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Refractive Error

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181. Correction: Association between Childhood Strabismus and Refractive Error in Chinese Preschool Children (PubMed)

Correction: Association between Childhood Strabismus and Refractive Error in Chinese Preschool Children 26091507 2015 09 28 2018 11 13 1932-6203 10 6 2015 PloS one PLoS ONE Correction: Association between Childhood Strabismus and Refractive Error in Chinese Preschool Children. e0130914 10.1371/journal.pone.0130914 Zhu Hui H Yu Jia-Jia JJ Yu Rong-Bin RB Ding Hui H Bai Jing J Chen Ji J Liu Hu H eng Published Erratum 2015 06 19 United States PLoS One 101285081 1932-6203 PLoS One. 2015;10(3

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2015 PloS one

182. Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium To estimate the prevalence of refractive error in adults across Europe. Refractive data (mean spherical equivalent) collected between 1990 and 2013 from fifteen population-based cohort and cross-sectional studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium were combined in a random effects meta-analysis stratified by 5-year age intervals and gender. Participants were excluded if they were identified (...) as having had cataract surgery, retinal detachment, refractive surgery or other factors that might influence refraction. Estimates of refractive error prevalence were obtained including the following classifications: myopia ≤-0.75 diopters (D), high myopia ≤-6D, hyperopia ≥1D and astigmatism ≥1D. Meta-analysis of refractive error was performed for 61,946 individuals from fifteen studies with median age ranging from 44 to 81 and minimal ethnic variation (98 % European ancestry). The age-standardised

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2015 European journal of epidemiology

183. Uncorrected Myopic Refractive Error Increases Microsaccade Amplitude. (PubMed)

Uncorrected Myopic Refractive Error Increases Microsaccade Amplitude. Human brain generates miniature eye movements, such as microsaccades, to counteract image fading due to visual adaptation. Generation of microsaccade relies on the amount of retinal error or acuity demand for a desired visual task. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of visual blur, induced by uncorrected refractive error on microsaccades and saccades.Ten subjects with myopia held their gaze on a visual target (...) during two experiment conditions: corrected refractive error and uncorrected refractive error. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video oculography under binocular viewing conditions during both tasks. Gaze holding function, microsaccades, and visually guided saccades were analyzed and compared during both tasks.We found an increase in the amplitude of microsaccades in the presence of uncorrected refractive error, but the microsaccade frequency and velocity remained unchanged

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2015 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

184. Screening for refractive error and fitting with spectacles in rural and urban India: cost-effectiveness

Screening for refractive error and fitting with spectacles in rural and urban India: cost-effectiveness Screening for refractive error and fitting with spectacles in rural and urban India: cost-effectiveness Screening for refractive error and fitting with spectacles in rural and urban India: cost-effectiveness Frick KD, Riva-Clement L, Shankar MB Record Status This is a critical abstract of an economic evaluation that meets the criteria for inclusion on NHS EED. Each abstract contains a brief (...) summary of the methods, the results and conclusions followed by a detailed critical assessment on the reliability of the study and the conclusions drawn. CRD summary This study examined the cost-effectiveness of two screening programmes for refractive error, which were school-based and primary eye care, in urban and rural areas of India. At the cost-effectiveness threshold of the gross domestic product, urban school-based screening was highly cost-effective and rural school-based screening

2009 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

185. Common mechanisms underlying refractive error identified in functional analysis of gene lists from genome-wide association study results in 2 European British cohorts. (PubMed)

Common mechanisms underlying refractive error identified in functional analysis of gene lists from genome-wide association study results in 2 European British cohorts. To date, relatively few genes responsible for a fraction of heritability have been identified by means of large genetic association studies of refractive error.To explore the genetic mechanisms that lead to refractive error in the general population.Genome-wide association studies were carried out in 2 British population-based (...) adhesion (P = 2.42 × 10⁻¹⁸), synaptic transmission (P = 2.70 × 10⁻¹⁴), calcium ion binding (P = 3.55 × 10⁻¹⁵), and cation channel activity (P = 2.77 × 10⁻¹⁴) were significantly overrepresented in relation to refractive error.These findings provide evidence that development of refractive error in the general population is related to the intensity of photosignal transduced from the retina, which may have implications for future interventions to minimize this disorder. Pathways connected to the procession

