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161. Epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci of animal origin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

faecalis. None was vancomycin resistant. Quinupristin/dalfopristin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin resistance rates in E. faecium were 2%, 0% and 55% in beef cattle, 8%, 7% and 47% in dairy cattle, 21%, 1% and 47% in swine, 85%, 12% and 23% in chicken, and 52%, 13% and 24% in turkey isolates, respectively. For E. faecalis, gentamicin resistance rates were 0% in beef cattle, 24% in dairy cattle, 37% in swine, 32% in chicken, and 29% in turkey isolates, whereas 12%, 9%, 21%, 64% and none of isolates from (...) beef, dairy, swine, chicken, and turkey farms, respectively, were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance in E. faecium was more common on chicken and turkey farms using virginiamycin (P<0.0001 for both) compared with farms not using a streptogramin, gentamicin resistance was more common on dairy farms using gentamicin (P<0.0001) compared with farms not using this antibiotic, and ciprofloxacin resistance was more common on turkey and dairy farms using enrofloxacin compared

2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

162. Distribution of streptogramin resistance determinants among Enterococcus faecium from a poultry production environment of the USA. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Distribution of streptogramin resistance determinants among Enterococcus faecium from a poultry production environment of the USA. The impact of agricultural use of antimicrobials on the present and future efficacy of therapeutic drugs in human medicine is a growing public concern. Quinupristin/dalfopristin has been approved to treat human disease caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and is related to virginiamycin, a streptogramin complex that has long been used in USA (...) collection of E. faecium isolates was unevenly distributed among 28 ribogroups and did not cluster geographically. The most prevalent ribogroups was composed of isolates that possessed diverse antimicrobial resistance profiles. Of the 127 isolates examined, 63% were resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin. The resistance determinants erm(A) and erm(B) were observed among 6% and 10%, respectively, of streptogramin-resistant isolates. msr(C) was detected in a single isolate that was resistant to macrolide

2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

163. Macrolide resistance mechanisms and in vitro susceptibility patterns of viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Four of the cMLS(B) isolates had both erm(B) and mef(A) genes. None of the isolates had erm(TR) genes. Combined resistance to erythromycin with penicillin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and quinupristin/dalfopristin was found in 100, 61, 74, 100 and 100% of the isolates, respectively. No resistance was found for vancomycin, linezolid and levofloxacin.The macrolide resistance mechanisms of our VGS isolates revealed that the cMLS(B) phenotype associated with erm(B) and the M phenotype

2006 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

164. Varying linezolid susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates during therapy: a case report. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of linezolid, vancomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin were determined using Etest. Molecular typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Domain V of the 23S rRNA gene in the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was amplified. Linezolid concentrations were analysed by HPLC.We report the emergence of resistance to linezolid in a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium during linezolid treatment. After discontinuation of the linezolid therapy, the isolate reverted to susceptibility

2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

165. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bifidobacterium strains from humans, animals and probiotic products. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin and vancomycin. Our data also reinforce earlier observations indicating that bifidobacteria are intrinsically resistant to gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole and polymyxin B. Susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline and minocycline was variable. The tet(W) gene was responsible for tetracycline resistance in 15 strains including 7 probiotic isolates belonging to the taxa Bifidobacterium

2006 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

166. Comparative activity of the new lipoglycopeptide telavancin in the presence and absence of serum against 50 glycopeptide non-susceptible staphylococci and three vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

species (GISS), heteroresistant GISS (hGISS) and three vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) compared with vancomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid and daptomycin.MIC and MBCs were performed against all antimicrobials. Time-kill experiments were performed using two strains of GISS (Mu50; NJ992) and VRSA (VRSAMI; VRSAPA) at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32x MIC. Telavancin and daptomycin were evaluated in the presence and absence of serum.All GISS and hGISS were susceptible to the tested (...) agents with telavancin and quinupristin/dalfopristin demonstrating the lowest MIC, followed by daptomycin, linezolid and vancomycin. Against VRSA, daptomycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin had the lowest MIC, followed by linezolid, telavancin and vancomycin. In the presence of serum, telavancin and daptomycin MICs increased 1- to 4-fold. Concentration-dependent activity was demonstrated by telavancin and daptomycin, in the presence and absence of serum. Telavancin and daptomycin were bactericidal

2006 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

167. Irish-1 and Irish-2: UK epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with Northern Ireland. (Abstract)

isolates were resistant to all these plus gentamicin and mupirocin. All isolates were sensitive to quinupristin/dalfopristin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Urease production was negative in both strains. The results suggest that Irish-1 and Irish-2 are distinct epidemic strains, identifiable by phage typing, DNA profiles, antibiotic resistance and toxin gene carriage.

