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Refractive Error

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21. Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening (PubMed)

Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study # 4: Accuracy and utility of photorefraction for refractive error correction in tribal Odisha (India) school screening To compare the photorefraction system (Welch Allyn Spot™) performance with subjective refraction in school sight program in one Odisha (India) tribal district.In a cross-sectional study school students, aged 5-15 years, referred after the preliminary screening by trained school teachers received photoscreening and subjective correction (...) . The photoscreener was compared to subjective refraction in the range of +2D to -7.5D. Statistical analysis included Friedman nonparametric test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plotting.The photoscreener was used in 5990 children. This analysis included 443 children (187 males, 256 females, and the mean age was 12.43 ± 2.5 years) who received both photorefraction and subjective correction, and vision improved to 6/6 in either eye. The median spherical equivalent (SE) with spot

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

22. Changes in refractive errors in albinism: a longitudinal study over the first decade of life. (PubMed)

Changes in refractive errors in albinism: a longitudinal study over the first decade of life. To analyze longitudinal changes in refraction in patients with albinism.The medical records of 481 patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify patients who had cycloplegic refractions at three ages: visit A, 0-18 months old; visit B, 4-6 years old; visit C, 8-10 years old. We recorded refraction, type of albinism, glasses wear, and best-corrected visual acuity at visit C. Only right eyes were (...) analysis for OCA1A (16 eyes), OCA1B (20 eyes), and OCA2 (30 eyes) showed an increase in astigmatism from A to C, with a significant difference in means (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.0001, resp.). Worse best-corrected visual acuity and higher mean astigmatism at visit C were found for OCA1A (20/104 and +4.08 ± 1.34) compared to OCA1B (20/59 and +2.30 ± 1.36; P < 0.0001) and OCA2 (20/66 and +2.53 ±1.21; P < 0.0001).Children with albinism require periodic cycloplegic refraction, because astigmatism

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

23. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Uncorrected Refractive Error in Older Adults in a Population-Based Study in France. (PubMed)

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Uncorrected Refractive Error in Older Adults in a Population-Based Study in France. Uncorrected refractive error (URE) is a common cause of visual impairment, but its prevalence in groups of older adults who could be pragmatic targets for improving optical correction remains unknown.To estimate the prevalence of URE in older adults, particularly in those with age-related eye disease and those who are unable to attend an outpatient clinic, and to identify (...) the factors associated with URE.This population-based cross-sectional analysis included 707 adults 78 years or older from the Alienor Study in Bordeaux, France. Data were collected from February 12, 2011, through December 21, 2012, and analyzed from November 1, 2017, through July 7, 2018.Uncorrected refractive error was defined as the presenting distance visual acuity in the better-seeing eye improved by at least 5 letters on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart (≥1 line on the logMAR

2018 JAMA ophthalmology

24. Prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia: MIOPUR study. (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia: MIOPUR study. To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia and its relations with demographic and socioeconomic variables.A cross-sectional study performed in 10 Colombian administrative districts (MIOPUR study), including children and adolescents from 8 to 17 years old and adults from 35 to 55 years old.3608 individuals (100% of whom agreed to participate) were included. Prevalence estimates of refractive errors were: hyperopia 32.3

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

25. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among school-age children in the School District of Philadelphia. (PubMed)

Prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors among school-age children in the School District of Philadelphia. To determine the prevalence and severity of uncorrected refractive errors in school-age children attending Philadelphia public schools.The Wills Eye Vision Screening Program for Children is a community-based pediatric vision screening program designed to detect and correct refractive errors and refer those with nonrefractive eye diseases for examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist (...) . Between January 2014 and June 2016 the program screened 18,974 children in grades K-5 in Philadelphia public schools. Children who failed the vision screening were further examined by an on-site ophthalmologist or optometrist; children whose decreased visual acuity was not amenable to spectacle correction were referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist.Of the 18,974 children screened, 2,492 (13.1%) exhibited uncorrected refractive errors: 1,776 (9.4%) children had myopia, 459 (2.4%) had hyperopia, 1,484

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

26. Topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy to correct irregular refractive errors after radial keratotomy. (PubMed)

Topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy to correct irregular refractive errors after radial keratotomy. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topography-guided transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in a group of patients with post-radial keratotomy (RK) showing irregular corneas.Feiz University Hospital, Isfahan, Iran.Prospective case series.Consecutive patients who had irregular astigmatism after RK with stable refraction and topography for at least 1 year (...) astigmatism was 2.15 ± 1.44 diopters. No significant complication was observed.Topography-guided single-step transepithelial PRK is a safe and effective method for treating the irregular refractive errors in post-RK patients.Copyright © 2018 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

27. Seasonal variation of refractive error change among young schoolchildren in a population-based cohort study in Taipei. (PubMed)