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2014 JAMA ophthalmology

186. Refractive errors after the use of bevacizumab for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity: 2-year outcomes (PubMed)

Refractive errors after the use of bevacizumab for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity: 2-year outcomes To evaluate the refractive outcomes in children treated after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB) for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).A retrospective, bi-centre study of 34 patients (64 eyes) was conducted. The patients were divided into three groups, patients received intravitreal IVB (IVB group), patients received combined IVB and laser treatment (IVB + Laser group (...) ), or patients received lens-sparing vitrectomy (IVB + LSV group). Cycloplegic refraction and axial length (AXL) were evaluated at 2 years old.The prevalences of myopia and high myopia were 47.5 and 10.0% in the IVB group, respectively, which were lower than those in the IVB + Laser (82.4 and 29.4%) and IVB + LSV (all 100%) groups (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001). The prevalences of emmetropia in the IVB group, IVB + Laser group, and IVB + LSV group were 50, 5.9, and 0% (P = 0.001). The AXL were similar among all

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2014 Eye

187. Rasch Analysis of the Student Refractive Error and Eyeglass Questionnaire (PubMed)

Rasch Analysis of the Student Refractive Error and Eyeglass Questionnaire To evaluate and refine a newly developed instrument, the Student Refractive Error and Eyeglasses Questionnaire (SREEQ), designed to measure the impact of uncorrected and corrected refractive error on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in school-aged children.A 38-statement instrument consisting of two parts was developed: part A relates to perceptions regarding uncorrected vision and part B relates to perceptions (...) with significant refractive error in our study population.Although part B of the SREEQ appears to have a less-than-optimal reliability to assess the impact of spectacle correction on VRQoL in our student population, it is able to detect statistically significant differences from pretest to posttest on both the group and individual levels to show that the instrument can assess the impact that glasses have on VRQoL. Further modifications to the questionnaire, such as those included in the SREEQ-R, could enhance

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2014 Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry

188. Influence of intraocular lens haptic design on refractive error. (PubMed)

Influence of intraocular lens haptic design on refractive error. To assess the influence of intraocular (IOL) haptic design on the refraction prediction error in patients having cataract surgery.Private practice.Comparative case series.Corneal power and axial length were measured with the same devices in eyes with a 3-piece Acrysof IOL and eyes with a 1-piece Acrysof IOL and were entered into the Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, and SRK/T formulas. The median absolute error and mean absolute error (...) in refraction prediction (ie, difference between expected refraction and actual refraction) were assessed 1 month postoperatively.The study evaluated 110 eyes with the 3-piece IOL and 84 eyes with the 1-piece IOL. With all formulas, the median absolute error was lower with the 3-piece IOL. It ranged between 0.15 diopter (D) (Haigis and Holladay 1) and 0.19 D (SRK/T) with the 3-piece IOL and between 0.23 D (Haigis) and 0.30 D (SRK/T) with the 1-piece IOL. With all formulas, a higher percentage of eyes

2014 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

189. Comparison of monochromatic aberrations in young adults with different visual acuity and refractive errors. (PubMed)

Comparison of monochromatic aberrations in young adults with different visual acuity and refractive errors. To compare the monochromatic aberrations in a large cohort of 20-year-old Australians with differing levels of visual acuity and explore the relationship between these aberrations and refractive error.Lions Eye Institute, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort.Monochromatic aberrations were measured using a Zywave II wavefront aberrometer (...) previously reported values. The findings confirm there is a difference in monochromatic aberrations between different vision and refractive groups. Results in this study will benefit decision-making processes in the clinical setting.Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2014 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

