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Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

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81. Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (Follow-up)

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia: A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Mayo Clin Proc . 2017 Oct. 92 (10):1469-1478. . Brooks M. Statins May Help Guard Against S aureus Bacteremia. Medscape News. Available at . October 26, 2017; Accessed: November 1, 2017. Nailor MD, Sobel JD. Antibiotics for gram-positive bacterial infections: vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, oxazolidinones, daptomycin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Infect Dis Clin N Am . Dec 2009. 23(4):965-82. Thwaites GE, Edgeworth JD

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

82. Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (Treatment)

Proc . 2017 Oct. 92 (10):1469-1478. . Brooks M. Statins May Help Guard Against S aureus Bacteremia. Medscape News. Available at . October 26, 2017; Accessed: November 1, 2017. Nailor MD, Sobel JD. Antibiotics for gram-positive bacterial infections: vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, oxazolidinones, daptomycin, dalbavancin, and telavancin. Infect Dis Clin N Am . Dec 2009. 23(4):965-82. Thwaites GE, Edgeworth JD, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Kirby A, Tilley R, Török ME. Clinical management

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

84. Enterococcal Infection (Overview)

therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals. Circulation . 2005 Jun 14. 111(23):e394-434. . . Bell EA. Quinupristin/dalfopristin: An interesting new antibiotics period. Infect Dis Child . 2000. 13(3):53. DiazGranados CA, Jernigan JA. Impact of vancomycin resistance on mortality among patients with neutropenia and enterococcal bloodstream infection. J Infect Dis . 2005. 191:588-595. . . Furuno JP, Perencevich EN, Johnson JA, et al. Methicillin-resistant

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

85. Enterococcal Infection (Diagnosis)

therapy, and management of complications: a statement for healthcare professionals. Circulation . 2005 Jun 14. 111(23):e394-434. . . Bell EA. Quinupristin/dalfopristin: An interesting new antibiotics period. Infect Dis Child . 2000. 13(3):53. DiazGranados CA, Jernigan JA. Impact of vancomycin resistance on mortality among patients with neutropenia and enterococcal bloodstream infection. J Infect Dis . 2005. 191:588-595. . . Furuno JP, Perencevich EN, Johnson JA, et al. Methicillin-resistant

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

87. Endocarditis (Follow-up)

to achieve synergy against enterococci, but the practice of administering gentamicin for 5 days in the treatment of S aureus IV drug abuse (IVDA) IE should be questioned. Vancomycin-resistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis (ie, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) produce some of the most challenging nosocomial infections. Presently, no therapy has been proven highly effective for IE caused by strains of VRE. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (ie, Synercid) may suppress E faecium

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

88. Cellulitis (Follow-up)

IV q6-8h Meropenem 1 g IV q8h Ertapenem 1 g IV qd Cefotaxime 2 g IV q6h plus metronidazole 500 mg IV q6h or clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h The following are first-line treatments in managing adult S aureus (MSSA) infections [ ] : Nafcillin (for patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity: vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin; add an appropriate agent in the presence of [or if there is a suspicion of] staphylococcal infection) or oxacillin 1-2 IV q4h Cefazolin 1 g (...) IV q8h Clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h (may have cross-resistance and emergence resistance in erythromycin-resistant strains; induces resistance in MRSA) First-line agents in managing severe adult streptococcal infection are penicillin 2-4 MU IV every 4-6 hours plus clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV every 8 hours. [ ] For patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity, use vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin. Add an appropriate agent if a staphylococcal infection

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

89. Cellulitis (Treatment)

IV q6-8h Meropenem 1 g IV q8h Ertapenem 1 g IV qd Cefotaxime 2 g IV q6h plus metronidazole 500 mg IV q6h or clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h The following are first-line treatments in managing adult S aureus (MSSA) infections [ ] : Nafcillin (for patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity: vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin; add an appropriate agent in the presence of [or if there is a suspicion of] staphylococcal infection) or oxacillin 1-2 IV q4h Cefazolin 1 g (...) IV q8h Clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV q8h (may have cross-resistance and emergence resistance in erythromycin-resistant strains; induces resistance in MRSA) First-line agents in managing severe adult streptococcal infection are penicillin 2-4 MU IV every 4-6 hours plus clindamycin 600-900 mg/kg IV every 8 hours. [ ] For patients with severe penicillin hypersensitivity, use vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, or daptomycin. Add an appropriate agent if a staphylococcal infection

