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1. Rabies: epidemiology, transmission and prevention

Rabies: epidemiology, transmission and prevention Rabies: epidemiology, transmission and prevention - GOV.UK GOV.UK uses cookies to make the site simpler. Accept cookies You’ve accepted all cookies. You can at any time. Hide Search Guidance Rabies: epidemiology, transmission and prevention Information and advice on rabies, the viral infection of the central nervous system which affects mammals and humans. Published 2 November 2018 Last updated 2 July 2019 — From: Contents Rabies is an infection (...) of the central nervous system caused by the rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. Worldwide, it is estimated that there are in excess of 59,000 human cases of rabies each year, almost entirely in developing countries. Rabies in animals worldwide Rabies virus infects a variety of mammals in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. (See ). Dogs and cats, due to their high level of contact with the human population and propensity to bite, are the main risk to humans. Bats may also

2019 Public Health England

2. Rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis: guidelines

Rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis: guidelines Guidelines on requesting rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis April 2019 PHE guidelines on managing rabies pre-exposure (April 2019) 2 Document information Title PHE guidelines on requesting rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (April 2019) Authors Kevin Brown Reviewed by Katherine Russell Version 3.0 Date of Issue April 2019 Document history Date Reason for change Issue number June 2017 First version of this guidance 1.0 June 2018 Update guidance to reflect (...) changes to the Green Book, and reminding employers of their responsibility to provide vaccine for employees with a risk of rabies exposure due to their employment. 2.0 April 2019 Guidance updated to reflect new version of the form and further clarification on which groups of individuals are elegible for provision of vaccine through PHE 3.0 Document review plan Responsibility for review (disease group lead) Kevin Brown Next review date 2022 Next issue date - QPulse number IMW245 – PHE requesting pre

2019 Public Health England

3. Rabies post-exposure treatment: management guidelines

Rabies post-exposure treatment: management guidelines Guidelines on managing rabies post-exposure April 2019 PHE guidelines on managing rabies post-exposure (April 2019) 2 About Public Health England Public Health England exists to protect and improve the nation’s health and wellbeing, and reduce health inequalities. We do this through world-leading science, knowledge and intelligence, advocacy, partnerships and the delivery of specialist public health services. We are an executive agency (...) logos) free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0. To view this licence, visit OGL. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. Published April 2019 PHE publications PHE supports the UN gateway number: 2018807 Sustainable Development Goals PHE guidelines on managing rabies post-exposure (April 2019) 3 Document information Title PHE guidelines on managing rabies

2019 Public Health England

5. Rabies

Rabies Rabies - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Rabies Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: July 2018 Summary Notifiable disease in many countries. Post-exposure prophylaxis with wound cleansing, immunisation, and rabies immunoglobulin is highly effective at preventing the disease when given promptly and properly. Symptoms begin with a non-specific prodromal illness. In encephalitic rabies (...) , this is followed by early-onset behavioural changes and late-onset paralysis. In the paralytic form, the behavioural changes are absent. Almost always fatal following onset of clinical signs. The disease is rapidly progressive, leading to death within 2 weeks in most cases. Some survivors have been reported. Definition An acute viral encephalomyelitis caused by the rabies virus and other members of the Lyssavirus genus, which is transmitted by animal bites, mainly dogs in developing countries and bats in other

2018 BMJ Best Practice

6. Initial pen and field assessment of baits to use in oral rabies vaccination of Formosan ferret-badgers in response to the re-emergence of rabies in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Initial pen and field assessment of baits to use in oral rabies vaccination of Formosan ferret-badgers in response to the re-emergence of rabies in Taiwan. Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961, until a newly established wildlife disease surveillance program identified rabies virus transmission within the Formosan ferret-badger (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in 2013. Ferret-badgers occur throughout southern China and Southeast Asia, but their ecological niche is not well (...) described.As an initial feasibility assessment for potential rabies control measures, field camera trapping and pen assessment of 6 oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits were conducted in Taiwan in 2013. 46 camera nights were recorded; 6 Formosan ferret-badgers and 14 non-target mammals were sighted. No baits were consumed by ferret-badgers and 8 were consumed by non-target mammals. Penned ferret-badgers ingested 5 of the 18 offered baits. When pen and field trials were combined, and analyzed for palatability

