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Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

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121. In vitro activity of the new multivalent glycopeptide-cephalosporin antibiotic, TD-1792, against vancomycin non-susceptible staphylococci isolates. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-intermediate Staphylococcus spp. (VISS), heteroresistant VISS (hVISS), and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA). The TD-1792, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined for 50 VISS/hVISS isolates and 3 VRSA isolates. Time-kill experiments (TKs) were then performed over 24 h with two vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strains and two VRSA strains, using each agent at multiples of the MIC. TD-1792 and daptomycin were (...) also evaluated in the presence and absence of 50% human serum to determine the effects of the proteins on their activities. Most of the VISS/hVISS isolates were susceptible to all agents except vancomycin. TD-1792 exhibited the lowest MIC values (MIC(90) = 0.125 microg/ml), followed by quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin (MIC(90) = 1 microg/ml) and then linezolid (MIC(90) = 2 microg/ml). The presence of serum resulted in a 2- to 8-fold increase in the TD-1792 and daptomycin MIC values. In TKs

2010 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

122. Identification, antimicrobial resistance and genotypic characterization of Enterococcus spp. isolated in Porto Alegre, Brazil Full Text available with Trip Pro

% to tetracycline, 24.6% to rifampicin, 30% to ciprofloxacin and 87.2% to quinupristin-dalfopristin. A total of 10.3% of the isolates proved to be HLAR to both gentamicin and streptomycin (HLR-ST/GE), with 23.6% resistant only to gentamicin (HLR-GE) and 37.4% only to streptomycin (HLR-ST). One predominant clonal group was found among E. faecalis HLR-GE/ST. The prevalence of resistance among beta-lactam antibiotics and glycopeptides was very low. However, in this study there was an increased number of HLR

2009 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

123. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8). Full Text available with Trip Pro

for clarithromycin, clindamycin, erythromycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, trimethoprim UTI, nitrofurantoin UTI and rifampicin (Table 11); Streptococcus pneumoniae MIC and zone diameter BPs for azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, linezolid, rifampicin and telithromycin (Table 12); addition of streptomycin recommendations for enterococci (Table 13); enterococcal MIC and zone diameter BPs for quinupristin/dalfopristin, nitrofurantoin UTI and trimethoprim UTI (Table 13); beta-haemolytic

2009 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

124. ACTIVITY OF TELAVANCIN AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCI AND ENTEROCOCCI BY MIC AND RESISTANCE SELECTION STUDIES. Full Text available with Trip Pro

nonsusceptible to daptomycin at the same concentration. All strains were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin, while resistance was found to all other drugs tested. Telavancin demonstrated potent activity against all vancomycin-susceptible isolates as well as against heterogeneously VISA and VISA resistance phenotypes. In multistep resistance selection studies, telavancin yielded one stable mutant after 43 days in one MRSA strain out of the 10 MRSA strains tested with the MIC rising eightfold from 0.25

2009 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

125. A pan-European survey of antimicrobial susceptibility towards human-use antimicrobial drugs among zoonotic and commensal enteric bacteria isolated from healthy food-producing animals. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for Campylobacter coli, but C. jejuni was less resistant. None of the enterococcal strains was resistant to linezolid, but a few displayed resistance to ampicillin or vancomycin. Resistance prevalence to quinupristin/dalfopristin was clearly higher.Antimicrobial resistance among enteric organisms in food animals varied among countries, particularly for older antimicrobials, but clinical resistance to essential compounds used to treat disease in humans was generally zero or low. In the absence of clinical

2009 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

126. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variant isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient : 1. Pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal phenotype and Full Text available with Trip Pro

, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal (...) -phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU

2009 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

127. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variant isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient : 2. Study of antibiotic combinations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and that the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin, moxifloxacin, rifampin, and oritavancin remains limited (2- to 3-log CFU reduction) compared to their extracellular activity. Antibiotic combination is a well-known strategy to improve antibacterial activity, which was examined here against an intracellular SCV strain using combinations with either rifampin or oritavancin. Time-kill curve analysis using either concentrations that caused a static effect

2009 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

128. Cubicin - daptomycin

. The antibacterial activity of daptomycin requires the presence of free calcium. The exact mechanism of action of daptomycin remains to be determined. Due to its different mechanism of action, the antibacterial activity of daptomycin is not affected by mechanisms that confer specific resistance to beta-lactam agents (including methicillin), glycopeptides (such as vancomycin), quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid or other agents potentially useful against Gram-positive bacterial species. In both in vitro

2006 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

129. Are glycopeptides still appropriate and convenient for empiric use? Full Text available with Trip Pro

glycopeptides: vancomycin, teicoplanin, clindamycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and daptomycin. It also compared the costs of three of them: vancomycin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin at different doses. Location/setting UK/secondary care. Methods Analytical approach: The effectiveness data were derived from a review of the literature. The medication costs of each drug regimen were compared. The time frame of the cost analysis was seven days of treatment. No study perspective was reported

2008 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

130. Effects of Adalat LA and Coracten on Drug Levels, Blood Pressure, and Heart Rate in Fed Patients With Hypertension

I diabetes. - Subjects taking drugs which may interfere with the metabolism of nifedipine (cimetidine, ranitidine, quinidine, digoxin, rifampicin, diltiazem, cisapride, quinupristin/dalfopristin, cyclosporin, phenytoin or other antiepileptic drugs,).- Subjects suffering from secondary or malignant hypertension.- Subjects with any known contraindication (e.g. hypersensitivity) to nifedipine or other calcium channel blockers of the dihydropyridine class.- Subjects with previously known clinically

