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Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

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161. A Novel Gene, erm(41), Confers Inducible Macrolide Resistance to Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus, but is Absent from Mycobacterium chelonae. (PubMed)

susceptible M. abscessus isolates. No evidence of erm(41) was found in Mycobacterium chelonae, and an isolate of Mycobacterium massiliense appeared to be an erm(41) deletion mutant. Expression of erm(41) in M. abscessus conferred resistance to clarithromycin and erythromycin and the ketolide HMR3004. However, this species was found to be intrinsically resistant, independent of erm(41), to clindamycin, quinupristin (streptogramin B), and telithromycin. The ability to confer resistance to clindamycin (...) and telithromycin, but not quinupristin, was demonstrated by expressing erm(41) in Maycobacterium smegmatis. Exposure of M. abscessus to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B-ketolide agents increased the levels of erm(41) mRNA 23- to 250-fold within 24 h. The inducible macrolide resistance phenotype of some M. abscessus isolates may explain the lack of efficacy of macrolide-based chemotherapy against this organism.

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2009 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

162. A pan-European survey of antimicrobial susceptibility towards human-use antimicrobial drugs among zoonotic and commensal enteric bacteria isolated from healthy food-producing animals. (PubMed)

for Campylobacter coli, but C. jejuni was less resistant. None of the enterococcal strains was resistant to linezolid, but a few displayed resistance to ampicillin or vancomycin. Resistance prevalence to quinupristin/dalfopristin was clearly higher.Antimicrobial resistance among enteric organisms in food animals varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but clinical resistance to essential compounds used to treat disease in humans was generally zero or low. In the absence of clinical

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2009 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

163. Effectiveness of Nimodipine Plus Antidepressant Medication in Treating Vascular Depression

anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) Significant allergy to NIM or other ingredients contained in the study medication Taken monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) within the 2 weeks prior to the first administration of double-blind study medication Requires treatment with amiodarone, protease inhibitors, dalfopristin or quinupristin, valproic acid, triazole antifungal agents (e.g., itraconazole), reserpine, methyldopa, guanethidine, or clonidine during the course of the study May require drugs

2008 Clinical Trials

164. Pilot Study of the Evaluation of Subconjunctival Sirolimus in the Treatment of Bilateral GA Associated With AMD

significant by the investigator. Participant is currently taking one of the following drugs: amprenavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, darunavir, delavirdine, erythromycin, fluconazole (at doses of 200 mg or greater), fluvoxamine, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, posaconazole, quinupristin, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, troleandomycin, verapamil or voriconazole. Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study

2008 Clinical Trials

165. Effects of Adalat LA and Coracten on Drug Levels, Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Fed Patients With Hypertension

I diabetes. - Subjects taking drugs which may interfere with the metabolism of nifedipine (cimetidine, ranitidine, quinidine, digoxin, rifampicin, diltiazem, cisapride, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cyclosporin, phenytoin or other antiepileptic drugs,).- Subjects suffering from secondary or malignant hypertension.- Subjects with any known contraindication (e.g. hypersensitivity) to nifedipine or other calcium channel blockers of the dihydropyridine class.- Subjects with previously known clinically

2008 Clinical Trials

166. Sirolimus to Treat Diabetic Macular Edema

: amprenavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, darunavir, delavirdine, erythromycin, fluconazole (at doses of 200mg or greater), fluvoxamine, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, posaconazole, quinupristin, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, troleandomycin, verapamil or voriconazole. Study Eye Inclusion Criteria Best-corrected Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) visual acuity score of ≤ 74 letters (i.e., 20/32 or worse). Definite retinal thickening due to diabetic

2008 Clinical Trials

167. Evaluation of Lovastatin in Severe Persistent Asthma

, nefazodone, niacin, protease inhibitors, quinipristoline/dalfopristin, ranolazine, rifampin, telbivudine, telithromycin) HIV patients taking protease inhibitors History of allergy or intolerance to statin Use of 1 or more doses of any cholesterol lowering medication in the previous 12 weeks Clinical indication for treatment with statins Contacts and Locations Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff

2008 Clinical Trials

168. In vitro antibacterial activity of CE-156811: A novel analog derived from Hygromycin A. (PubMed)

In vitro antibacterial activity of CE-156811: A novel analog derived from Hygromycin A. We evaluated a novel truncated hygromycin A analog in which the furanose ring was replaced with a 2-fluoro-2-cyclopropylethyl substituent for its activity against multidrug resistant gram-positive bacteria and compared its activity to the activities of linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and vancomycin. CE-156811 demonstrated robust in vitro activity against gram-positive bacteria that was comparable

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2008 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

169. Bacteremia caused by group g streptococci, taiwan. (PubMed)

Bacteremia caused by group g streptococci, taiwan. A retrospective observational study in Taiwan, 1998-2004, identified 92 patients with group G streptococcal bacteremia; 86 had Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. The most common diagnosis was cellulitis (48 cases), followed by primary bacteremia (34 cases). Infection recurred in 9 patients. Mortality rate was low (3.3%); resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin was high.

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2008 Emerging Infectious Diseases

170. A comparative in-vitro evaluation of resistance selection after exposure to teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. (PubMed)

A comparative in-vitro evaluation of resistance selection after exposure to teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin in Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. The ability of breakpoint and serum concentrations of teicoplanin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin to select resistance was compared for isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (...) . Mutation frequencies were always <10(-10), except for two isolates grown in the presence of teicoplanin at the trough serum concentration. After multistep selection, linezolid selected for resistance in staphylococci and enterococci, and serial exposure to certain concentrations of linezolid was more likely to select for stable resistance in MRSA, MSSA and enterococci than was exposure to glycopeptides and quinupristin-dalfopristin.