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2018 PLoS ONE

7. Benefit-cost analysis of the policy of mandatory annual rabies vaccination of domestic dogs in rabies-free Japan. (PubMed)

Benefit-cost analysis of the policy of mandatory annual rabies vaccination of domestic dogs in rabies-free Japan. Japan is one of the few rabies-free countries/territories which implement the policy of mandatory vaccination of domestic dogs. In order to assess the economic efficiency of such policy in reducing the economic burden of a future canine rabies outbreak in Japan, a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) was performed using probabilistic decision tree modelling. Input data derived from (...) simulation results of published mathematical model, field investigation conducted by the authors at prefectural governments, literature review, international or Japanese database and empirical data of rabies outbreaks in other countries/territories. The current study revealed that the annual costs of implementing the current vaccination policy would be US$160,472,075 (90% prediction interval [PI]: $149,268,935-171,669,974). The economic burden of a potential single canine rabies outbreak in Japan were

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2018 PLoS ONE

8. Rabies vaccines and immunoglobulins: WHO position: summary of 2017 updates

Rabies vaccines and immunoglobulins: WHO position: summary of 2017 updates Rabies vaccines and immunoglobulins: WHO position: summary of 2017 updates JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Rabies vaccines and immunoglobulins: WHO position: summary of 2017 updates View/ Open Rights View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization . (‎2018)‎. Rabies

2018 WHO

9. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control (PubMed)

Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors for human rabies and animal bites during an outbreak of rabies in Maputo and Matola cities, Mozambique, 2014: Implications for public health interventions for rabies control In Mozambique, the majority of rabies outbreaks are unreported and data on the epidemiological features of human rabies and animal bites are scarce. An outbreak of human rabies in adjacent Maputo and Matola cities in 2014 prompted us to investigate the epidemiology, clinical (...) features and risk factors of human rabies and animal bites in the two cities.We reviewed cases of human rabies and animal bites from April to July 2014, and carried out a community investigation in July and August in the neighborhoods where cases of human rabies resided. This investigation included collection of clinical, demographic and epidemiological information and a case control study to investigate the risk factors associated with human rabies. Fourteen cases of human rabies were detected

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2017 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

10. CRACKCast E131 – Rabies

CRACKCast E131 – Rabies CRACKCast E131 - Rabies - CanadiEM CRACKCast E131 – Rabies In by Adam Thomas November 30, 2017 This episode of CRACKCast covers Rosen’s Chapter 131, Rabies. This chapter covers all aspects of rabies, including top rabies carrying-animals in Canada and the world, as well as pathophysiology, treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. Shownotes – Key Points Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies should be administered to individuals exposed to the secretions of high-risk (...) animals – raccoons, bats , skunks, foxes, coyotes, dogs along the Mexican border, and wild carnivores in rabies-endemic areas PEP given strictly according to WHO or CDC guidelines is extremely effective in preventing rabies. PEP includes wound care, passive immunization with RIG, and active immunization with rabies vaccine Discussion with public health officials is recommended to guide decisions regarding when PEP should be considered. The CDC clinician information line is 877-554-4625 or 800-CDC-INFO

2017 CandiEM

11. Human rabies: 2016 updates and call for data = Données sur la rage: mise à jour de 2016 et appel à la communication

Human rabies: 2016 updates and call for data = Données sur la rage: mise à jour de 2016 et appel à la communication Human rabies: 2016 updates and call for data = Données sur la rage: mise à jour de 2016 et appel à la communication JavaScript is disabled for your browser. Some features of this site may not work without it. Toggle navigation Toggle navigation Search Browse Statistics Related Links Human rabies: 2016 updates and call for data = Données sur la rage: mise à jour de 2016 et appel à (...) la communication View/ Open View Statistics Altmetrics Share Citation World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé . (‎2017)‎. Human rabies: 2016 updates and call for data = Données sur la rage: mise à jour de 2016 et appel à la communication. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (‎7)‎, 77 - 86. World Health Organization = Organisation mondiale de la Santé. Journal Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 92 (‎7)‎: 77

