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Refractive Error

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1. Optical correction of refractive error for preventing and treating eye symptoms in computer users. (PubMed)

Optical correction of refractive error for preventing and treating eye symptoms in computer users. Computer users frequently complain about problems with seeing and functioning of the eyes. Asthenopia is a term generally used to describe symptoms related to (prolonged) use of the eyes like ocular fatigue, headache, pain or aching around the eyes, and burning and itchiness of the eyelids. The prevalence of asthenopia during or after work on a computer ranges from 46.3% to 68.5%. Uncorrected (...) or under-corrected refractive error can contribute to the development of asthenopia. A refractive error is an error in the focusing of light by the eye and can lead to reduced visual acuity. There are various possibilities for optical correction of refractive errors including eyeglasses, contact lenses and refractive surgery.To examine the evidence on the effectiveness, safety and applicability of optical correction of refractive error for reducing and preventing eye symptoms in computer users.We

2018 Cochrane

2. Long-term development of refractive error in refractive, nonrefractive and partially accommodative esotropia. (PubMed)

Long-term development of refractive error in refractive, nonrefractive and partially accommodative esotropia. Accommodative esotropia (AE) is a convergent deviation due to an excess of the convergence linked to the innervational stimulus for accommodation and it is usually associated to the presence of hyperopia. The development of hyperopia over time has been widely described but the lack of comparative analysis among accommodative esotropia subtypes, does not allow to verify the existence (...) of different developmental patterns. In this study we aimed to describe the long term changes of refractive error in patients affected by accommodative esotropia as a function of the strabismus type: refractive (RAE), non-refractive (NRAE) and partially accommodative esotropia (PAE). The medical records of 66 patients (24 RAE, 22 PAE, 20 NRAE), who wore the full correction of their cycloplegic refraction error during the entire follow up period, were retrospectively reviewed. Mean outcome was the analysis

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2018 PLoS ONE

3. Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of the Impact of Corneal Epithelial Thickness on Refractive Error Post Corneal Refractive Surgery. (PubMed)

Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of the Impact of Corneal Epithelial Thickness on Refractive Error Post Corneal Refractive Surgery. To evaluate the influence of corneal epithelial thickness (CET) on the deviation from the targeted refraction [refractive error (RE)] post corneal refractive surgery.Retrospective, single-center, cross-sectional study.This study involved 211 eyes of 211 patients who previously underwent laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or epipolis LASIK (...) that the difference of mean CET between the central and mid-peripheral zones had a significant influence on RE (β coefficient = -0.028, P<0.01).The difference between CET at the central and mid-peripheral zones may play a role in the final RE post corneal refractive surgery.Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2019 American Journal of Ophthalmology

4. Impact of various types of near work and time spent outdoors at different times of day on visual acuity and refractive error among Chinese school-going children. (PubMed)

Impact of various types of near work and time spent outdoors at different times of day on visual acuity and refractive error among Chinese school-going children. Various types of near work have been suggested to promote the incidence and progression of myopia, while outdoor activity appears to prevent or retard myopia. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to interpret these results and translate them into effective intervention strategies. This study examined the association between (...) ) were significantly associated with greater refractive error, while television viewing and after-school study were not. For time spent outdoors, only time around midday was significantly associated with better uncorrected visual acuity. Compared to children who reported no midday time outdoors, those who spent time outdoors at midday for 31-60 minutes or more than 60 minutes had better uncorrected visual acuity by 0.016 LogMAR units (P = .014) and 0.016 units (P = .042), respectively.Use of smart

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2019 PLoS ONE

5. Refractive surgery: the most cost-saving technique in refractive errors correction (PubMed)

Refractive surgery: the most cost-saving technique in refractive errors correction To compare the lifetime and annual economic burden of spectacles, contact lenses, and refractive surgery in correction of refractive errors.This is a cross-sectional study with convenience sampling which 120 patients were interviewed in a tertiary referral hospital in the Iranian health care system. The bottom-up based cost of illness approach was estimated using a face-to-face interview to assess the direct (...) and indirect cost of different refractive errors correction of any correction technologies.Correction with spectacle imposes a total direct cost of US dollar (US$) 342.5 (±8.41) per year and US$9373.5 (±230.1) per lifetime to each patient. These figures for the contact lenses were obtained US$198.3 (±0.12) and US$5203.1 (±256.3) and for refractive surgery were obtained US$19.1 (±1.2) and US$568.1 (±64.6), respectively. Overall, based on age-adjusted prevalence rates, astigmatism had the highest share

