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21. Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry. (PubMed)

Effect of topical anti-glaucoma medications on late pupillary light reflex, as evaluated by pupillometry. The late post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 10-30s ) to blue light is reduced in glaucoma, suggesting that pupillometry can be used in clinical glaucoma evaluation. Since animal studies have indicated that common anti-glaucomatous agents affect the iris muscle, we investigated the short-term effect of the anti-glaucoma drugs on the pupillary light reflex and in particular (...) on the PIPR10-30s.In this randomized, double-masked, crossover trial, pupillometry was performed before and after topical administration of latanoprost, dorzolamide, and timolol in 20 healthy subjects. Stimulus was blue (463 nm) and red light (633 nm) of 2 log (lux). Main outcome was the PIPR10-30s to blue light. Additionally, pupil size, maximal contraction, and the early post-illumination pupillary response (PIPR 0-10s ) to blue and red light were investigated. Pupil response variations between 8 a.m

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2015 Frontiers in neurology

22. Characterization of cardiovascular reflexes evoked by airway stimulation with allylisothiocyanate, capsaicin, and ATP in Sprague-Dawley rats (PubMed)

Characterization of cardiovascular reflexes evoked by airway stimulation with allylisothiocyanate, capsaicin, and ATP in Sprague-Dawley rats Acute inhalation of airborne pollutants alters cardiovascular function and evidence suggests that pollutant-induced activation of airway sensory nerves via the gating of ion channels is critical to these systemic responses. Here, we have investigated the effect of capsaicin [transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist], AITC [TRP ankyrin (...) -induced responses were lesser than those evoked by AITC or capsaicin. Responses to AITC were inhibited by the TRP channel blocker ruthenium red and the muscarinic antagonist atropine. AITC inhalation also caused a biphasic blood pressure response: a brief hypertensive phase followed by a hypotensive phase. Atropine accentuated the hypertensive phase, while preventing the hypotension. AITC-evoked bradycardia was not abolished by terazosin, the α1-adrenoceptor inhibitor, which prevented the hypertensive

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2015 Journal of Applied Physiology

23. Detecting dementia in patients with normal neuropsychological screening by Short Smell Test and Palmo-Mental Reflex Test: an observational study. (PubMed)

Detecting dementia in patients with normal neuropsychological screening by Short Smell Test and Palmo-Mental Reflex Test: an observational study. General practitioners (GPs) are in best position to suspect dementia. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) are widely used. Additional neurological tests may increase the accuracy of diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic ability to detect dementia with a Short Smell Test (SST) and Palmo-Mental Reflex (PMR) in patients (...) as diagnostic tools. If both SST and PMR are abnormal, this is a red flag to investigate these patients further, even though their negative neuropsychological screening results.

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2015 BMC Geriatrics

24. Reflex Epilepsy (Treatment)

Reflex Epilepsy (Treatment) Reflex Epilepsy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4NzI1OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Reflex Epilepsy Updated: Dec 26, 2018 (...) Author: Charles Akos Szabo, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Reflex Epilepsy Overview Overview Reflex epilepsy is a condition in which seizures can be provoked habitually by an external stimulus or, less commonly, internal mental processes. [ , ] Individuals with pure reflex epilepsy have seizures almost exclusively in response to specific stimuli and do not suffer spontaneous seizures; alternatively, reflex seizures may coexist

2014 eMedicine.com

25. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (Overview)

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (Overview) Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE0NTMxOC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Complex (...) Regional Pain Syndromes Updated: Jun 20, 2018 Author: Gaurav Gupta, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Overview Background In 1994, a consensus group of pain medicine experts gathered by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) agreed on diagnostic criteria for reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia, and renamed them complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II

2014 eMedicine.com

26. Reflex Epilepsy (Overview)

Reflex Epilepsy (Overview) Reflex Epilepsy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4NzI1OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Reflex Epilepsy Updated: Dec 26, 2018 Author (...) : Charles Akos Szabo, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Reflex Epilepsy Overview Overview Reflex epilepsy is a condition in which seizures can be provoked habitually by an external stimulus or, less commonly, internal mental processes. [ , ] Individuals with pure reflex epilepsy have seizures almost exclusively in response to specific stimuli and do not suffer spontaneous seizures; alternatively, reflex seizures may coexist with spontaneously

