity, and stereopsis. (PubMed)

Photorefractive keratectomy for pediatric anisometropia: safety and impact on refractive error, visual acuity, and stereopsis. To establish the safety and possible efficacy of excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for treatment of pediatric anisometropia.Interventional case seriesThis is a prospective, noncomparative interventional case series at an individual university practice of photorefractive keratectomy in 11 children aged 2 and 11 years with anisometropic amblyopia who were (...) unable or unwilling to use contact lens, glasses, and occlusion therapy to treat the amblyopia. The eye with the higher refractive error was treated with PRK using a standard adult nomogram. The refractive treatment goal was to decrease the anisometropia to 3 diopters or less. Main outcome measures were cycloplegic refraction, refractive correction, degree of corneal haze, uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuity, and stereopsis over 12 months.All patients tolerated the procedure well

2004 American Journal of Ophthalmology

4985. Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. (PubMed)

Refractive errors, intraocular pressure, and glaucoma in a white population. To examine the relation of refractive errors to glaucoma and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a defined white population.Population-based cross-sectional and follow-up study.Persons aged 43 to 86 years living in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin (n = 4926).All participants received a standardized assessment of refraction, IOP, and glaucoma at baseline (1988-1990), with IOP remeasured 5 years later (1993-1995). Refraction was defined (...) at baseline as follows: myopia as spherical equivalent of -1.00 diopters (D) or less, emmetropia as -0.75 to +0.75 D, and hyperopia as +1.00 D or more.Relation of baseline refraction to prevalent glaucoma (defined from IOP, optic disc, and visual field criteria) and incident ocular hypertension (defined as IOP more than 21 mmHg at the 5-year examination in eyes with IOP of 21 mmHg or less at baseline).A myopic refraction was correlated with increasing IOP at baseline (P < 0.001). After controlling for age

2003 Ophthalmology

4986. Age, gender, biometry, refractive error, and the anterior chamber angle among Alaskan Eskimos. (PubMed)

Age, gender, biometry, refractive error, and the anterior chamber angle among Alaskan Eskimos. The prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) is greater for Eskimos/Inuit than it is for any other ethnic group in the world. Although it has been suggested that this prevalence may be due to a population tendency toward shallower anterior chamber angles, available evidence for other populations such as Chinese with high rates of ACG has not consistently demonstrated such a tendency.A reticule, slit (...) -lamp, and standard Goldmann one-mirror goniolens were used to make measurements in the anterior chamber (AC) angle according to a previously reported protocol for biometric gonioscopy (BG) (Ophthalmology 1999;106:2161-7). Measurements were made in all four quadrants of one eye among 133 phakic Alaskan Eskimos aged 40 years and older. Automatic refraction, dilated examination of the anterior segment and optic nerve, and A-scan measurements of AC depth, lens thickness, and axial length were also

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2003 Ophthalmology

4987. The prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran. (PubMed)

The prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Dezful, Iran. To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Dezful County, Iran.In a cross-sectional study, using random cluster sampling, 5721 Dezful schoolchildren were selected from 39 clusters. The participants in the study totalled 5544; 3673 elementary and middle school students and 1871 high school students. For the former group, cycloplegic refraction and for the latter, non (...) , with non-cycloplegic refraction. In the multivariate logistic regression for primary and middle school students, myopia was correlated with age (p = 0.030), and hyperopia was correlated with age (p<0.001) and area of residence (p = 0.007). In high school students, hyperopia again showed a correlation with their area of residence (p = 0.029).The present study reveals the considerable prevalence rates of refractive errors among schoolchildren in Dezful County and the high rate of an unmet need

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2007 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4988. Correction of refractive error and presbyopia in Timor-Leste. (PubMed)

Correction of refractive error and presbyopia in Timor-Leste. To investigate the aspects of spectacle correction of vision-impairing refractive error and presbyopia in those aged >or=40 years in Timor-Leste.A population-based cross-sectional survey with cluster random sampling was used to select 50 clusters of 30 people. Those who had uncorrected or undercorrected refractive error (presenting acuity worse than 6/18, but at least 6/18 with pinhole), uncorrected or undercorrected presbyopia (near (...) vision worse than N8), and/or who were using or had used spectacles were identified. Dispensing history, willingness to wear and willingness to pay for spectacles were elicited.Of 1470 people enumerated, 1414 were examined (96.2%). The "met refractive error need" in the sample was 2.2%, and the "unmet refractive error need" was 11.7%. The "refractive error correction coverage" was 15.7%. The "met presbyopic need" was 11.5%, and the "unmet presbyopic need" was 32.3%. The "presbyopia correction

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2007 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4989. Correlations in refractive errors between siblings in the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk factors for Myopia. (PubMed)