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2008 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

171. beta-Haemolytic group A streptococci emm75 carrying altered pyrogenic exotoxin A linked to scarlet fever in adults. (PubMed)

and quinupristin. All of the isolates carried pyrogenic exotoxin A (speA) and cysteine protease (speB). Isolated speA was phylogenetically different from 30 highly similar references on BLAST. Differences in the primary sequence of the deduced protein were 14.37-20.12% between the speA and each of 11 references. Secondary protein structure of the speA was different from the references at the N-terminal.GAS emm75 encoding altered speA was responsible for the food-borne outbreak of scarlet fever in adults.

2008 Journal of Infection

172. High prevalence in cystic fibrosis patients of multiresistant hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST228-SCCmecI capable of biofilm formation. (PubMed)

determined using both planktonic and sessile bacteria as inocula. Genetic relationships were determined by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). SCCmec type and the presence of the pvl gene were also investigated.A total of 93 MRSA isolates (1-20 isolates per patient) were recovered from 18 of 77 CF patients with positive staphylococcal culture. Mean prevalence (4.4%) increased (P < 0.001) over time. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and co-trimoxazole

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2008 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

173. New antimicrobial agents for the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. (PubMed)

. There is a continuing effort in the pharmaceutical industry to develop new antimicrobial agents for the treatment of resistant infections. Linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecyline, new glycopeptides and ceftobiprole are the main agents recently introduced or under clinical development. This review summarises their major properties, the results of recent studies with these agents, and future treatment possibilities.

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2008 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

174. Linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: gene dosage effect, stability, fitness costs, and cross-resistances. (PubMed)

Linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: gene dosage effect, stability, fitness costs, and cross-resistances. Linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is typically associated with mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Here we show that the accumulation of a single point mutation, G2576T, in the different copies of this gene causes stepwise increases in resistance, impairment of the biological fitness, and cross-resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin and chloramphenicol.

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2008 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

175. Analysis of meticillin-susceptible and meticillin-resistant biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus from catheter infections isolated in a large Italian hospital. (PubMed)

, telithromycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin, vancomycin and linezolid), and the presence of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. All strains but three (92 %) were able to grow on a plastic surface as a biofilm. An almost complete association was found between phenotypes and genotypic traits of antibiotic resistance, whilst PFGE profiling showed the highly polyclonal composition of the set of strains under study. Sixteen isolates (43 %) were

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2008 Journal of Medical Microbiology

176. Activities of antistaphylococcal antibiotics towards the extracellular and intraphagocytic forms of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a patient with persistent bacteraemia and endocarditis. (PubMed)

of labelling); and (iii) Triton X-100-induced autolysis. Extracellular (broth) and intracellular (THP-1 macrophages) activities of rifampicin, linezolid and fusidic acid at C(max), and of vancomycin, daptomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin and oritavancin over a wide range of extracellular concentrations (with pharmacological modelling to determine E(max)), were measured at 24 h. Increases in vancomycin MICs correlated with increased drug binding, and decreased cell wall turnover and detergent-induced (...) autolysis. Increases in daptomycin MICs correlated with decreased daptomycin binding. Intracellular activity was weak (E(max) <1 log(10) CFU decrease) for vancomycin against all isolates, and for daptomycin against isolates with MICs >1 mg/L. Among all antibiotics tested, only quinupristin-dalfopristin and oritavancin provided close to bactericidal intracellular activities (1.6-2.5 log(10) CFU decreases at C(max)). Determination of the intracellular susceptibility of S. aureus, combined with improved

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2008 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

177. Impact of the more-potent antibiotics quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid on outcome measure of patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia. (PubMed)

Impact of the more-potent antibiotics quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid on outcome measure of patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia. The impact of antibiotic resistance on the clinical outcome of patients with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia remains unclear. There are limited data comparing patient outcomes during the early era of vancomycin resistance with the period of more-potent antibiotic availability.A retrospective review was conducted of 113 (...) patients with VRE bacteremia at a single institution from August 1993 to September 2005. Patients were assigned to a group on the basis of initial antibiotic choice for treatment of VRE (linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or combinations of other agents, before newer options were available). Outcome measurements were examined for the initial episode of VRE bacteremia, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to compare group outcomes.Overall mortality was 37.2% (42 of 113 patients

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2008 Clinical Infectious Diseases

178. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Pediatric Population (PubMed)

therapy. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and clindamycin are the preferred oral agents due to their efficacy, tolerability, well established side effect profiles, and cost. Vancomycin is the standard of care for parenteral therapy, although clindamycin is an acceptable parenteral alternative. More costly agents such as linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin should be reserved for patients with severe infections, multiple allergies, or in strains with unusual resistance patterns. The best

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2008 The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics : JPPT

179. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina (PubMed)

%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3

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2008 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

180. In vitro activities of 28 antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from a clinical setting in Malaysia. (PubMed)

. Twenty-five of 26 erythromycin-resistant MRSA isolates exhibited an inducible MLS(B) resistance phenotype while one showed an MS phenotype. More than half the isolates (68.75%) were resistant to at least one of the six aminoglycosides tested, with netilmicin as the most susceptible. The most effective antistaphylococcal agents were linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin and quinupristin/dalfopristin exhibited 100% susceptibility. Since MRSA is under continuous pressure of acquiring multiple drug

2008 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

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