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Refractive Error

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21. Prospective comparative study of tolerance to refractive errors after implantation of extended depth of focus and monofocal intraocular lenses with identical aspheric platform in Korean population. (PubMed)

Prospective comparative study of tolerance to refractive errors after implantation of extended depth of focus and monofocal intraocular lenses with identical aspheric platform in Korean population. To evaluate the clinical outcomes of extended depth of focus (EDOF) and monofocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) that share identical aspheric platform and compare their visual acuity tolerance to postoperative refractive errors.This non-randomized, prospective comparative study included 120 eyes (...) refractive error than the monofocal IOL with the same material and optical platform.

2019 BMC Ophthalmology

22. Using the first-eye prediction error in cataract surgery to refine the refractive outcome of the second eye. (PubMed)

Using the first-eye prediction error in cataract surgery to refine the refractive outcome of the second eye. To refine the refractive outcome of the second eye after cataract surgery by deriving adjustment coefficients for intraocular lens (IOL) selection based on the prediction error (PE) of the first eye.University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, England, and the Lions Eye Institute, Perth, Australia.Retrospective study of two heterogeneous datasets.One hundred thirty-nine patients who (...) underwent delayed sequential bilateral cataract surgery in Australia were retrospectively analyzed. The PE was determined by comparing postoperative subjective refraction with the predicted postoperative refraction (PPOR) calculated by the Barrett Universal II, Hoffer Q, Holladay I, and SRK/T formulas. Adjustment coefficients were derived for each formula and applied to the second eye's IOL calculation. Separately, patient-specific optimized IOL constants were derived from the first-eye PE and applied

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

23. Correlations between ocular biometrics and refractive error: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Correlations between ocular biometrics and refractive error: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The understanding of correlations between different biometric parameters is essential for personalized eye care in the field of cataract and refractive surgery. This systematic review offers a clear overview of the previous literature assessing these correlations including a meta-analysis. The review is focused on the following five correlations: (1) axial length and refractive error; (2 (...) ) anterior chamber depth and refractive error; (3) axial length and anterior chamber depth; (4) corneal power and refractive error; (5) corneal power and axial length. An expected strong correlation between axial length and refractive error was found. Correlations including corneal power were weak and might be clinically insignificant.© 2019 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2019 Acta ophthalmologica

24. Can the Red Reflex Test Detect Unequal Refractive Error? (PubMed)

Can the Red Reflex Test Detect Unequal Refractive Error? To determine the accuracy of the red reflex test in the detection of anisometropia.This prospective, single-masked study enrolled new patients younger than the age of 18 years who had not undergone pharmacologic pupillary dilation. A fellow who was masked to all clinical information illuminated both eyes with a direct ophthalmoscope in a darkened room from a distance of 1 m, assessing whether the red reflex between the 2 eyes (...) was symmetric or asymmetric. The patient was then dilated, and cylcoplegic refraction was performed by an attending pediatric ophthalmologist. Exclusion criteria included the presence of strabismus, anisocoria, previous intraocular surgery, media opacity, leukocoria, or nystagmus. Sensitivity was compared with a null hypothesized value of 50% using a 1-sided binomial test.Ninety-two patients with a mean age of 7.3 years (range 3 months to 16 years) were enrolled. With spherical anisometropia greater than

2019 Journal of Pediatrics

25. Pterygium in adults from the Brazilian Amazon Region: prevalence, visual status and refractive errors. (PubMed)

Pterygium in adults from the Brazilian Amazon Region: prevalence, visual status and refractive errors. To determine prevalence of pterygium, its role as main cause of unilateral and bilateral visual impairment and blindness and its impact on refractive errors from adults living in a high ultraviolet exposure area in the Brazilian Amazon Region.Cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting subjects ≥45 years of age from urban and rural areas of Parintins city. Eligible subjects were enumerated (...) =0.018). Older age and rural residence were associated with pterygium ≥3 mm reaching or not pupillary margin, while higher education was a protective factor for pterygium ≥3 mm reaching pupillary margin. Prevalence of pterygium as cause of visual impairment and blindness was 14.3% and 3.9%, respectively. Significantly higher hyperopic refractive errors were found in eyes with pterygium ≥3 mm reaching or not pupillary margin.Pterygium was highly prevalent and the second cause of visual impairment