Correlations in refractive errors between siblings in the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk factors for Myopia. The prevalence of myopia in parts of South East Asia has risen dramatically over the past 1-2 generations, suggesting that environmental factors may be particularly important determinants of refractive development in these populations.To assess the contribution of familial factors (shared genes and/or shared family environment) to refractive error and ocular component dimensions (...) of school-aged children in Singapore.Data were available for 315 children who had one or more siblings also participating in the Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Refractive error and ocular biometric parameters were measured under cycloplegia at baseline when children were 7-9 years, and at yearly follow-up sessions for the next 3 years, using consistent clinical procedures. The time children spent performing a variety of nearwork-related tasks was obtained from

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2007 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4990. Refractive errors in neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2. (PubMed)

Refractive errors in neurofibromatosis type 1 and type 2. To document the prevalence of refractive errors in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and type 2 (NF2) and to compare it with that of age- and sex-matched controls.82 patients with NF1, 21 patients with NF2 and 103 age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated in this prospective observational case-control study. Cycloplegic autorefraction and dilated fundus examination were performed. Myopia was defined as the spherical (...) equivalent refraction of at least -0.50 diopters (D), hyperopia as the spherical equivalent refraction of at least 2.0 D and astigmatism as the cylinder of at least 1.0 D. Main outcome measures were refractive error, IQ, years of education, height, weight and body mass index (BMI).The prevalence of myopia was 23.1% in patients with NF1, 23.8% in patients with NF2 and 16.5% in age- and sex-matched controls. These differences were significant (p<0.03, p<0.03), and adjusting for intelligence, education

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2007 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4991. Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in rural southern China. (PubMed)

Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in rural southern China. To assess the prevalence of refractive error and visual impairment in school children in a rural area of southern China.Prospective cross-sectional survey.Two thousand four hundred children from junior high schools in Yangxi County.Random selection of classes from the 3 junior high school grade levels was used to identify the study sample. Children from 36 classes in 13 schools were examined in April 2005 (...) of those who could achieve acuity > or =20/32 in at least one eye with best correction were without the necessary spectacles. Refractive error was the cause in 97.1% of eyes with reduced vision; amblyopia, 0.81%; other causes, 0.67%; and unexplained causes, 1.4%. Myopia (spherical equivalent, -0.50 diopters [D] or more in either eye) affected 36.8% of 13-year-olds, increasing to 53.9% of 17-year-olds. Myopia was associated with higher grade level, female gender, schooling in the county urban center

2007 Ophthalmology

4992. Refractive error and patterns of spectacle use in 12-year-old Australian children. (PubMed)

Refractive error and patterns of spectacle use in 12-year-old Australian children. To document the prevalence of visual impairment resulting from refractive error and to describe patterns of spectacle use in a representative sample of 12-year-old Australian school children.Population-based cross-sectional study.Two thousand three hundred fifty-three predominantly 12-year-old children examined from 2004 through 2005.Logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) visual acuity (VA (...) was defined as VA <20/40 (<40 logMAR letters) for both better and worse eyes. Spectacle need was defined as uncorrected visual impairment in the better eye, improving by at least 2 lines with refraction, and undercorrection as presenting impairment in the better eye, improving by at least 2 lines with refraction.Uncorrected and presenting visual impairment in at least 1 eye because of refractive error was found in 10.4% and 3.7%, respectively. Spectacle use was reported by 448 children (19.0%); 204 (46.3

2006 Ophthalmology

4993. Error in refractive correction and its impact on scanning laser polarimetry. (PubMed)

Error in refractive correction and its impact on scanning laser polarimetry. The GDx VCC is a scanning laser polarimeter which measures thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). A perpendicular incident laser beam in the RNFL is a prerequisite of a correct measurement of the thickness of this layer. An error in refractive correction could cause an obliqueness of the laser beam and consequently a deviation of the RNFL thickness reading. The present study investigated the influence (...) of error in refractive correction on the estimation of the RNFL thickness and the nerve fiber index (NFI).Totally 32 persons were included in this study, 17 without ocular diseases and 15 with glaucoma. The measurement of the RNFL was carried out first routinely with correction of the spherical equivalent refractive error. Then the measurement was repeated 4 times with excessive refractive correction of +1, +2, -1, or -2 D, respectively. The deviation in RNFL thickness and NFI caused by each

2007 Journal of Glaucoma

4994. Intraocular pressure associations with refractive error and axial length in children. (PubMed)

Intraocular pressure associations with refractive error and axial length in children. To assess whether intraocular pressure (IOP) is associated with refractive error or axial length in children.Of subjects from the Singapore Cohort Study of the Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM), 636 Chinese children aged 9-11 years from two elementary schools underwent non-contact tonometry, cycloplegic autorefraction, and A-scan biometry during 2001. For analyses, refractive error was categorised into four (...) = 0.009) or axial length (r = 0.030). In regression analyses adjusting for diastolic blood pressure, neither spherical equivalent (regression coefficient = 0.014) nor axial length (regression coefficient = 0.027) were significantly associated with IOP.These findings do not support an association between IOP and refractive error or axial length in children. This questions postulated roles of IOP in the pathogenesis of myopia.

