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Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

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103. Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (Follow-up)

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Mayo Clin Proc . 2017 Oct. 92 (10):1469-1478. . Brooks M. Statins May Help Guard Against S aureus Bacteremia. Medscape News. Available at . October 26, 2017; Accessed: November 1, 2017. Nailor MD, Sobel JD. Antibiotics for gram-positive bacterial infections: vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, oxazolidinones, daptomycin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Infect Dis Clin N Am . Dec 2009. 23(4):965-82. Thwaites GE, Edgeworth JD

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

104. Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (Treatment)

Proc . 2017 Oct. 92 (10):1469-1478. . Brooks M. Statins May Help Guard Against S aureus Bacteremia. Medscape News. Available at . October 26, 2017; Accessed: November 1, 2017. Nailor MD, Sobel JD. Antibiotics for gram-positive bacterial infections: vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, oxazolidinones, daptomycin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Infect Dis Clin N Am . Dec 2009. 23(4):965-82. Thwaites GE, Edgeworth JD, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Kirby A, Tilley R, Török ME. Clinical management

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

105. Enterococcal Infection (Treatment)

activity) are to be used in the following: Neonatal septicemia Endocarditis Meningitis Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) on intra-abdominal infections do not recommend empiric enterococcal coverage for community-acquired infections. [ ] However, for hospital-acquired abdominal infections, if enterococci are isolated, antibiotic coverage is recommended. For strains with high-level resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and glycopeptides, quinupristin/dalfopristin (...) (Synercid) or linezolid (Zyvox) may be used. A 7-month-old formerly premature infant with ventriculitis secondary to E faecium who was successfully treated with a 3-week course of linezolid at a dose of 10 mg/kg/dose 3 times a day has been reported. Therapy was well tolerated. Resistance to linezolid can develop after prolonged antibiotic therapy (>21 days). Quinupristin/dalfopristin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and is approved for patients older than 16 years for serious or life-threatening

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

106. Enterococcal Infection (Overview)

therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals. Circulation . 2005 Jun 14. 111(23):e394-434. . . Bell EA. Quinupristin/dalfopristin: An interesting new antibiotics period. Infect Dis Child . 2000. 13(3):53. DiazGranados CA, Jernigan JA. Impact of vancomycin resistance on mortality among patients with neutropenia and enterococcal bloodstream infection. J Infect Dis . 2005. 191:588-595. . . Furuno JP, Perencevich EN, Johnson JA, et al. Methicillin-resistant

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

107. Endocarditis (Follow-up)

to achieve synergy against enterococci, but the practice of administering gentamicin for 5 days in the treatment of S aureus IV drug abuse (IVDA) IE should be questioned. Vancomycin-resistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis (ie, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) produce some of the most challenging nosocomial infections. Presently, no therapy has been proven highly effective for IE caused by strains of VRE. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (ie, Synercid) may suppress E faecium

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

108. Cellulitis (Follow-up)

IV q6-8h Meropenem 1 g IV q8h Ertapenem 1 g IV qd Cefotaxime 2 g IV q6h plus metronidazole 500 mg IV q6h or clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h The following are first-line treatments in managing adult S aureus (MSSA) infections [ ] : Nafcillin (for patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity: vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin; add an appropriate agent in the presence of [or if there is a suspicion of] staphylococcal infection) or oxacillin 1-2 IV q4h Cefazolin 1 g (...) IV q8h Clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h (may have cross-resistance and emergence resistance in erythromycin-resistant strains; induces resistance in MRSA) First-line agents in managing severe adult streptococcal infection are penicillin 2-4 MU IV every 4-6 hours plus clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV every 8 hours. [ ] For patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity, use vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin. Add an appropriate agent if a staphylococcal infection

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

109. Streptococcus Group D Infections (Diagnosis)

with Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius: clinical correlates of more accurate identification of isolates. J Clin Microbiol . 1989 Feb. 27(2):305-8. . Mouton JW, Endtz HP, den Hollander JG, et al. In-vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin compared with other widely used antibiotics against strains isolated from patients with endocarditis. J Antimicrob Chemother . 1997 May. 39 Suppl A:75-80. . Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, Fowler VG Jr, Bolger AF, Levison ME, et al. Infective endocarditis

2014 eMedicine.com

110. Endocarditis (Treatment)

to achieve synergy against enterococci, but the practice of administering gentamicin for 5 days in the treatment of S aureus IV drug abuse (IVDA) IE should be questioned. Vancomycin-resistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis (ie, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) produce some of the most challenging nosocomial infections. Presently, no therapy has been proven highly effective for IE caused by strains of VRE. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (ie, Synercid) may suppress E faecium