2019 British Journal of Ophthalmology

26. Foveal microvasculature, refractive errors, optical biometry and their correlations in school-aged children with retinopathy of prematurity after intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors or laser photocoagulation. (PubMed)

Foveal microvasculature, refractive errors, optical biometry and their correlations in school-aged children with retinopathy of prematurity after intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factors or laser photocoagulation. To compare the differences and to assess the correlations regarding to foveal microvasculature, refractive errors and optical biometry in children with history of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with either laser photocoagulation or intravitreal injection (...) of antivascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGF).This is a retrospective and comparative case series. Measurements of fovea microvasculature included the retinal thickness and subfoveal choroid thickness, the size of fovea avascular zone (FAZ), the fovea, parafovea and perifoveal vessel density (VD). Measurements of refractive errors and optical biometry included spherical equivalent, astigmatism, cornea curvature, anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness and axial length (AXL).A total 47 eyes in 25

2019 British Journal of Ophthalmology

27. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? part 3: organisation and legal framework of extramural surgery centres

Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults ? part 3: organisation and legal framework of extramural surgery centres Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – part 3: organisation and legal framework of extramural surgery centres Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – part 3: organisation and legal framework of extramural surgery centres Vinck I, Paulus D Record Status This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member (...) of INAHTA. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database. Citation Vinck I, Paulus D. Correction of refractive errors of the eye in adults – part 3: organisation and legal framework of extramural surgery centres. Brussels: Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). KCE Reports 225. 2014 Final publication URL Indexing Status Subject indexing assigned by CRD MeSH Delivery of Health Care; Refractive Errorss Language Published English Country of organisation Belgium

2014 Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Database.

28. Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process? (PubMed)

Refractive error change and vision improvement in moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia after spectacle correction: Restarting the emmetropization process? The aims of the study were to develop guidelines for prescribing spectacles for patients with moderate to severe hyperopic amblyopia and to demonstrate how emmetropization progresses.Children with hyperopic amblyopia who had a spherical equivalent of ≥ +4.0 diopters (D) or more were included, while those who had astigmatism of > 2.0 D (...) or anisometropia of > 2.0 D were excluded. The patients were divided into a full correction group and an under-correction group according to the amount of hyperopia correction applied. The under-correction group was further subdivided into a fixed under-correction group and a post-cycloplegic refraction (PCR) under-correction group. The duration of amblyopia treatment and changes in initial hyperopia were compared between the groups.In total, 76 eyes of 38 patients were analyzed in this study. The full

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2017 PLoS ONE

29. The Relationship between Crystalline Lens Power and Refractive Error in Older Chinese Adults: The Shanghai Eye Study. (PubMed)

The Relationship between Crystalline Lens Power and Refractive Error in Older Chinese Adults: The Shanghai Eye Study. To report calculated crystalline lens power and describe the distribution of ocular biometry and its association with refractive error in older Chinese adults.Random clustering sampling was used to identify adults aged 50 years and above in Xuhui and Baoshan districts of Shanghai. Refraction was determined by subjective refraction that achieved the best corrected vision based (...) was 48.48% (95% CI: 47.23%-49.74%), 22.82% (95% CI: 21.77%-23.88%), and 4.57% (95% CI: 4.05-5.10), respectively. The prevalence of hyperopia increased linearly with age while lens power decreased with age. In multivariate models, refractive error was strongly correlated with axial length, lens power, corneal power, and anterior chamber depth; refractive error was slightly correlated with best corrected visual acuity, age and sex.Lens power, hyperopia, and spherical equivalent changed linearly with age

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2017 PLoS ONE

30. Assessing the inclusion of primary school children in vision screening for refractive error program of India (PubMed)