2017 WHO

12. Bat rabies surveillance and risk factors for rabies spillover in an urban area of Southern Brazil (PubMed)

Bat rabies surveillance and risk factors for rabies spillover in an urban area of Southern Brazil Bat rabies surveillance data and risk factors for rabies spillover without human cases have been evaluated in Curitiba, the ninth biggest city in Brazil, during a 6-year period (2010-2015). A retrospective analysis of bat complaints, bat species identification and rabies testing of bats, dogs and cats has been performed using methodologies of seasonal decomposition, spatial distribution and kernel (...) and rabies testing, which resulted in 9/387 (2.32%) positives. Linear regression has shown an increase on sample numbers tested over time (regression: y = 2.02 + 0.17×; p < 0.001 and r2 = 0.29), as well as significant seasonal variation, which increases in January and decreases in May, June and July. The Kernel density analysis showed the center-northern city area to be statistically important, and the southern region had no tested samples within the period. In addition, a total of 4769 random

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2018 BMC veterinary research

13. Safety and neutralizing rabies antibody in healthy subjects given a single dose of rabies immune globulin caprylate/chromatography purified (PubMed)

Safety and neutralizing rabies antibody in healthy subjects given a single dose of rabies immune globulin caprylate/chromatography purified Rabies immune globulin (RIG) and vaccination series are necessary for postexposure prophylaxis. A new formulation of RIG (human) purified by caprylate/chromatography (RIG-C) was evaluated.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02139657.This open-label, single-arm study in healthy subjects evaluated neutralizing rabies antibody concentrations produced from (...) commonly reported. RIG-C produced a rapid increase in neutralizing rabies antibody: mean value 0.113 IU/mL at 24 hours after IM injection, peak on day 4 (0.132 IU/mL), persisting through day 21 (0.116 IU/mL). The mean reciprocal titer was 11.5 by day 2; the peak value of 12.1 was achieved on day 4; and a mean value ≥10.6 was maintained through day 21.RIG-C was well tolerated and provided neutralizing rabies antibodies, which combined with vaccine series after rabies exposure, should result in effective

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2018 Clinical pharmacology : advances and applications

14. Effect of ERIG Injection on Day 7 After First Dose of Rabies Vaccination to Rabies Immune Response

Effect of ERIG Injection on Day 7 After First Dose of Rabies Vaccination to Rabies Immune Response Effect of ERIG Injection on Day 7 After First Dose of Rabies Vaccination to Rabies Immune Response - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove (...) one or more studies before adding more. Effect of ERIG Injection on Day 7 After First Dose of Rabies Vaccination to Rabies Immune Response The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03524417 Recruitment Status

2018 Clinical Trials

15. Experimental screening studies on rabies virus transmission and oral rabies vaccination of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (PubMed)

Experimental screening studies on rabies virus transmission and oral rabies vaccination of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rabies in the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia is unique and found in such magnitude as has not been reported elsewhere in southern Africa. Reasons as to why Kudus appear to be exceptionally susceptible to rabies still remain speculative at best. Because the current severe rabies endemic in Kudus continues to have an enormous negative impact (...) on the Namibian agricultural sector, we set out to question existing dogmas regarding the epidemiology of the disease in a unique experimental setting. In addition, we explored effective measures to protect these antelopes. Although we were able to confirm high susceptibly of kudus for rabies and sporadic horizontal rabies virus transmission to contact animals, we contend that these observations cannot plausibly explain the rapid spread of the disease in Kudus over large territories. Since parenteral

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2018 Scientific reports

16. Human rabies in Côte d'Ivoire 2014-2016: Results following reinforcements to rabies surveillance (PubMed)

Human rabies in Côte d'Ivoire 2014-2016: Results following reinforcements to rabies surveillance In Côte d'Ivoire, rabies is endemic and remains largely uncontrolled. The numbers of human exposures and rabies cases are unknown and are probably much higher than reported. Data on human rabies cases are collected by the National Institute of Public Health (NIPH) Anti-rabies Center in Abidjan through a network of 28 NIPH local units, which cover the population of the entire country. During 2014 (...) , the NIPH initiated a program to reinforce the human rabies surveillance system in those 28 NIPH local units, with specific goals of improving the infrastructure, training, communication, and government involvement. Here, we report the progress and findings during 2014-2016. The reinforced system recorded 50 cases of human rabies (15-18 cases/year; annual incidence = 0.06-0.08 per 100,000) and more than 30,000 animal exposures (annual incidence = 41.8-48.0 per 100,000). Almost one-half of the human