2006 Journal of Hospital Infection

168. In vitro activities of the new semisynthetic glycopeptide telavancin (TD-6424), vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and four comparator agents against anaerobic gram-positive species and Corynebacterium spp. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and ampicillin against 268 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive organisms and 31 Corynebacterium strains using agar dilution methods according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures. Plates with daptomycin were supplemented with Ca(2+) to 50 mg/liter. The MICs at which 90% of isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(90)s) for telavancin and vancomycin were as follows: Actinomyces spp. (n = 45), 0.25 (...) ; Peptostreptococcus spp. (n = 52), 0.125 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively; and Corynebacterium spp. (n = 31), 0.03 and 0.5 microg/ml, respectively. The activity of TD-6424 was similar to that of quinupristin-dalfopristin for most strains except C. clostridioforme and Lactobacillus casei, where quinupristin-dalfopristin was three- to fivefold more active. Daptomycin had decreased activity (MIC > 4 microg/ml) against 14 strains of Actinomyces spp. and all C. ramosum, Eubacterium lentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

169. In vitro activities of a novel cephalosporin, CB-181963 (CAB-175), against methicillin-susceptible or -resistant Staphylococcus aureus and glycopeptide-intermediate susceptible staphylococci. Full Text available with Trip Pro

profiles similar to those of linezolid against MRSA and GISS; however, activity against MSSA was similar to that of vancomycin. Time-kill study results of investigations of activity against MRSA, MSSA, and GISS at 24 h were as follows: CB-181963 activity = vancomycin activity > linezolid activity (P < 0.001); CB-181963 = quinupristin-dalfopristin = vancomycin > linezolid (P < 0.05); CB-181963 > linezolid (P = 0.003); and CB-181963 = quinupristin-dalfopristin = vancomycin. CB-181963 may provide

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

170. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis to various antibacterial agents and their time-kill activity. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, the beta-lactams penicillin G and amoxicillin, the macrolide clarithromycin, the ketolide telithromycin, as well as clindamycin, rifampicin and quinupristin/dalfopristin had MICs in the range of 0.03-0.25 mg/L. Minocycline had an MIC of 0.03 mg/L, as did penicillin, against the ST-1 strain. Ciprofloxacin had an MIC of 0.03 mg/L against both strains. Erythromycin, vancomycin and the oxazolidinone linezolid were less active (MIC 0.5-2.5 mg/L). Ceftriaxone was the least active (...) , having an MIC of 8.0 mg/L. Chloramphenicol was inactive (MIC > 256 mg/L). Quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin and moxifloxacin showed the most rapid bacterial killing, achieving a complete eradication of detectable organisms (2 log(10) reduction within 0.5-3 h and 4 log(10) reduction within 0.5-4 h for both strains at concentrations of 5x and 10x the MIC). The beta-lactams and vancomycin demonstrated a 2-4 log(10) reduction within 5-15 h. Ceftriaxone had a similar effect to penicillin

2004 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

171. Antibiotic-induced persistence of cytotoxic Staphylococcus aureus in non-phagocytic cells. Full Text available with Trip Pro

/sulfamethoxazole did not rescue host cells from cell death induced by intracellular S. aureus. In contrast, linezolid, rifampicin, azithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin and quinupristin/dalfopristin suppressed the cytotoxic action of S. aureus. After withdrawal of antibiotics, intracellular S. aureus regained cytotoxic activity and killed their host cells. Only rifampicin was able to eliminate intracellular S. aureus completely within 72 h. In contrast, clindamycin, azithromycin and linezolid induced a state

2004 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

172. Comparative activity of telavancin against isolates of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Full Text available with Trip Pro

used to determine the MIC values of telavancin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, linezolid and daptomycin versus 60 CA-MRSA isolates. MBC values of telavancin were determined according to CLSI guidelines and American Society for Microbiology standards. PFGE was performed using the restriction enzyme SmaI. Samples from three predominant pulsed-field types were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing was determined