190. The uncorrected refractive error challenge (PubMed)

The uncorrected refractive error challenge 26113778 2015 06 26 2018 11 13 0953-6833 27 88 2014 Community eye health Community Eye Health The uncorrected refractive error challenge. 74-5 Naidoo Kovin K Govender Pirindha P Holden Brien B eng Journal Article England Community Eye Health 8912615 0953-6833 2015 6 27 6 0 2014 1 1 0 0 2014 1 1 0 1 ppublish 26113778 PMC4477817 Bull World Health Organ. 2012 Oct 1;90(10):728-38 23109740 Indian J Ophthalmol. 2012 Sep-Oct;60(5):432-7 22944755 Lancet Glob

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2014 Community Eye Health

191. Management of residual refractive error after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy. (PubMed)

Management of residual refractive error after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy. To review the various steps and methods in managing residual refractive error after laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).Past studies have shown the efficacy and safety of flap relifts over recuts and for surface ablation over the flap. Other previous and also more recent studies show the use of a femtosecond laser for side cuts only. Recently, the creation (...) of a femtosecond mini flap has been described. New studies also demonstrate the use of collagen cross-linking in postrefractive surgery ectasia.Residual refractive error is a known complication after both laser in situ keratomileusis and PRK. A systematic approach should be taken to manage this complication starting with a thorough evaluation to determine if an enhancement is indicated and if so, which method will be the safest and most efficacious for the patient.

2014 Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

192. Management of residual refractive error after cataract surgery. (PubMed)

Management of residual refractive error after cataract surgery. To provide a review of the recent literature on the management of residual refractive error after cataract surgery.Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most accurate procedure to correct residual refractive error after cataract surgery. Lens-based procedures, such as intraocular lens (IOL) exchange or piggyback lens implantation, are also possible alternatives in cases with extreme ametropia, corneal abnormalities (...) , or in situations where excimer laser is not available. In this review, we found that Piggyback IOL were safer and more accurate than IOL exchange.Emmetropia is our main target today in modern cataract surgery. Accurate biometric analysis, selection and calculation of the adequate IOL, and modern techniques for cataract surgery all help surgeons to move toward the goal of cataract surgery as a refractive procedure free from refractive error. However, in spite of all these inputs, residual refractive error still

2014 Current Opinion in Ophthalmology

193. Corrective Techniques and Future Directions for Treatment of Residual Refractive Error Following Cataract Surgery (PubMed)

Corrective Techniques and Future Directions for Treatment of Residual Refractive Error Following Cataract Surgery Postoperative residual refractive error following cataract surgery is not an uncommon occurrence for a large proportion of modern-day patients. Residual refractive errors can be broadly classified into 3 main categories: myopic, hyperopic, and astigmatic. The degree to which a residual refractive error adversely affects a patient is dependent on the magnitude of the error, as well (...) as the specific type of intraocular lens the patient possesses. There are a variety of strategies for resolving residual refractive errors that must be individualized for each specific patient scenario. In this review, the authors discuss contemporary methods for rectification of residual refractive error, along with their respective indications/contraindications, and efficacies.

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2014 Expert review of ophthalmology

194. Emmetropisation and the aetiology of refractive errors (PubMed)

Emmetropisation and the aetiology of refractive errors The distribution of human refractive errors displays features that are not commonly seen in other biological variables. Compared with the more typical Gaussian distribution, adult refraction within a population typically has a negative skew and increased kurtosis (ie is leptokurtotic). This distribution arises from two apparently conflicting tendencies, first, the existence of a mechanism to control eye growth during infancy so as to bring (...) to adulthood and the impact of increasing myopia prevalence on refractive error distributions in Asia.

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2014 Eye

195. Refractive error and risk of early or late age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Refractive error and risk of early or late age-related macular degeneration: a systematic review and meta-analysis. To summarize relevant evidence investigating the associations between refractive error and age-related macular degeneration (AMD).Systematic review and meta-analysis.We searched Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases as well as the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. Extracted data were combined using a random-effects (...) meta-analysis. Studies that were pertinent to our topic but did not meet the criteria for quantitative analysis were reported in a systematic review instead.Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between refractive error (hyperopia, myopia, per-diopter increase in spherical equivalent [SE] toward hyperopia, per-millimeter increase in axial length [AL]) and AMD (early and late, prevalent and incident).Fourteen studies comprising over 5800 patients were