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2004 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4995. Refractive error changes in cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. (PubMed)

Refractive error changes in cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. To determine the effect of the three main morphological types of cataract on refractive error.Data were prospectively collected from 77 subjects (age 67 (SD 8) years) with one morphological type of cataract. 34 had cortical, 21 had nuclear, and 21 had posterior subcapsular cataract. 22 subjects with clear lenses (60 (7) years) were recruited as controls. The spherical equivalent and astigmatic vector change (...) between spectacle correction and optimal refraction were calculated.The cortical cataract group showed a significant astigmatic change of 0.71 (0.67) D (mean (1 SD)) compared to the control group (0.24 (0.20) D), with 24% outside the 95% confidence limit (0.63 D). The nuclear cataract group showed a significant myopic shift of -0.38 (0.60) D compared to the control group (+0.02 (0.21) D), with 52% beyond the minus 95% confidence limit (-0.39 D).A quarter of subjects with cortical cataract showed

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2003 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4996. Evaluation of the measurement of refractive error by the PowerRefractor: a remote, continuous and binocular measurement system of oculomotor function. (PubMed)

Evaluation of the measurement of refractive error by the PowerRefractor: a remote, continuous and binocular measurement system of oculomotor function. The technique of photoretinoscopy is unique in being able to measure the dynamics of the oculomotor system (ocular accommodation, vergence, and pupil size) remotely (working distance typically 1 metre) and objectively in both eyes simultaneously. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically the measurement of refractive error by a recent (...) at a subsequent session.On average the PowerRefractor prescription was not significantly different from the subjective refraction, although quite variable (difference +0.05 (0.63) D, p=0.41) and more negative than the SRW-5000 prescription (by -0.20 (0.72) D, p<0.001). There was no significant bias in the accuracy of the instrument with regard to the type or magnitude of refractive error. The PowerRefractor was found to be repeatable over the prescription range of -8.75D to +4.00D (mean spherical equivalent

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2003 British Journal of Ophthalmology

4997. Comparison of measurements of refractive errors between the hand-held Retinomax and on-table autorefractors in cyclopleged and noncyclopleged children. (PubMed)

Comparison of measurements of refractive errors between the hand-held Retinomax and on-table autorefractors in cyclopleged and noncyclopleged children. To compare the measurement of refractive errors (sphere, cylinder, and axis) between the hand-held Retinomax and on-table Topcon autorefractors in cyclopleged and noncyclopleged young children. The average bias and measurement agreement were assessed.Observational cross-sectional study.The study included 114 cyclopleged and 156 noncyclopleged (...) % under noncycloplegia were within 20 degrees. After adjusting for mild bias, the paired t test showed very consistent results.The data by the Retinomax were consistent with those by the Topcon. The Retinomax is a useful instrument to screen refractive errors in young children.

2003 American Journal of Ophthalmology

4998. Necessity of cycloplegia for assessing refractive error in 12-year-old children: a population-based study. (PubMed)

Necessity of cycloplegia for assessing refractive error in 12-year-old children: a population-based study. To compare pre- and postcycloplegic autorefraction in two separate age samples of Australian school children.Population-based cross-sectional study of random cluster samples.Autorefraction was performed before and after cycloplegia, using 1% cyclopentolate, in the right eyes of 2,233 12-year-old and 210 6-year-old children.The mean spherical equivalent (SEQ) difference between

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2007 American Journal of Ophthalmology

4999. Refractive error in urban and rural adult Chinese in Beijing. (PubMed)

Refractive error in urban and rural adult Chinese in Beijing. To evaluate refractive error and its demographic associations in an urban and rural population in northern China.Epidemiological study.The Beijing Eye Study is a population-based cohort study in northern China including 4439 subjects. Excluding pseudophakic and aphakic patients, the present study involved 4319 subjects. It was divided into a rural part (1905 [44.1%] subjects) and an urban part (2414 [55.9%] subjects). Mean age (...) was 55.85+/-10.33 years (range, 40-90).Standardized ophthalmologic examination. For statistical analysis, the spherical equivalent was converted to binary variables, and logistic regression was used to investigate the association with continuous or categorical independent variables.Refractive error.Mean refractive error measured -0.33+/-2.22 diopters (D) (range, -20.88 to +7.88). Myopia of >-0.50 D, -1.0 D, >-6.0 D, and >-8 D, respectively, occurred in 22.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.7-24.2

2005 Ophthalmology

5000. Ethnicity-specific prevalences of refractive errors vary in Asian children in neighbouring Malaysia and Singapore. (PubMed)

Ethnicity-specific prevalences of refractive errors vary in Asian children in neighbouring Malaysia and Singapore. To compare the prevalences of refractive errors in Malay, Chinese and Indian children in Malaysia and Singapore.Children aged 7-9 years from three schools in the Singapore Cohort study of the Risk factors for Myopia (n = 1962) and similarly aged children from a random cluster sample in the metropolitan Kuala Lumpur area in the Malaysia Refractive Error Study in Children (n = 1752

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2006 British Journal of Ophthalmology

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