2007 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

173. Susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis to 24 antimicrobials using Sensititre automated microbroth dilution and Etest agar gradient diffusion methods. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was resistant to clarithromycin and clindamycin. One B. mycoides was intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin and meropenem and one was clindamycin-resistant. All B. pseudomycoides were clindamycin-resistant with one quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant. Two B. mycoides/pseudomycoides were intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin and clindamycin and a third was intermediately resistant to clindamycin alone. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin

2007 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

174. Antistaphylococcal activities of CG400549, a new bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) inhibitor. Full Text available with Trip Pro

by the CLSI, and compared with those of oxacillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin, gemifloxacin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin. In vivo activity of CG400549 was determined against systemic infections in mice. Time-kill curves of CG400549 were analysed at concentrations of 1 x , 2 x and 4 x MIC against S. aureus strains.CG400549 had the lowest MICs among the test compounds against 238 clinical isolates of S. aureus (MIC90, 0.25 mg/L) and 51 clinical isolates

2007 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

175. Pharmacodynamics of antibiotics with respect to bacterial killing of and release of lipoteichoic acid by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

during exposure to ceftriaxone, meropenem, rifampicin, rifabutin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and trovafloxacin in tryptic soy broth were quantified microbiologically and by ELISA, respectively. We applied a mathematical model to characterize quantitatively the amount of lipoteichoic acid released and the statistical moments of this release.The model approach revealed that (i) the lag time to release of LTA was very similar for individually killed bacterial cells (approximately 120 min), whatever (...) ; the amount released was about one-half that by quinupristin-dalfopristin and trovafloxacin, and one-quarter that by ceftriaxone and meropenem.In the evaluation of antibacterial drugs, the present model provides useful information on the whole process of bacterial killing and release of immunoreactive components from the bacterial cell wall.

2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

176. Potential utility of a peptide deformylase inhibitor (NVP PDF-713) against oxazolidinone-resistant or streptogramin-resistant Gram-positive organism isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

was determined by sequencing of the gene encoding the ribosomal target.NVP PDF-713 retained activity against linezolid-resistant staphylococci (MIC range 0.25-2 mg/L), Streptococcus oralis (MIC 0.5 mg/L), Enterococcus faecalis (MIC range 2-4 mg/L) and Enterococcus faecium (MIC range 0.5-4 mg/L). Quinupristin/dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium (MIC range 1-2 mg/L) and staphylococci (MIC range 0.12-2 mg/L) were also inhibited by NVP PDF-713. Many (10 of 13 strains) of the linezolid-resistant enterococci were

2004 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

177. High occurrence and persistence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in poultry food samples in Portugal. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, streptomycin or kanamycin. Antibiotic susceptibility was established following standard criteria. Identification and detection of genes coding for resistance were determined by PCR. Clonal relatedness was established by PFGE.A high percentage of samples contained vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) (48%), or enterococci highly resistant (HLR) to gentamicin (34%), streptomycin (32%) or kanamycin (30%). Co-resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin and quinupristin/dalfopristin was observed

2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

178. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Lactococcus human isolates and cultures intended for probiotic or nutritional use. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-based detection of resistance gene(s) and in vitro conjugative transfer experiments.Tentative ECOFF values of 13 antibiotics were determined for up to 12 LAB species. Generally, LAB were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, quinupristin/dalfopristin, chloramphenicol and linezolid. LAB exhibited broad or partly species-dependent MIC profiles of trimethoprim, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, teicoplanin and fusidic acid. Three probiotic Lactobacillus strains were

2007 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

179. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium: catheter colonization, esp gene, and decreased susceptibility to antibiotics in biofilm. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we identified 17 unique strains among the 22 VREF-CRB isolates and 23 strains among the gastrointestinal isolates. The esp gene was detected in 53% (9 of 17) of the VREF-CRB and 61% (14 of 23) of the control strains (P = 0.6). VREF-CRB produced heavier biofilm colonization of silicone disks than did control organisms (P < 0.001). Daptomycin, minocycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were each independently more active than linezolid in reducing biofilm

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

180. Antipneumococcal activity of dalbavancin compared to other agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antipneumococcal activity of dalbavancin compared to other agents. Against 307 pneumococci of various resistotypes, dalbavancin MICs were 0.008 to 0.125 microg/ml. All strains were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Dalbavancin at 2x MIC was bactericidal against all 10 pneumococci tested after 24 h. Vancomycin and teicoplanin killed 10 and 8 strains, respectively, at 2x MIC after 24 h.

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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