2014 eMedicine.com

27. Reflex Epilepsy (Follow-up)

Reflex Epilepsy (Follow-up) Reflex Epilepsy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4NzI1OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Reflex Epilepsy Updated: Dec 26, 2018 (...) Author: Charles Akos Szabo, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Reflex Epilepsy Overview Overview Reflex epilepsy is a condition in which seizures can be provoked habitually by an external stimulus or, less commonly, internal mental processes. [ , ] Individuals with pure reflex epilepsy have seizures almost exclusively in response to specific stimuli and do not suffer spontaneous seizures; alternatively, reflex seizures may coexist

2014 eMedicine.com

28. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (Diagnosis)

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (Diagnosis) Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE0NTMxOC1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Complex (...) Regional Pain Syndromes Updated: Jun 20, 2018 Author: Gaurav Gupta, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen A Berman, MD, PhD, MBA Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Complex Regional Pain Syndromes Overview Background In 1994, a consensus group of pain medicine experts gathered by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) agreed on diagnostic criteria for reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and causalgia, and renamed them complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) types I and II

2014 eMedicine.com

29. Reflex Epilepsy (Diagnosis)

Reflex Epilepsy (Diagnosis) Reflex Epilepsy: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology Edition: No Results No Results Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMTE4NzI1OS1vdmVydmlldw== processing > Reflex Epilepsy Updated: Dec 26, 2018 (...) Author: Charles Akos Szabo, MD; Chief Editor: Selim R Benbadis, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Reflex Epilepsy Overview Overview Reflex epilepsy is a condition in which seizures can be provoked habitually by an external stimulus or, less commonly, internal mental processes. [ , ] Individuals with pure reflex epilepsy have seizures almost exclusively in response to specific stimuli and do not suffer spontaneous seizures; alternatively, reflex seizures may coexist

2014 eMedicine.com

30. Evaluation of Optimized Digital Fundus Reflex Photographs for Lens Opacities in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2. AREDS2 Report 7. (PubMed)

tools has reproducibility comparable to film-based retroillumination images, and may be useful for centralized objective lens opacity assessment in clinical trials using widely available fundus cameras. Red reflex images limit evaluation to cortical and PSC opacities, and do not permit assessment of nuclear opacities. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345176.). (...) Evaluation of Optimized Digital Fundus Reflex Photographs for Lens Opacities in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2. AREDS2 Report 7. We described the system for grading lens opacities using stereoscopic digital fundus reflex photographs in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) and compared reproducibility with the AREDS lens grading system, which used retroillumination film images.Stereoscopic fundus reflex photographs were acquired in a standardized fashion at baseline and annually

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

31. Oral sapropterin augments reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin through noradrenergic mechanisms. (PubMed)

vasoconstriction). Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasoconstriction was induced by lowering and then clamping whole-body skin temperature (Tsk) using a water-perfused suit. Following whole-body cooling, subjects were rewarmed and 1 mM tyramine was perfused at each site to elicit endogenous norepinephrine release from the perivascular nerve terminal. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as change from (...) Oral sapropterin augments reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin through noradrenergic mechanisms. Reflex vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged skin due to a functional loss of adrenergic vasoconstriction. Bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for catecholamine synthesis, is reduced with aging. Locally administered BH4 increases vasoconstriction through adrenergic mechanisms in aged human skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, a pharmaceutical BH4

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2013 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

32. Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. (PubMed)

methyl ester (l-NAME) to inhibit NOS. Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasodilation was induced using a water-perfused suit. At 1°C rise in oral temperature, mean body temperature was clamped and 20 mM l-NAME was perfused at each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated (CVC = LDF/MAP) and expressed as a percentage of maximum (%CVCmax 28 mM sodium nitroprusside and local heat 43°C). Plasma concentrations of BH4 were significantly elevated 3 (...) Oral sapropterin acutely augments reflex vasodilation in aged human skin through nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. Functional constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) are required for full reflex cutaneous vasodilation and are attenuated in primary aging. Acute, locally administered BH4 increases reflex vasodilation through NO-dependent mechanisms in aged skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, shelf-stable pharmaceutical formulation