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2018 International journal of ophthalmology

6. Role of laser refractive surgery in cross-subsidization of nonprofit humanitarian eyecare and the burden of uncorrected refractive error in Nepal: Pilot project. (PubMed)

Role of laser refractive surgery in cross-subsidization of nonprofit humanitarian eyecare and the burden of uncorrected refractive error in Nepal: Pilot project. To establish a refractive surgery unit at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology through support from international donations and provide knowledge transfer for doctors and management to make the unit self-sustaining, nonprofit laser refractive surgery, and financial support for other eyecare projects at Tilganga.Tilganga Institute (...) of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu, Nepal.Retrospective study.A foundation was created to establish a refractive surgery unit using a cost-recovery model; that is, patients are charged according to their financial status to cover running costs, patients without funds to pay for surgery, and other eyecare projects for the underprivileged population of Kathmandu, Nepal. Donations were obtained to fund refurbishment within Tilganga Hospital and purchase equipment and technology. A Nepalese surgeon was selected from

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

7. Risk factors for refractive error after cataract surgery: Analysis of 282 811 cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for cataract and refractive surgery. (PubMed)

Risk factors for refractive error after cataract surgery: Analysis of 282 811 cataract extractions reported to the European Registry of Quality Outcomes for cataract and refractive surgery. To analyze risk factors for refractive error after cataract surgery and provide a benchmark for refractive outcomes after standard cataract surgery.One hundred cataract surgery clinics from 12 European countries.Multicenter database study.Data on consecutive cataract extractions reported to the European (...) were analyzed.Of the 548 392 cases analyzed, follow-up data were available for 282 811 cases. The absolute mean biometry prediction error in spherical equivalent was 0.42 diopters (D). A biometry prediction error within ±0.50 D was achieved for 205 675 eyes (72.7%). A biometry prediction error within ±1.0 D was achieved for 263 015 eyes (93.0%). Poor preoperative CDVA, target refraction, coexisting eye diseases, surgical difficulties including previous ophthalmic interventions, and surgical

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

8. Predicting pseudophakic refractive error: Interplay of biometry prediction error, anterior chamber depth, and changes in corneal curvature. (PubMed)

Predicting pseudophakic refractive error: Interplay of biometry prediction error, anterior chamber depth, and changes in corneal curvature. To quantify pseudophakic refractive error prediction with the Hill-RBF, Barrett Universal II, and SRK/T formulas and to evaluate the temporal effects of anterior chamber depth (ACD) and keratometric changes on postoperative refraction.Department of Ophthalmology, University of Auckland and Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, New Zealand.Prospective (...) case series.Patients listed for cataract surgery were prospectively recruited. Optimum intraocular lens (IOL) power and predicted refractive outcomes were calculated, and the predicted refraction was compared with objective refractive outcomes at 1-week and 1-month and 3-month follow-ups.The study comprised 100 patients (100 eyes). The mean axial length was 23.4 mm ± 1.1 (SD). The mean keratometry was 43.9 ± 1.3 diopters (D). The mean absolute prediction errors at 3-months were: Universal II: 0.50

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

9. Comparison of a Smartphone Based Self Refraction Tool With Conventional Refraction Error Estimation Methods

Comparison of a Smartphone Based Self Refraction Tool With Conventional Refraction Error Estimation Methods Comparison of a Smartphone Based Self Refraction Tool With Conventional Refraction Error Estimation Methods - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Comparison of a Smartphone Based Self Refraction Tool With Conventional Refraction Error Estimation Methods The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier

2017 Clinical Trials

10. Prevalence and risk factors of refractive error: a cross-sectional Study in Han and Yi adults in Yunnan, China. (PubMed)

Prevalence and risk factors of refractive error: a cross-sectional Study in Han and Yi adults in Yunnan, China. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of refractive error (RE) in older adults in China, and most have focused on East China. Our study determined the prevalence and risk factors of RE in Han and Yi adults aged 40-80 years in rural and urban areas in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.Our cross-sectional study is part of the China National Health Survey (CNHS). The age-adjusted