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

17. Bolstering human rabies surveillance in Africa is crucial to eliminating canine-mediated rabies (PubMed)

Bolstering human rabies surveillance in Africa is crucial to eliminating canine-mediated rabies 30188896 2019 01 09 2019 01 09 1935-2735 12 9 2018 09 PLoS neglected tropical diseases PLoS Negl Trop Dis Bolstering human rabies surveillance in Africa is crucial to eliminating canine-mediated rabies. e0006367 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006367 Broban Anaïs A Global Epidemiology, Sanofi Pasteur, Istanbul, Turkey. Tejiokem Mathurin C MC Pasteur Institute of Cameroon, Department of Epidemiology and Public (...) Health, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Tiembré Issaka I Anti-Rabies Center, National Institute of Public Hygiene, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Druelles Sophie S Global Epidemiology, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France. L'Azou Maïna M Global Epidemiology, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France. eng Journal Article Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2018 09 06 United States PLoS Negl Trop Dis 101291488 1935-2727 IM Africa epidemiology Animals Communicable Disease Control methods organization & administration Disease Transmission

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

18. Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in Ind (PubMed)

Application and Comparative Evaluation of Fluorescent Antibody, Immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Tests for the Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen or Nucleic Acid in Brain Samples of Animals Suspected of Rabies in Ind Accurate and early diagnosis of animal rabies is critical for undertaking public health measures. Whereas the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) technique is the recommended test, the more convenient, direct rapid immunochemistry test (dRIT (...) ), as well as the more sensitive, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), have recently been employed for the laboratory diagnosis of rabies. We compared the three methods on brain samples from domestic (dog, cat, cattle, buffalo, horse, pig and goat) and wild (leopard, wolf and jackal) animals from various parts of India. Of the 257 samples tested, 167 were positive by all the three tests; in addition, 35 of the 36 decomposed samples were positive by RT-PCR. This is the first study

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2018 Veterinary Sciences

19. A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi (PubMed)

A rabies lesson improves rabies knowledge amongst primary school children in Zomba, Malawi Rabies is an important neglected disease, which kills around 59,000 people a year. Over a third of these deaths are in children less than 15 years of age. Almost all human rabies deaths in Africa and Asia are due to bites from infected dogs. Despite the high efficacy of current rabies vaccines, awareness about rabies preventive healthcare is often low in endemic areas. It is therefore common (...) for educational initiatives to be conducted in conjunction with other rabies control activities such as mass dog vaccination, however there are few examples where the efficacy of education activities has been assessed. Here, primary school children in Zomba, Malawi, were given a lesson on rabies biology and preventive healthcare. Subsequently, a mass dog vaccination programme was delivered in the same region. Knowledge and attitudes towards rabies were assessed by a questionnaire before the lesson

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

20. The shift in rabies epidemiology in France: time to adjust rabies post-exposure risk assessment. (PubMed)

The shift in rabies epidemiology in France: time to adjust rabies post-exposure risk assessment. The epidemiology of rabies in France and western Europe has changed during the past 22 years. In France, rabies in non-flying terrestrial mammals was declared to be eliminated in 2001, and the risk of rabies is now limited to contact with bats, rabid animals illegally imported from rabies-enzootic countries and traveller exposure in enzootic areas. We analysed the epidemiology of rabies in France (...) from 1995 to 2016, describing and analysing data on human rabies surveillance as well as data on post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) collected from the network of French antirabies clinics. Over the study period, seven individuals were diagnosed with rabies in France, all of whom were infected outside mainland France. PEP data analysis revealed an expected overall decrease in PEP administration for individuals exposed in mainland France, but there was still overuse of anti-rabies drugs, given the very

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2018 Euro Surveillance

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