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Refractive Error

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181. Avoidance of serious medical errors in refractive surgery using a custom preoperative checklist. (PubMed)

Avoidance of serious medical errors in refractive surgery using a custom preoperative checklist. To implement and measure the effect of a surgical safety checklist on the prevention of serious medical errors (never-events).Boston Eye Group, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.Retrospective cohort study.A safety checklist incorporating 28 sources of error was designed and implemented in December 2011 at the Boston Eye Group's refractive surgical center. Consecutive patients who had primary or enhancement (...) (P = .23). The medical errors involved wrong refractive aim in 1 patient and wrong person-wrong procedure-wrong aim in another.Multiple potential sources of error exist in refractive surgery. The broad-scale implementation of a detailed presurgical safety checklist was helpful in minimizing and preventing serious errors (never-events) during LVC.Drs. Shapiro and Urman are members of the Institute for Safety in Office-Based Surgery, a nonprofit organization whose aims are to implement safety

2015 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

182. Changes in axial length and refractive error after noninvasive normalization of intraocular pressure from elevated levels. (PubMed)

Changes in axial length and refractive error after noninvasive normalization of intraocular pressure from elevated levels. To explore the changes in axial length and refractive error after noninvasive normalization of intraocular pressure (IOP) from elevated levels.A prospective observational study.We enrolled 51 consecutive patients with abnormally elevated unilateral IOP (≥10 mm Hg compared with that of the fellow eye, in which the IOP was ≤21 mm Hg). In all patients, the keratometric value (...) and axial length were obtained with the aid of an IOLMaster before and after IOP normalization (defined as attainment of an IOP difference of ≤3 mm Hg compared with the fellow eye, with or without topical application of ocular hypotensive therapy). We focused principally on IOP, axial length, the keratometric value, and the predicted refractive difference (the predicted refractive error after IOP normalization upon placement of an IOL with a power for emmetropia correction determined prior to IOP

2015 American Journal of Ophthalmology

183. The Association of Refractive Error with Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Population. (PubMed)

The Association of Refractive Error with Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Population. To evaluate the association between refractive error and the prevalence of glaucoma by race or ethnicity.Cross-sectional study.Kaiser Permanente Northern California Health Plan members with refractive error measured at 35 years of age or older between 2008 and 2014 and with no history of cataract surgery, refractive surgery, or a corneal disorder.We identified 34 040 members with glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHTN (...) ; cases) and 403 398 members without glaucoma (controls). Glaucoma cases were classified as primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG); 1 of the 4 forms of open-angle glaucoma: primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), pigmentary glaucoma (PIGM), and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX); or OHTN. Refractive error, expressed as spherical equivalent (SE), was coded as a continuous trait and also as categories. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between

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2015 Ophthalmology

184. Prevalence of Amblyopia in School-Aged Children and Variations by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in a Multi-Country Refractive Error Study. (PubMed)

Prevalence of Amblyopia in School-Aged Children and Variations by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in a Multi-Country Refractive Error Study. To estimate the age-, gender-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of amblyopia in children aged 5 to 15 years using data from the multi-country Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC).Population-based, cross-sectional study.Among 46 260 children aged 5 to 15 years who were enumerated from 8 sites in the RESC study, 39 551 had a detailed ocular examination (...) and a reliable visual acuity (VA) measurement in 1 or both eyes. Information on ethnicity was available for 39 321 of these participants. This study focused on findings from the 39 321 children.The examination included VA measurements, evaluation of ocular alignment and refractive error under cycloplegia, and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus.The proportion of children aged 5 to 15 years with amblyopia in different ethnic cohorts. Amblyopia was defined as best-corrected

2015 Ophthalmology

185. Changes in central corneal thickness and refractive error after thin-flap laser in situ keratomileusis in Chinese eyes. (PubMed)

Changes in central corneal thickness and refractive error after thin-flap laser in situ keratomileusis in Chinese eyes. Refractive stability is influenced by alterations in corneal curvature and corneal thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The aim of this study was to analyze the changes of central corneal thickness (CCT) and refractive error following thin-flap LASIK surgery in Chinese eyes.One hundred and fifty-eight myopic patients (302 eyes) who underwent thin-flap LASIK (...) surgery were prospectively evaluated. CCT was measured by non-contact specular microscopy before, and 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months following surgery. Age, refractive error, and optic zone diameter were also recorded.Preoperatively, the mean CCT was 531.6 ± 24.3 μm. At 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery, mean CCTs were 431.4 ± 38.4 μm, 422.6 ± 3 7.8 μm, 427.2 ± 38.0 μm, 434.4 ± 38.2 μm, and 435.6 ± 38.0 μm, respectively. Significant changes were detected in CCT values at each