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2013 Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)

33. Quantitative Assessment of the Canine Pupillary Light Reflex. (PubMed)

Quantitative Assessment of the Canine Pupillary Light Reflex. To develop instrumentation and methods for thorough quantitative assessment of the pupillary light reflex (PLR) in dogs under varying stimulus conditions.The PLR was recorded in normal Dachshunds using a custom system allowing full user control over stimulus intensity, color, and duration. Chemical restraint protocols were compared to determine which protocol provided for optimal baseline stability of pupil size and appropriate eye (...) positioning. A series of white light stimuli of increasing intensity was used to elicit pupil constriction. Pupil images were concurrently recorded using continuous infrared illumination and an infrared-sensitive camera. The PLR was also recorded in response to blue and red stimuli.With injectable chemical restraint alone, spontaneous fluctuations in pupil size occurred independent of light stimulation, and spontaneous eye movements made it difficult to fully visualize the pupil. Combined injectable

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

34. The Pupil Light Reflex in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence for Preservation of Melanopsoin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells. (PubMed)

The Pupil Light Reflex in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence for Preservation of Melanopsoin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells. To investigate the pupillary light reflex (PLR) of patients with severe loss of vision due to Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) in the context of a proposed preservation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs).Ten LHON patients (7 males; 51.6 ± 14.1 years), with visual acuities ranging from 20/400 to hand motion perception and severe (...) visual field losses, were tested and compared with 16 healthy subjects (7 males; 42.15 ± 15.4 years) tested as controls. PLR was measured with an eye tracker and the stimuli were controlled with a Ganzfeld system. Pupil responses were measured monocularly, to 1 second of blue (470 nm) and red (640 nm) flashes with 1, 10, 100, and 250 cd/m² luminances. The normalized amplitude of peak of the transient PLR and the amplitude of the sustained PLR at 6 seconds after the flash offset were measured

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

35. Studying the Effect of Iris Mechanics on the Pupillary Light Reflex Using Brimonidine Induced Anisocoria. (PubMed)

Studying the Effect of Iris Mechanics on the Pupillary Light Reflex Using Brimonidine Induced Anisocoria. To study and correct for the limiting effect of iris mechanics on the amplitude of light-evoked pupil contractions in order to derive a more clinically accurate assessment of afferent input to the visual system.Transient pupil responses were recorded to a series of 1-second red Ganzfeld light stimuli with a stepwise increase in stimulus intensity using a binocular infrared computerized (...) of the pupil light reflex. Pupil response assessed by using percent contraction amplitude is least affected by mechanical effects and provides a more accurate approximation of afferent input.

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2013 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

36. Sleep's Influence on a Reflexive Form of Memory That Does Not Require Voluntary Attention (PubMed)

Sleep's Influence on a Reflexive Form of Memory That Does Not Require Voluntary Attention Studies to date have examined the influence of sleep on forms of memory that require voluntary attention. The authors examine the influence of sleep on a form of memory that is acquired by passive viewing.Induction of the McCollough effect, and measurement of perceptual color bias before and after induction, and before and after intervening sleep, wake, or visual deprivation.Sound-attenuated sleep research (...) room.13 healthy volunteers (mean age = 23 years; age range = 18-31 years) with normal or corrected-to-normal vision.N/A.) ENCODING: sleep preceded adaptation. On separate nights, each participant slept for an average of 0 (wake), 1, 2, 4, or 7 hr (complete sleep). Upon awakening, the participant's baseline perceptual color bias was measured. Then, he or she viewed an adapter consisting of alternating red/horizontal and green/vertical gratings for 5 min. Color bias was remeasured. The strength