Assessing the inclusion of primary school children in vision screening for refractive error program of India In India, teachers screen middle school children using the 6/9 Snellen's optotype. Recently, the National Program for Control of Blindness included primary school students also. The present cross-sectional study was planned to assess the inclusion of primary school students. Compliance to spectacles was ascertained after 6 months follow-up.Randomly selected 23 Government primary schools (...) 13.0.A total of 6056 students screened by the teachers. Sensitivity and specificity of teacher screening were 92.3% (confidence interval [CI] 88.6-95.0) and 72.6% (CI 68.2-76.6)), respectively. About 277 students underwent refraction and 186 prescribed spectacles. The prevalence of myopia, hypermetropia, and astigmatism is 2.5% (2.1-2.9), 0.6% (0.4-0.8), and 1.3% (1.0-1.6), respectively. Compliance to spectacles usage is 36%.Burden of refractive error in primary school is very low. Trained teachers

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

31. Commentary on: “Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening” (PubMed)

Commentary on: “Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening” 29941734 2018 07 04 2018 12 02 1998-3689 66 7 2018 07 Indian journal of ophthalmology Indian J Ophthalmol Commentary on: "Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening". 934 10.4103/ijo.IJO_812_18 Morya Arvind K AK (...) Department of Ophthalmology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. eng Journal Article Comment India Indian J Ophthalmol 0405376 0301-4738 IM Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018 Jul;66(7):929-933 29941733 Eye Diseases Humans India Refractive Errors There are no conflicts of interest 2018 6 27 6 0 2018 6 27 6 0 2018 7 5 6 0 ppublish 29941734 IndianJOphthalmol_2018_66_7_934_234992 10.4103/ijo.IJO_812_18 PMC6032731 Optom Vis Sci. 2003 Aug;80(8):573-7 12917576 Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2013

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

32. Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening (PubMed)

Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening To compare the photorefraction system (Welch Allyn Spot™) performance with subjective refraction in school sight program in one Odisha (India) tribal district.In a cross-sectional study school students, aged 5-15 years, referred after the preliminary screening by trained school teachers received photoscreening and subjective correction (...) . The photoscreener was compared to subjective refraction in the range of +2D to -7.5D. Statistical analysis included Friedman nonparametric test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plotting.The photoscreener was used in 5990 children. This analysis included 443 children (187 males, 256 females, and the mean age was 12.43 ± 2.5 years) who received both photorefraction and subjective correction, and vision improved to 6/6 in either eye. The median spherical equivalent (SE) with spot

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

33. Changes in refractive errors in albinism: a longitudinal study over the first decade of life. (PubMed)

Changes in refractive errors in albinism: a longitudinal study over the first decade of life. To analyze longitudinal changes in refraction in patients with albinism.The medical records of 481 patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify patients who had cycloplegic refractions at three ages: visit A, 0-18 months old; visit B, 4-6 years old; visit C, 8-10 years old. We recorded refraction, type of albinism, glasses wear, and best-corrected visual acuity at visit C. Only right eyes were (...) analysis for OCA1A (16 eyes), OCA1B (20 eyes), and OCA2 (30 eyes) showed an increase in astigmatism from A to C, with a significant difference in means (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0001, resp.). Worse best-corrected visual acuity and higher mean astigmatism at visit C were found for OCA1A (20/104 and +4.08 ± 1.34) compared to OCA1B (20/59 and +2.30 ± 1.36; P < 0.0001) and OCA2 (20/66 and +2.53 ±1.21; P < 0.0001).Children with albinism require periodic cycloplegic refraction, because astigmatism

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

34. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Uncorrected Refractive Error in Older Adults in a Population-Based Study in France. (PubMed)

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Uncorrected Refractive Error in Older Adults in a Population-Based Study in France. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) is a common cause of visual impairment, but its prevalence in groups of older adults who could be pragmatic targets for improving optical correction remains unknown.To estimate the prevalence of URE in older adults, particularly in those with age-related eye disease and those who are unable to attend an outpatient clinic, and to identify (...) the factors associated with URE.This population-based cross-sectional analysis included 707 adults 78 years or older from the Alienor Study in Bordeaux, France. Data were collected from February 12, 2011, through December 21, 2012, and analyzed from November 1, 2017, through July 7, 2018.Uncorrected refractive error was defined as the presenting distance visual acuity in the better-seeing eye improved by at least 5 letters on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart (≥1 line on the logMAR