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2015 BMC Ophthalmology

186. Early Anesthesia Exposure and the Effect on Visual Acuity, Refractive Error, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness of Young Adults. (PubMed)

Early Anesthesia Exposure and the Effect on Visual Acuity, Refractive Error, and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness of Young Adults. To investigate whether being anesthesia administered at least once in early life influenced 3 main proxies of visual function: visual acuity, refractive error, and optic nerve health in young adulthood.At age 20 years, participants of the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study had comprehensive ocular examinations including visual acuity, postcycloplegic (...) , median visual acuity (measured using the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [LogMAR] chart) was -0.06 LogMAR in the right eye and -0.08 LogMAR in the left eye (P > .05). Median spherical equivalent refractive error was +0.44 diopters (IQR -0.25, +0.63) and +0.31 diopters (IQR -0.38, +0.63) in the exposed and nonexposed group, respectively (P = .126). No difference was detected in mean global retinal nerve fiber layer thickness of the 2 groups (100.7 vs 100.1 μm, P = .830).We were unable

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2015 Journal of Pediatrics

187. The Montrachet Study: study design, methodology and analysis of visual acuity and refractive errors in an elderly population. (PubMed)

The Montrachet Study: study design, methodology and analysis of visual acuity and refractive errors in an elderly population. To describe the design of the Montrachet Study (Maculopathy Optic Nerve nuTRition neurovAsCular and HEarT diseases) and to report visual acuity and refractive errors in this elderly population.Participants were recruited in Dijon (France), from the ongoing population-based 3C Study. In 2009-2011, 1153 participants from the 3 Cities Study, aged 75 years or more, had (...) an initial eye examination and were scheduled for eye examinations. The eye examination comprised visual acuity, refraction, visual field, ocular surface assessment, photographs and OCT of the macula and the optic disc, measurement of intra-ocular pressure, central corneal thickness and macular pigment assessment. Information on cardiovascular and neurologic diseases and a large comprehensive database (blood samples, genetic testing, cognitive tests, MRI) were available from the 3C Study.Presenting

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2015 Acta ophthalmologica

188. A survey of the criteria for prescribing in cases of borderline refractive errors (PubMed)

A survey of the criteria for prescribing in cases of borderline refractive errors This research investigated the reported optometric prescribing criteria of Israeli optometrists.An online questionnaire based on previous studies was distributed via email and social networking sites to optometrists in Israel. The questionnaire surveyed the level of refractive error at which respondents would prescribe for different types of refractive error at various ages with and without symptoms.124 responses (...) were obtained, yielding a response rate of approximately 12-22%, 92% of whom had trained in Israel. For all refractive errors, the presence of symptoms strongly influenced prescribing criteria. For example, for 10-20 year old patients the degree of hyperopia for which 50% of practitioners would prescribe is +0.75 D in the presence of symptoms but twice this value (+1.50 D) in the absence of symptoms. As might be expected, optometrists prescribed at lower degrees of hyperopia for older compared

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2015 Journal of optometry

189. Age, gender and refractive error association with intraocular pressure in healthy Saudi participants: A cross-sectional study (PubMed)

Age, gender and refractive error association with intraocular pressure in healthy Saudi participants: A cross-sectional study To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association with age, gender and refractive error in non-glaucomatous Saudi participants.Hospital-based cross-sectional observational study during Vision Day Screening Program.458 participants living in the Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia.Recruited participants (aged 20 years or over) underwent a comprehensive (...) ). No statistically significant difference in IOP in relation to age comparing 20-45 years group to 46-69 years group was documented (p = 0.751). There was no statistically significant relationship between refractive error category and IOP (p = 0.405). Ocular hypertension with IOP > 21 mmHg was found in 8.7% of the participants.Variation in IOP by gender, age group and type of refractive error was not statistically significant. The observations need confirmation by study with larger sample representing Saudi

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2015 Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology

190. Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) (PubMed)