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2019 BMC Ophthalmology

11. Longitudinal Changes in Spherical Equivalent Refractive Error Among Children With Preschool Myopia. (PubMed)

Longitudinal Changes in Spherical Equivalent Refractive Error Among Children With Preschool Myopia. Preschool myopia generally indicated a high risk of progression to high myopia. However, no previous study has reported its longitudinal evolution. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in preschool myopia and explore the associated key determinants.Medical records of patients seeking refractions at Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center between 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed (...) . Mean rates of change in spherical equivalent (SE) refractive errors were evaluated in patients with preschool myopia. Association between the rate of change in SE and patient characteristics at the initial visit were examined using linear mixed-effect regression models.A total of 495 cases (median initial age: 5.12 years, interquartile range [IQR], 4.12-5.76 years) were assessed with at least 2-year follow-up. The initial median SE was -3.00 D (IQR, -5.25 to -1.75 D) and the median duration

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2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

12. Refractive errors in an elderly rural Japanese population: The Kumejima study. (PubMed)

Refractive errors in an elderly rural Japanese population: The Kumejima study. The prevalence of refractive errors, which closely relates to visual function difficulties, several ocular disorders, and decreased quality of life, varies among countries and populations. One of the highest prevalence of myopia (spherical equivalent [SE] < -0.5 diopters [D], 41.8%) has been reported in an urban city (Tajimi) in central Japan. Here, we assess refractive conditions in a rural southwestern island (...) (Kumejima) of Japan, where a high prevalence of glaucoma, especially angle-closure glaucoma, has been found. In Kumejima, the prevalence of myopia (SE < -0.5 D), high myopia (SE < -5 D), hyperopia (SE > +0.5 D), refractive astigmatism (cylinder > 0.5 D), and anisometropia (difference in SE between eyes > 1.0 D) were 29.5%, 1.9%, 34.1%, 38.8%, and 15.5%, respectively. Myopia decreased with age up to 70 years old but increased slightly thereafter, whereas hyperopia increased up to 70 years old

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2018 PLoS ONE

13. Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. (PubMed)

Knowledge, attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Refractive error is an important cause of correctable visual impairment in the worldwide with a global distribution of 1.75% to 20.7% among schoolchildren. Teacher's knowledge about refractive error play an important role in encouraging students to seek treatment that helps in reducing the burden of visual impairment.To determine knowledge (...) , attitude and associated factors among primary school teachers regarding refractive error in school children in Gondar city.Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on 565 primary school teachers in Gondar city using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. For processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used and variables which had a P value of <0.05 in the multivariable analysis were considered as statistically significant.A total of 565 study subjects were participated

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2018 PLoS ONE

14. Correction: The high prevalence of myopia in Korean children with influence of parental refractive errors: The 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. (PubMed)

Correction: The high prevalence of myopia in Korean children with influence of parental refractive errors: The 2008-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0207690.].

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2018 PLoS ONE

15. Refractive error has minimal influence on the risk of age-related macular degeneration: A Mendelian randomization study. (PubMed)

Refractive error has minimal influence on the risk of age-related macular degeneration: A Mendelian randomization study. To test the hypothesis that refractive errors such as myopia and hyperopia cause an increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to quantify the degree of risk.Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis of data from a genome-wide association study PARTICIPANTS: As instrumental variables for refractive error, 126 genome-wide significant genetic; variants (...) identified by the CREAM consortium and 23andMe Inc. were chosen. The association with refractive error for the 126 variants was obtained from a published study for a sample of n=95,505 European ancestry participants from UK Biobank. Association with AMD for the 126; genetic variants was determined from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) published by; the International Age-related Macular Degeneration Genomics consortium of n=33,526 (16,144; cases and 17,832 controls) European ancestry

2019 American Journal of Ophthalmology

16. Pilot evaluation of refractive prediction errors associated with a new method for ray-tracing-based intraocular lens power calculation. (PubMed)

Pilot evaluation of refractive prediction errors associated with a new method for ray-tracing-based intraocular lens power calculation. To investigate the accuracy of a new ray-tracing-based intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation method and to compare the outcomes with different IOL calculation formulas.Hanusch Hospital, Vienna, Austria.Theoretical prospective monocentric study.Monofocal aspheric plate haptic IOL (CT Asphina 409M/MP) implantation was performed in 40 cataractous eyes. At 1 (...)  month postoperatively, manifest refraction and optical coherence tomography-based biometry (IOLMaster 700) was conducted. The refractive spherical equivalent absolute error of the ray-tracing IOL power calculation method, based on individualized eye model data, a physical lens position predictor, retinal image quality metrics criteria for IOL power selection, and exact IOL design information was calculated and compared with the outcomes using the Barrett Universal II, Hill-RBF, SRK/T, and Haigis