2018 JAMA ophthalmology

35. Prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia: MIOPUR study. (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia: MIOPUR study. To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia and its relations with demographic and socioeconomic variables.A cross-sectional study performed in 10 Colombian administrative districts (MIOPUR study), including children and adolescents from 8 to 17 years old and adults from 35 to 55 years old.3608 individuals (100% of whom agreed to participate) were included. Prevalence estimates of refractive errors were: hyperopia 32.3

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

36. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among school-age children in the School District of Philadelphia. (PubMed)

Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among school-age children in the School District of Philadelphia. To determine the prevalence and severity of uncorrected refractive errors in school-age children attending Philadelphia public schools.The Wills Eye Vision Screening Program for Children is a community-based pediatric vision screening program designed to detect and correct refractive errors and refer those with nonrefractive eye diseases for examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist (...) . Between January 2014 and June 2016 the program screened 18,974 children in grades K-5 in Philadelphia public schools. Children who failed the vision screening were further examined by an on-site ophthalmologist or optometrist; children whose decreased visual acuity was not amenable to spectacle correction were referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist.Of the 18,974 children screened, 2,492 (13.1%) exhibited uncorrected refractive errors: 1,776 (9.4%) children had myopia, 459 (2.4%) had hyperopia, 1,484

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

37. Topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy to correct irregular refractive errors after radial keratotomy. (PubMed)

Topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy to correct irregular refractive errors after radial keratotomy. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in a group of patients with post-radial keratotomy (RK) showing irregular corneas.Feiz University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.Prospective case series.Consecutive patients who had irregular astigmatism after RK with stable refraction and topography for at least 1 year (...) astigmatism was 2.15 ± 1.44 diopters. No significant complication was observed.Topography-guided single-step transepithelial PRK is a safe and effective method for treating the irregular refractive errors in post-RK patients.Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

38. Seasonal variation of refractive error change among young schoolchildren in a population-based cohort study in Taipei. (PubMed)

Seasonal variation of refractive error change among young schoolchildren in a population-based cohort study in Taipei. To investigate the relationship between seasonal variation of daylight length and spherical equivalent (SE) progression among the schoolchildren participating in the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei.We used the first-year data from grade 2 schoolchildren who completed all the baseline and two follow-up examinations (n=6790). There were two 6-month intervals between visits (...) ) schoolchildren, respectively.Our data demonstrate a seasonal variation of minus shift in refractive error among Taipei schoolchildren who had significant daytime fluctuation during the 1-year follow-up. Of those, non-myopic children had significant and more pronounced variation of SE progression than myopic children.© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

39. Correlation of subfoveal choroidal thickness with axial length, refractive error, and age in adult highly myopic eyes. (PubMed)

Correlation of subfoveal choroidal thickness with axial length, refractive error, and age in adult highly myopic eyes. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in highly myopic eyes was found to be correlated with increasing age, refractive error (spherical equivalent), and axial length. Which factor is the most significant predictor of SFCT remains controversial.A hospital-based cohort of highly myopic eyes (with spherical equivalent equal to or over 6.00 diopter) were retrospectively screened

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

40. Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error. (PubMed)

Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error. Refractive errors, including myopia, are the most frequent eye disorders worldwide and an increasingly common cause of blindness. This genome-wide association meta-analysis in 160,420 participants and replication in 95,505 participants increased the number of established independent signals from 37 to 161 and showed high genetic correlation between Europeans and Asians (>0.78). Expression (...) experiments and comprehensive in silico analyses identified retinal cell physiology and light processing as prominent mechanisms, and also identified functional contributions to refractive-error development in all cell types of the neurosensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium, vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix. Newly identified genes implicate novel mechanisms such as rod-and-cone bipolar synaptic neurotransmission, anterior-segment morphology and angiogenesis. Thirty-one loci resided

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2018 Nature Genetics

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