Effect of Age and Refractive Error on the Melanopsin Mediated Post-Illumination Pupil Response (PIPR) Melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion cells (ipRGCs) mediate the pupil light reflex (PLR) during light onset and at light offset (the post-illumination pupil response, PIPR). Recent evidence shows that the PLR and PIPR can provide non-invasive, objective markers of age-related retinal and optic nerve disease; however there is no consensus on the effects of healthy (...) ageing or refractive error on the ipRGC mediated pupil function. Here we isolated melanopsin contributions to the pupil control pathway in 59 human participants with no ocular pathology across a range of ages and refractive errors. We show that there is no effect of age or refractive error on ipRGC inputs to the human pupil control pathway. The stability of the ipRGC mediated pupil response across the human lifespan provides a functional correlate of their robustness observed during ageing in rodent

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2015 Scientific reports

191. Effect of refractive error on visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation in dogs (PubMed)

Effect of refractive error on visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation in dogs The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of refractive error on canine visual evoked potentials with pattern stimulation (P-VEP). Six normal beagle dogs were used. The refractive power of the recorded eyes was measured by skiascopy. The refractive power was corrected to -4 diopters (D) to +2 D using contact lens. P-VEP was recorded at each refractive power. The stimulus pattern size (...) and distance were 50.3 arc-min and 50 cm. The P100 appeared at almost 100 msec at -2 D (at which the stimulus monitor was in focus). There was significant prolongation of the P100 implicit time at -4, -3, 0 and +1 D compared with -2 D, respectively. We concluded that the refractive power of the eye affected the P100 implicit time in canine P-VEP recording.

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2015 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

192. Effects of refractive errors on visual evoked magnetic fields. (PubMed)

Effects of refractive errors on visual evoked magnetic fields. The latency and amplitude of visual evoked cortical responses are known to be affected by refractive states, suggesting that they may be used as an objective index of refractive errors. In order to establish an easy and reliable method for this purpose, we herein examined the effects of refractive errors on visual evoked magnetic fields (VEFs).Binocular VEFs following the presentation of a simple grating of 0.16 cd/m(2) in the lower (...) visual field were recorded in 12 healthy volunteers and compared among four refractive states: 0D, +1D, +2D, and +4D, by using plus lenses.The low-luminance visual stimulus evoked a main MEG response at approximately 120 ms (M100) that reversed its polarity between the upper and lower visual field stimulations and originated from the occipital midline area. When refractive errors were induced by plus lenses, the latency of M100 increased, while its amplitude decreased with an increase in power

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2015 BMC Ophthalmology

193. Refractive errors in high myopic eyes after phacovitrectomy for macular hole (PubMed)

Refractive errors in high myopic eyes after phacovitrectomy for macular hole To examine the refractive prediction error in high myopic eyes after phacovitrectomy.This retrospective comparative case series included 91 eyes (18 high myopic eyes and 73 non-high myopic eyes) of 91 patients who underwent successful phacovitrectomy (phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and pars plana vitrectomy). The high myopic eyes were defined as the eye with more than 26.0 mm of axial length (...) . The postoperative prediction error of mean error and mean absolute error were evaluated at 4mo postoperatively. Axial length and keratometry measurement were performed preoperatively and 4mo postoperatively using the IOL Master.The refractive outcome after phacovitrectomy showed significantly greater myopic shift in the high myopic eyes [-1.08±0.87 diopters (D)] than that in the non-high myopic eyes (-0.43±0.63 D, P=0.004). Axial length and keratometric value in the high myopic eyes were significantly increased

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2015 International journal of ophthalmology

194. Assumption-free estimation of the genetic contribution to refractive error across childhood (PubMed)

Assumption-free estimation of the genetic contribution to refractive error across childhood Studies in relatives have generally yielded high heritability estimates for refractive error: twins 75-90%, families 15-70%. However, because related individuals often share a common environment, these estimates are inflated (via misallocation of unique/common environment variance). We calculated a lower-bound heritability estimate for refractive error free from such bias.Between the ages 7 and 15 years (...) , participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) underwent non-cycloplegic autorefraction at regular research clinics. At each age, an estimate of the variance in refractive error explained by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genetic variants was calculated using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA) using high-density genome-wide SNP genotype information (minimum N at each age=3,404).The variance in refractive error explained by the SNPs ("SNP heritability") was stable

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2015 Molecular vision

195. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens (PubMed)

Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP).Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 (...) chamber depth and Pkadj.Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

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2015 International journal of ophthalmology