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2014 PloS one

196. A team approach to providing refractive error services (PubMed)

A team approach to providing refractive error services 25316961 2014 10 15 2018 11 13 0953-6833 27 86 2014 Community eye health Community Eye Health A team approach to providing refractive error services. 29-30 Naidoo Kovin K Global Programmes Director: Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa. Govender Pirindha P Global Programmes Associate: Brien Holden Vision Institute, Durban, South Africa. eng Journal Article England Community Eye Health 8912615 0953-6833 2014 10 16 6 0 2014 10

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2014 Community Eye Health

197. Strabismus, visual acuity, and uncorrected refractive error in portuguese children aged 6 to 11 years. (PubMed)

Strabismus, visual acuity, and uncorrected refractive error in portuguese children aged 6 to 11 years. Visual anomalies that affect school-age children represent an important public health problem. Data on the prevalence are lacking in Portugal but is needed for planning vision services. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of strabismus, decreased visual acuity, and uncorrected refractive error in Portuguese children aged 6 to 11 years.A cross-sectional study was carried out (...) acuity at distance was present in 11.3% of children. Visual acuity≤20/66 (0.5 logMAR) was found in 1.3% of the children. We also found that 10.3% of children had an uncorrected refractive error.Strabismus affects a small proportion of the Portuguese school-age children. Decreased visual acuity and uncorrected refractive error affected a significant proportion of school-age children. New policies need to be developed to address this public health problem.

2014 Strabismus

198. The effects of mild-to-severe retinopathy of prematurity on the development of refractive errors and strabismus. (PubMed)

The effects of mild-to-severe retinopathy of prematurity on the development of refractive errors and strabismus. To investigate the effects of mild-to-severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) on refractive state and the incidence of strabismus.Infants born ≤32 weeks of gestation were prospectively evaluated. Inclusion criteria were a follow-up of at least 6 months and at least stage 1 ROP. Group 1 included stage 1 ROP cases. Cases with stage 2 or 3 ROP without indication for treatment formed (...) , respectively (p = 0.026 for right SE and 0.008 for left SE). The incidences of anisometropia were 3/21, 4/22, and 11/23 in the first, second, and third groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] for group 3 vs 1 = 5.39, aOR for group 3 vs 2 = 4.06). Strabismus developed in 7/21, 6/22, and 10/23 in groups one, two, and three, respectively (aOR for group 3 vs 1 = 2.06, aOR for group 3 vs 2 = 2.27). Eighteen of these were esotropias.Refractive errors and strabismus were associated with mild-to-severe

2014 Strabismus

199. Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). To study the distribution of refractive errors among adults of European descent.Population-based eye study in Germany with 15010 participants aged 35-74 years.The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination according to a standardised protocol. Refractive error was determined by an automatic refraction device (Humphrey HARK 599) without cycloplegia. Definitions for the analysis (...) were myopia <-0.5 dioptres (D), hyperopia >+0.5 D, astigmatism >0.5 cylinder D and anisometropia >1.0 D difference in the spherical equivalent between the eyes. Exclusion criterion was previous cataract or refractive surgery.13959 subjects were eligible. Refractive errors ranged from -21.5 to +13.88 D. Myopia was present in 35.1% of this study sample, hyperopia in 31.8%, astigmatism in 32.3% and anisometropia in 13.5%. The prevalence of myopia decreased, while the prevalence of hyperopia

2014 British Journal of Ophthalmology

200. Accuracy of Noncycloplegic Retinoscopy, Retinomax Autorefractor and SureSight Vision Screener for Detecting Significant Refractive Errors. (PubMed)

Accuracy of Noncycloplegic Retinoscopy, Retinomax Autorefractor and SureSight Vision Screener for Detecting Significant Refractive Errors. To evaluate, by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the ability of noncycloplegic retinoscopy (NCR), Retinomax Autorefractor (Retinomax), and SureSight Vision Screener (SureSight) to detect significant refractive errors (RE) among preschoolers.Refraction results of eye care professionals using NCR, Retinomax, and SureSight (n = 2588

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2014 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

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