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2012 Sleep

37. Mechanisms underlying the augmentation of phenylbiguanide and capsaicin induced cardiorespiratory reflexes by Mesobuthus tamulus venom. (PubMed)

Mechanisms underlying the augmentation of phenylbiguanide and capsaicin induced cardiorespiratory reflexes by Mesobuthus tamulus venom. Phenylbiguanide (PBG) and capsaicin evoke cardiorespiratory reflexes utilizing two separate pathways. It is known that Indian Red Scorpion (Mesobuthus tumulus; MBT) venom augments PBG (5-HT(3)) responses but, the effect of MBT venom on capsaicin (TRPV1)-induced response is not known. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to ascertain whether MBT venom (...) also augments the capsaicin-induced reflex responses involving mechanisms similar to PBG. Experiments were performed on anaesthetized adult rats. Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded. At the end of each experiment pulmonary water content was determined. PBG (10 μg/kg) produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnoea-bradypnoea. Capsaicin (10 μg/kg) also produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnoea-bradypnoea. MBT venom (100 μg/kg) augmented PBG as well as capsaicin-induced

2012 Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics

38. Circadian and wake-dependent effects on the pupil light reflex in response to narrow-bandwidth light pulses. (PubMed)

Circadian and wake-dependent effects on the pupil light reflex in response to narrow-bandwidth light pulses. Nonvisual light-dependent functions in humans are conveyed mainly by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells, which express melanopsin as photopigment. We aimed to identify the effects of circadian phase and sleepiness across 24 hours on various aspects of the pupil response to light stimulation.We tested 10 healthy adults hourly in two 12-hour sessions covering a 24-hour (...) period. Pupil responses to narrow bandwidth red (635 ± 18 nm) and blue (463 ± 24 nm) light (duration of 1 and 30 seconds) at equal photon fluxes were recorded, and correlated with salivary melatonin concentrations at the same circadian phases and to subjective sleepiness ratings. The magnitude of pupil constriction was determined from minimal pupil size. The post-stimulus pupil response was assessed from the pupil size at 6 seconds following light offset, the area within the redilation curve

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2012 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

39. Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans)--effects of dose and body temperature. (PubMed)

minutes. Endotracheal intubation was successful in 80%, 100%, 0% and 30% of turtles, respectively. At 35°C, all animals retained nociceptive sensation in the front limbs, hind limbs and vent, whereas at 20°C a few turtles lost peripheral nociceptive sensation. Corneal and tap reflexes were retained in all trials. Mean heart rates were 30±2 and 66±4 beats minute(-1) at 20 and 35°C, respectively.Alfaxalone administered i.m. in red-eared sliders provided smooth, rapid induction and uneventful recovery (...) Intramuscular administration of alfaxalone in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans)--effects of dose and body temperature. To characterise the effects of alfaxalone by intramuscular (i.m.) injection in red-eared slider turtles and the influence of body temperature on anaesthetic duration and depth.Prospective, randomised part-blinded experimental trial.Ten healthy adult female red-eared sliders.Each turtle was anaesthetized four times with 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) alfaxalone at 20 and 35°C

2013 Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia

40. Emergent Identity Matching after Successive Matching Training, I: Reflexivity or Generalized Identity (PubMed)

Emergent Identity Matching after Successive Matching Training, I: Reflexivity or Generalized Identity This research investigated the source of an ostensible reflexivity effect in pigeons reported by Sweeney and Urcuioli (2010). In Experiment 1, pigeons learned two symmetrically reinforced symbolic successive matching tasks (hue-form and form-hue) using red-green and triangle-horizontal line stimuli. They differed in their third concurrently trained baseline task: form-form matching with stimuli (...) appearing in the symbolic tasks (triangle and horizontal) for one group versus hue-hue matching with stimuli not appearing in the symbolic tasks (blue and white) for the other. During subsequent nonreinforced probe tests, all pigeons in the former group and most pigeons in the latter group responded more to the comparisons on matching than on nonmatching red-green probes. In Experiment 2, the latter group was tested on nonreinforced form-form probes. One of the 4 pigeons responded significantly more

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2011 Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior

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