196. Managing residual refractive error after cataract surgery. (PubMed)

Managing residual refractive error after cataract surgery. We present a review of keratorefractive and intraocular approaches to managing residual astigmatic and spherical refractive error after cataract surgery, including laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), arcuate keratotomy, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, piggyback IOLs, and light-adjustable IOLs. Currently available literature suggests that laser vision correction, whether LASIK or PRK, yields more (...) effective and predictable outcomes than intraocular surgery. Piggyback IOLs with a rounded-edge profile implanted in the sulcus may be superior to IOL exchange, but both options present potential risks that likely outweigh the refractive benefits except in cases with large residual spherical errors. The light-adjustable IOL may provide an ideal treatment to pseudophakic ametropia by obviating the need for secondary invasive procedures after cataract surgery, but it is not widely available nor has

2015 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

197. Macular Pigment Optical Density and Ocular Pulse Amplitude in Subjects with Different Axial Lengths and Refractive Errors (PubMed)

Macular Pigment Optical Density and Ocular Pulse Amplitude in Subjects with Different Axial Lengths and Refractive Errors The purpose of our study was to: (1) investigate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in subjects with different axial lengths (AL) and refractive errors (RE); (2) determine if there is a correlation between MPOD and OPA; and (3) evaluate whether MPOD and OPA depend on intraocular pressure (IOP).This study included 140 eyes of 70 (...) subjects - 17 men and 53 women, aged 18 to 29 years (mean: 22.5 years; SD=2.8). Every examined person underwent a thorough eye examination including: visual acuity, anterior segment and fundus examination, keratometry, auto-refractometry, and MPOD, OPA, AL, and IOP measurements. The obtained results were analyzed statistically using Statistica 10 software. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant.The following refractive errors were selected: emmetropia (34 eyes), hyperopia (18 eyes

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2015 Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research

198. The Impact of Lens Vault on Visual Acuity and Refractive Error: Implications for Management of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma. (PubMed)

The Impact of Lens Vault on Visual Acuity and Refractive Error: Implications for Management of Primary Angle-Closure Glaucoma. To investigate the relationship between lens vault (LV), visual acuity (VA), and refraction.This was a cross-sectional study of 2047 subjects aged 50 years and older recruited from a community polyclinic. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was performed, and customized software was used to measure LV. VA was measured using a logarithm of minimum angle (...) of resolution chart (logMAR chart; Lighthouse Inc.), and was classified as normal (logMAR<0.3), mild impairment (0.30.6). Refraction was measured with an autorefractor machine and spherical equivalent was defined as sphere plus half cylinder. Angle closure was defined as posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≥2 quadrants on nonindentation gonioscopy.Complete data were available for 1372 subjects including 295 (21.5%) with angle closure. Angle

2015 Journal of Glaucoma

199. Uncorrected Myopic Refractive Error Increases Microsaccade Amplitude. (PubMed)

Uncorrected Myopic Refractive Error Increases Microsaccade Amplitude. Human brain generates miniature eye movements, such as microsaccades, to counteract image fading due to visual adaptation. Generation of microsaccade relies on the amount of retinal error or acuity demand for a desired visual task. The goal of this study was to assess the influence of visual blur, induced by uncorrected refractive error on microsaccades and saccades.Ten subjects with myopia held their gaze on a visual target (...) during two experiment conditions: corrected refractive error and uncorrected refractive error. Eye movements were measured with high-resolution video oculography under binocular viewing conditions during both tasks. Gaze holding function, microsaccades, and visually guided saccades were analyzed and compared during both tasks.We found an increase in the amplitude of microsaccades in the presence of uncorrected refractive error, but the microsaccade frequency and velocity remained unchanged

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2015 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

200. Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium (PubMed)

Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium To estimate the prevalence of refractive error in adults across Europe. Refractive data (mean spherical equivalent) collected between 1990 and 2013 from fifteen population-based cohort and cross-sectional studies of the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium were combined in a random effects meta-analysis stratified by 5-year age intervals and gender. Participants were excluded if they were identified (...) as having had cataract surgery, retinal detachment, refractive surgery or other factors that might influence refraction. Estimates of refractive error prevalence were obtained including the following classifications: myopia ≤-0.75 diopters (D), high myopia ≤-6D, hyperopia ≥1D and astigmatism ≥1D. Meta-analysis of refractive error was performed for 61,946 individuals from fifteen studies with median age ranging from 44 to 81 and minimal ethnic variation (98 % European ancestry). The age-standardised

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2015 European journal of epidemiology

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