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2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

17. Effects of Monocular Atropinization on Refractive Error and Eye Growth in Infant New World Monkeys. (PubMed)

Effects of Monocular Atropinization on Refractive Error and Eye Growth in Infant New World Monkeys. To explore the effect of topical atropine on axial eye growth and emmetropization in infant marmosets.Atropine was applied to one eye from the age of 7 to 56 days in two dose regimens, High (0.1-1% twice daily, increasing with age) or moderate (Mod) (0.1% once daily). Both eyes of the marmosets were refracted, and axial dimensions were measured ultrasonically, at 14, 28, 42, 49, 56, 70, 105, 168 (...) ), with the ASD of atropinized eyes shorter than that of untreated eyes. The splines fitted to lens thickness did not vary significantly with dose, but differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between the atropinized and untreated eyes, with the atropinized lenses thicker. Vitreous chamber depth (VCD) was not significantly different, but the variance of VCD was significantly greater (P < 0.001) in the atropinized compared with the untreated eyes. Refractive error (RE) became relatively myopic in atropinized eyes

2019 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

18. Refractive error and vision problems in children: association with increased sedentary behavior and reduced exercise in 9-year-old children in Ireland. (PubMed)

Refractive error and vision problems in children: association with increased sedentary behavior and reduced exercise in 9-year-old children in Ireland. To investigate whether refractive error and vision problems in children are associated with increased sedentary behavior and reduced participation in physical activity and sport and, secondarily, to examine the relationship between vision problems and body mass index.This was a cross-sectional study of the first wave of the Growing Up in Ireland (...) (GUI) Study, a nationally representative study of children in Ireland. Data was collected between August 2007 and May 2008. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated at the time of the interview. The presence of a vision problem requiring treatment, including refractive error, was detected by report of the primary care giver, usually the mother. Association between vision problems and sedentary behavior, physical activity, and level of participation in sports was investigated in adjusted regression

2019 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

19. Zone of retinal vascularization and refractive error in premature eyes with and without spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity. (PubMed)

Zone of retinal vascularization and refractive error in premature eyes with and without spontaneously regressed retinopathy of prematurity. To evaluate the relationship between zone of retinal vascularization and refractive error in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or with spontaneously regressed ROP.The medical records of neonates screened for ROP between 2009 and 2015 at a tertiary academic center were reviewed retrospectively. Cases included untreated eyes (...) with spontaneously regressed ROP; premature eyes without a diagnosis of ROP were control subjects. Primary outcomes were zone of retinal vascularization and refractive error, determined by cycloplegic retinoscopy (CR).Of 378 eyes evaluated, 184 had ROP, 24 of which underwent treatment and were excluded. Mean corrected age at first CR was 7.5 months. Seventeen eyes without ROP were myopic at first CR (8.8%), compared to 35 eyes with regressed ROP (21.9%). No untreated eyes had halted vasculature in zone I

2019 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

20. Association between birth weight and refractive error in adulthood: a Mendelian randomisation study. (PubMed)

Association between birth weight and refractive error in adulthood: a Mendelian randomisation study. Pathological myopia is one of the leading causes of blindness globally. Lower birth weight (BW) within the normal range has been reported to increase the risk of myopia, although findings conflict. We sought to estimate the causal effect of BW on refractive error using Mendelian randomisation (MR), under the assumption of a linear relationship.Genetic variants associated with BW were identified (...) analysis, BW showed a small, positive association with refractive error: +0.04 D per SD increase in BW (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07; p=0.002). The one-sample MR-estimated causal effect of BW on refractive error was higher, at +0.28 D per SD increase in BW (95% CI 0.05 to 0.52, p=0.02). A two-sample MR analysis provided similar causal effect estimates, with minimal evidence of directional pleiotropy.Our study suggests lower BW within the normal range is causally associated with a more myopic refractive error

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2019 British Journal of Ophthalmology

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