2008 Clinical Trials

131. Open-label, Multiple-dose, Phase III Study of the Population Pharmacokinetics of I.V. Synercid in 75 Pediatric Patients

Bacterial Infections Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections Quinupristin-dalfopristin Anti-Bacterial Agents Anti-Infective Agents Protein Synthesis Inhibitors Enzyme Inhibitors Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action

2005 Clinical Trials

132. Study of Omiganan 1% Gel in Preventing Catheter Infections/Colonization in Patients With Central Venous Catheters

(nontunneled) temporary central venous catheter Males and females of at least 13 years of age A negative urine or serum pregnancy test at baseline Exclusion Criteria: Insertion of, or requirement for, any study catheter impregnated/bonded with an antimicrobial substance High probability of death within 14 days of enrollment as assessed by the investigator Prior treatment with vancomycin (intravenous administration only), daptomycin, linezolid, or quinupristin/dalfopristin, within 48 hours of first study

2005 Clinical Trials

133. Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococcus spp. Isolated from Commercial Poultry Production Environments Full Text available with Trip Pro

% of the E. faecium isolates were resistant to the streptogramin quinupristin-dalfopristin, while high-level gentamicin resistance was observed only among the E. faecalis population, of which 7% of the isolates were resistant. The primary observations are that enterococci can be frequently isolated from the poultry production environment and can be multiresistant to antimicrobials used in human medicine. The high frequency with which resistant enterococci are isolated from this environment suggests

2004 Applied and environmental microbiology

134. Validation of VITEK 2 Version 4.01 Software for Detection, Identification, and Classification of Glycopeptide-Resistant Enterococci Full Text available with Trip Pro

strains was misclassified as the vanB type, and one glycopeptide-susceptible E. facium wild type was misclassified as the vanA type. The overall essential agreements for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were 94.2% for vancomycin, 95.9% for teicoplanin, 100% for quinupristin-dalfopristin and moxifloxacin, and 97.5% for linezolid. The rates of minor errors were 9% for teicoplanin and 5% for the other antibiotic agents. The identification and susceptibility data were produced within 4 h to 6

2006 Journal of clinical microbiology

135. Trends in antibiotic susceptibility patterns and epidemiology of MRSA isolates from several hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Full Text available with Trip Pro

77.0%, gatifloxacin 78.9%, chloramphenicl 80.7%, linezolid 95.1%, quinupristin/dalfopristin 100%. Some differences were noted in the resistance of isolates among the participating hospitals reflecting antibiotic usage. On the whole, inpatient isolates (accounting for 77.5% of the isolates) were more resistant than outpatient isolates (22.5%) except for linezolid. Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid are the most effective antibiotics tested against inpatient isolates while quinupristin (...) -dalfopristin and gatifloxacin seem to be the most effective against outpatient isolates. Approximately one forth of the isolates are no longer susceptible to mupirocin used for eradication of the carrier state reflecting resistance developing after widespread use. Trends over time show a tendency towards decreased susceptibility to gatifloxacin and linezolid with increasing susceptibility to gentamicin and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are two valuable additions

2006 Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

136. Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Pediatric Population Full Text available with Trip Pro

therapy. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and clindamycin are the preferred oral agents due to their efficacy, tolerability, well established side effect profiles, and cost. Vancomycin is the standard of care for parenteral therapy, although clindamycin is an acceptable parenteral alternative. More costly agents such as linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin should be reserved for patients with severe infections, multiple allergies, or in strains with unusual resistance patterns. The best

2008 The Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics : JPPT

137. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and prevalence of group B Streptococcus isolated from pregnant women in Misiones, Argentina Full Text available with Trip Pro

%. A total of 62 GBS strains were randomly selected for in vitro susceptibility testing to penicillin G, ampicillin, tetracycline, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, vancomycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim- sulfametoxazol, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, clindamycin and erythromycin, and determination of resistance phenotypes. No resistance to penicillin, ampicillin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and vancomycin was found. Of the isolates examined 96.8%, 98.3

2008 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

138. Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications, and treatment options: insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. (Abstract)

Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications, and treatment options: insights from the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists. Despite the advent of new antibiotics, resistance in gram-positive pathogens, including staphylococci and enterococci, continues to increase. This is evident with the recent emergence of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . Newer treatment agents are available, including quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, and daptomycin. In addition, investigational

2005 Pharmacotherapy

139. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci: colonization, infection, detection, and treatment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

recipients, or severely ill patients) have an increased likelihood of developing infection following colonization. Quinupristin-dalfopristin and linezolid are among the anti-infective agents that have recently become available to treat infection caused by VRE. Other antimicrobials are currently under development. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction and standard culture studies are being used to detect VRE colonization, infection, and outbreaks.

2006 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

140. Daptomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

daptomycin susceptibillities of enterococci include breakpoints only for vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis, making interpretation of minimum inhibitory concentrations for common clinical infections difficult. No enterococcal cross-resistance has been reported among daptomycin, linezolid, or quinupristin-dalfopristin, and these agents may be viable alternatives.

2005 Mayo Clinic Proceedings

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