Seasonal variation of refractive error change among young schoolchildren in a population-based cohort study in Taipei. To investigate the relationship between seasonal variation of daylight length and spherical equivalent (SE) progression among the schoolchildren participating in the Myopia Investigation Study in Taipei.We used the first-year data from grade 2 schoolchildren who completed all the baseline and two follow-up examinations (n=6790). There were two 6-month intervals between visits (...) ) schoolchildren, respectively.Our data demonstrate a seasonal variation of minus shift in refractive error among Taipei schoolchildren who had significant daytime fluctuation during the 1-year follow-up. Of those, non-myopic children had significant and more pronounced variation of SE progression than myopic children.© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

28. Correlation of subfoveal choroidal thickness with axial length, refractive error, and age in adult highly myopic eyes. (PubMed)

Correlation of subfoveal choroidal thickness with axial length, refractive error, and age in adult highly myopic eyes. Subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) in highly myopic eyes was found to be correlated with increasing age, refractive error (spherical equivalent), and axial length. Which factor is the most significant predictor of SFCT remains controversial.A hospital-based cohort of highly myopic eyes (with spherical equivalent equal to or over 6.00 diopter) were retrospectively screened

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2018 BMC Ophthalmology

29. Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error. (PubMed)

Genome-wide association meta-analysis highlights light-induced signaling as a driver for refractive error. Refractive errors, including myopia, are the most frequent eye disorders worldwide and an increasingly common cause of blindness. This genome-wide association meta-analysis in 160,420 participants and replication in 95,505 participants increased the number of established independent signals from 37 to 161 and showed high genetic correlation between Europeans and Asians (>0.78). Expression (...) experiments and comprehensive in silico analyses identified retinal cell physiology and light processing as prominent mechanisms, and also identified functional contributions to refractive-error development in all cell types of the neurosensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium, vascular endothelium and extracellular matrix. Newly identified genes implicate novel mechanisms such as rod-and-cone bipolar synaptic neurotransmission, anterior-segment morphology and angiogenesis. Thirty-one loci resided

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2018 Nature Genetics

30. Association of low birth weight with myopic refractive error and lower visual acuity in adulthood: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). (PubMed)

Association of low birth weight with myopic refractive error and lower visual acuity in adulthood: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Low birth weight (BW) is linked to impaired organ development in childhood, including altered ocular morphological and functional development. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether low BW has long-term effects on visual acuity and refraction in adulthood.The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based, observational cohort (...) none with visual acuity.Our data demonstrated that low BW is linked to visual acuity and refractive long-term outcomes long after childhood. Individuals with low BW are more likely to have lower visual acuity and a higher myopic refractive error in adulthood. Adults with high BW are more likely to have a more hyperopic refractive error.© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2019. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

2018 British Journal of Ophthalmology

31. Longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure and association with systemic factors and refractive error: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study. (PubMed)

Longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure and association with systemic factors and refractive error: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study. To investigate the longitudinal changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and its associations with refractive error and systemic determinants in a Chinese geriatric population.Prospective cohort study.Guangzhou Government Servant Physical Check-up Center, Guangzhou, China.4413 government employees aged no less than 40 years (41.9% female) attending annual physical

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2018 BMJ open

32. Relative Proportion Of Different Types Of Refractive Errors In Subjects Seeking Laser Vision Correction (PubMed)

Relative Proportion Of Different Types Of Refractive Errors In Subjects Seeking Laser Vision Correction Refractive errors are a form of optical defect affecting more than 2.3 billion people worldwide. As refractive errors are a major contributor of mild to moderate vision impairment, assessment of their relative proportion would be helpful in the strategic planning of health programs.To determine the pattern of the relative proportion of types of refractive errors among the adult candidates (...) seeking laser assisted refractive correction in a private clinic setting in Saudi Arabia.The clinical charts of 687 patients (1374 eyes) with mean age 27.6 ± 7.5 years who desired laser vision correction and underwent a pre-LASIK work-up were reviewed retrospectively. Refractive errors were classified as myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. Manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE) was applied to define refractive errors.Distribution percentage of different types of refractive errors; myopia

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2018 The open ophthalmology journal

33. Correlation between dry eye and refractive error in Saudi young adults using noninvasive Keratograph 4 (PubMed)

Correlation between dry eye and refractive error in Saudi young adults using noninvasive Keratograph 4 The purpose is to study the correlation between dry eye and refractive errors in young adults using noninvasive Keratograph.In this cross sectional study, a total of 126 participants in the age range of 19-25 years and who were free of ocular surface disease, were recruited from King Saud University Campus. Refraction was defined by the spherical equivalent (SE) as the following: 49 emmetropic (...) reduction in the average NIBUT in myopes and hypermetropes in comparison to emmetropes.The current results succeeded to demonstrate a correlation between refractive errors and dryness level.