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

111. Cellulitis (Treatment)

IV q6-8h Meropenem 1 g IV q8h Ertapenem 1 g IV qd Cefotaxime 2 g IV q6h plus metronidazole 500 mg IV q6h or clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h The following are first-line treatments in managing adult S aureus (MSSA) infections [ ] : Nafcillin (for patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity: vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin; add an appropriate agent in the presence of [or if there is a suspicion of] staphylococcal infection) or oxacillin 1-2 IV q4h Cefazolin 1 g (...) IV q8h Clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h (may have cross-resistance and emergence resistance in erythromycin-resistant strains; induces resistance in MRSA) First-line agents in managing severe adult streptococcal infection are penicillin 2-4 MU IV every 4-6 hours plus clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV every 8 hours. [ ] For patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity, use vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin. Add an appropriate agent if a staphylococcal infection

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

114. Enterococcal Infection (Follow-up)

, et al. Decontamination of the digestive tract and oropharynx in ICU patients. N Engl J Med . 2009 Jan 1. 360(1):20-31. . Baddour LM, Wilson WR, Bayer AS, et al. Infective endocarditis: diagnosis, antimicrobial therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals. Circulation . 2005 Jun 14. 111(23):e394-434. . . Bell EA. Quinupristin/dalfopristin: An interesting new antibiotics period. Infect Dis Child . 2000. 13(3):53. DiazGranados CA, Jernigan JA. Impact

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

115. Are glycopeptides still appropriate and convenient for empiric use?

glycopeptides: vancomycin, teicoplanin, clindamycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and daptomycin. It also compared the costs of three of them: vancomycin, teicoplanin, and daptomycin at different doses. Location/setting UK/secondary care. Methods Analytical approach: The effectiveness data were derived from a review of the literature. The medication costs of each drug regimen were compared. The time frame of the cost analysis was seven days of treatment. No study perspective was reported

2008 NHS Economic Evaluation Database.

116. High genetic diversity of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) from humans and animals on livestock farms and presence of SCCmec remnant DNA in MSSA CC398. (PubMed)

and quinupristin/dalfopristin, whereas non-CC398 MSSA showed considerably less resistance. Three porcine MSSA CC398-t011 isolates harboured remnant DNA of a composite SCCmec V(5C2&5)c element that lacked the mec gene complex. This resulted from an MRSA-to-MSSA conversion due to recombination between the ccrC genes flanking the mec gene complex. The SCC remnant still contained an intact J1 region harbouring czrC and tet(K), encoding zinc and tetracycline resistance, respectively, thereby illustrating

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2013 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

117. Genetic Basis for In Vitro and In Vivo Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A and Pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) in Enterococcus faecium. (PubMed)

Genetic Basis for In Vitro and In Vivo Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A and Pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) in Enterococcus faecium. As opposed to Enterococcus faecalis, which is intrinsically resistant to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) by production of the ABC protein Lsa(A), Enterococcus faecium is naturally susceptible. Since this phenotype may be selected for in vivo by quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D), the aim of this study was to investigate

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2013 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

118. Antibiotic pressure can induce the viable but non-culturable state in Staphylococcus aureus growing in biofilms. (PubMed)

of being resuscitated in suitable environmental conditions, the role of different stressors in inducing the VBNC state and the conditions favouring resuscitation.S. aureus 10850 biofilms were exposed to different concentrations of antibiotic (vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin) and/or to nutrient depletion until loss of culturability. The presence of viable cells and their number were examined by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR (...) . aureus can enter the VBNC state in infectious biofilms. The presence of vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin can inadvertently induce a true VBNC state or its persistence in S. aureus cells embedded in biofilms, supporting previous findings on the role of staphylococcal biofilms in recurrent infections.

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2013 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

119. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia: results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, 1999-2009. (PubMed)

for further characterization and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. The majority of isolates were from western Canada (60.5%), followed by central (37.0%) and eastern (2.5%) Canada. Susceptibilities were as follows: daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and chloramphenicol, 100%; quinupristin/dalfopristin, 96.3%; high-level gentamicin, 71.6%; tetracycline, 50.6%; high-level streptomycin, 44.4%; rifampicin, 21.0%; nitrofurantoin, 11.1%; clindamycin, 8.6%; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin

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2013 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

120. Nasal and perirectal colonization of vancomycin sensitive and resistant enterococci in patients of paediatrics ICU (PICU) of tertiary health care facilities. (PubMed)

to most of the antibiotics tested except linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. VRE showed resistance to teicoplanin and vancomycin both and none was resistant to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Generally, E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. MICs of vancomycin for nasal and perirectal VRE were 512 mg/L and 64 to 512 mg/L respectively. VRE were more in patients with prolonged hospitalization, from urban localities and those having

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2013 BMC Infectious Diseases

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