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2018 Indian journal of ophthalmology

34. Refractive error is associated with intracranial volume (PubMed)

Refractive error is associated with intracranial volume Myopia is part of the spectrum of refractive error. Myopia is associated with psychometric intelligence and, the link between brain anatomy and myopia has been hypothesized. Here we aimed to identify the associations between brain structures and refractive error in developed young adults. In a study cohort of 1,319 normal educated young adults, the refractive error showed a significant negative correlation with total intracranial volume (...) and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume but not with total gray matter volume (GMV) or total white matter volume (WMV). Time spent studying was associated with refractive error but could not explain the aforementioned associations with brain volume parameters. The R2 values of the simple regression between spherical equivalent and outcome variables for each sex in non-whole brain imaging analyses were less than 0.05 in all cases and thus were weak. Psychometric intelligence was not associated

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2018 Scientific reports

35. Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland (PubMed)

Characteristics of Refractive Errors in a Population of Adults in the Central Region of Poland Background: To investigate the distribution of refractive errors and their characteristics in older adults from a Polish population. Methods: The study design was a cross-sectional study. A total of 1107 men and women were interviewed and underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations, 998 subjects underwent refraction. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent (SER) refraction ≤-0.5 dioptres (D (...) 1.18-2.95) and presence of cataract (OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.24-4.63) were independent risk factors associated with myopia. Conclusions: The distribution of refractive errors found in our study is similar to those reported in other Caucasian populations and differs from Asian populations. Myopia was positively associated with younger age, female gender and presence of cataract.

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2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

36. Self‐assessment of refractive errors using a simple optical approach (PubMed)

Self‐assessment of refractive errors using a simple optical approach This explorative study investigated procedures for the self-assessment of spherocylindrical refractive errors.Eighteen participants with a mean age of 34.0 ± 8.8 years were enrolled. Adjustable Alvarez lenses were mounted in a rotatable ring holder and two procedures were tested for the self-adjustment: (1) rotation of the lens in three meridians: 0°, 60° and 120° and (2) rotation of the optotypes in the same meridians (...) . Starting from maximum positive power, the participants were required to decrease the power of the Alvarez lens until the optotypes (0.0 logMAR) appeared to be clear the first time. Best-corrected visual acuity (BVA) was measured using a psychophysical staircase procedure. Bland-Altmann analysis was carried out in order to calculate the limits of agreement between the self-refraction method and the standard subjective refraction.Using procedure 1, 77 per cent of the subjects achieved a VA ≥ 0.1 logMAR

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2018 Clinical & Experimental Optometry

37. The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss (PubMed)

The Interrelationship between Refractive Error, Blood Vessel Anatomy, and Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss We quantified the interrelationship between retinal blood vessel (BV) anatomical variation, spherical equivalent (SE) of refractive error, and functional diagnostic parameters in glaucoma to identify optimal parameters for the improvement of optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) norms.A trained observer marked the intersections of the main superior

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2018 Translational vision science & technology

38. Amblyopia, Strabismus and Refractive Errors in Congenital Ptosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed)

Amblyopia, Strabismus and Refractive Errors in Congenital Ptosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Congenital ptosis may be associated with abnormalities of visual development and function, including amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors. However, the prevalence estimates of these abnormalities vary widely. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors in congenital ptosis. Cochrane, Pubmed, Medline (...) %CI 3.0-69.8%), followed by 22.7% (95%CI 18.5-27.8%) for amblyopia, 22.2% (95%CI 7.8-63.1%) for astigmatism, 19.6% (95%CI 16.5-23.2%) for strabismus, 17.3% (95% CI 13.1-22.9%) for anisometropia and 4.0% for hyperopia (95%CI 1.8-7.1%). Significant heterogeneity was identified across most estimates. Our findings suggest that amblyopia, strabismus and refractive errors in congenital ptosis are present in much higher percentage. This study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and timely

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2018 Scientific reports

39. Performance of Photoscreener in Detection of Refractive Error in All Age Groups and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Children in a Tribal District of Odisha: The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) # 3 (PubMed)

Performance of Photoscreener in Detection of Refractive Error in All Age Groups and Amblyopia Risk Factors in Children in a Tribal District of Odisha: The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) # 3 To evaluate effectiveness of Welch Allyn Spot Vision Screener in detecting refractive error in all age groups and amblyopia risk factors in children in a tribal district of India.All participants received dry retinoscopy and photorefraction; children also received cycloplegic retinoscopy. Statistical (...) for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus [AAPOS] criteria) was 93.3% and 96.9% respectively. Sensitivity of Spot screener in detection of amblyopia was 72%.Photoscreener has 87% accuracy in refraction in children. Its value could be used for subjective correction tests.Photoscreening could complement traditional retinoscopy to address refractive error in children in a resource-limited facility region.

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2018 Translational vision science & technology

40. Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent

Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent - A Longitudinal Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies (...) before adding more. Ocular Development and Refractive Error Changes Among Children and Adolescent - A Longitudinal Study The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03589937 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted

2018 Clinical Trials

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