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

90. Endocarditis (Treatment)

to achieve synergy against enterococci, but the practice of administering gentamicin for 5 days in the treatment of S aureus IV drug abuse (IVDA) IE should be questioned. Vancomycin-resistant isolates of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis (ie, vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]) produce some of the most challenging nosocomial infections. Presently, no therapy has been proven highly effective for IE caused by strains of VRE. Quinupristin/dalfopristin (ie, Synercid) may suppress E faecium

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

91. Catheter removal versus retention in the management of catheter-associated enterococcal bloodstream infections Full Text available with Trip Pro

of 111 patients had an enterococcal CA-BSI. The median age was 58.2 years (range 21 to 94 years). There were 45 (40.5%) infections caused by Entercoccus faecalis (among which 10 [22%] were vancomycin resistant), 61 (55%) by Enterococcus faecium (57 [93%] vancomycin resistant) and five (4.5%) by other Enterococcus species. Patients were treated with linezolid (n=51 [46%]), vancomycin (n=37 [33%]), daptomycin (n=11 [10%]), ampicillin (n=2 [2%]) or quinupristin/dalfopristin (n=2 [2%]); seven (n=6

2013 The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology

92. High genetic diversity of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) from humans and animals on livestock farms and presence of SCCmec remnant DNA in MSSA CC398. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and quinupristin/dalfopristin, whereas non-CC398 MSSA showed considerably less resistance. Three porcine MSSA CC398-t011 isolates harboured remnant DNA of a composite SCCmec V(5C2&5)c element that lacked the mec gene complex. This resulted from an MRSA-to-MSSA conversion due to recombination between the ccrC genes flanking the mec gene complex. The SCC remnant still contained an intact J1 region harbouring czrC and tet(K), encoding zinc and tetracycline resistance, respectively, thereby illustrating

2013 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

93. Antibiotic pressure can induce the viable but non-culturable state in Staphylococcus aureus growing in biofilms. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of being resuscitated in suitable environmental conditions, the role of different stressors in inducing the VBNC state and the conditions favouring resuscitation.S. aureus 10850 biofilms were exposed to different concentrations of antibiotic (vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin) and/or to nutrient depletion until loss of culturability. The presence of viable cells and their number were examined by epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR (...) . aureus can enter the VBNC state in infectious biofilms. The presence of vancomycin or quinupristin/dalfopristin can inadvertently induce a true VBNC state or its persistence in S. aureus cells embedded in biofilms, supporting previous findings on the role of staphylococcal biofilms in recurrent infections.

2013 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

94. Molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteraemia: results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, 1999-2009. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for further characterization and were identified as Enterococcus faecium. The majority of isolates were from western Canada (60.5%), followed by central (37.0%) and eastern (2.5%) Canada. Susceptibilities were as follows: daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline and chloramphenicol, 100%; quinupristin/dalfopristin, 96.3%; high-level gentamicin, 71.6%; tetracycline, 50.6%; high-level streptomycin, 44.4%; rifampicin, 21.0%; nitrofurantoin, 11.1%; clindamycin, 8.6%; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin

2013 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

95. Genetic Basis for In Vitro and In Vivo Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A and Pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) in Enterococcus faecium. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Genetic Basis for In Vitro and In Vivo Resistance to Lincosamides, Streptogramins A and Pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) in Enterococcus faecium. As opposed to Enterococcus faecalis, which is intrinsically resistant to lincosamides, streptogramins A, and pleuromutilins (LSAP phenotype) by production of the ABC protein Lsa(A), Enterococcus faecium is naturally susceptible. Since this phenotype may be selected for in vivo by quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D), the aim of this study was to investigate

2013 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

96. Nasal and perirectal colonization of vancomycin sensitive and resistant enterococci in patients of paediatrics ICU (PICU) of tertiary health care facilities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to most of the antibiotics tested except linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, teicoplanin and vancomycin. VRE showed resistance to teicoplanin and vancomycin both and none was resistant to linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin. Generally, E. faecium isolates were more resistant than E. faecalis. MICs of vancomycin for nasal and perirectal VRE were 512 mg/L and 64 to 512 mg/L respectively. VRE were more in patients with prolonged hospitalization, from urban localities and those having

2013 BMC Infectious Diseases

97. Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus

disease Cancer ICU care Organ transplant VI. Labs: Culture MIC Susceptible : MIC <4 mcg/ml Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus: MIC >32 mcg/ml VII. Management: Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus No single antibiotic is bactericidal Combination therapy is mandatory Susceptible to Antibiotic 1 or /Sulbactam ( ) Antibiotic 2 (increasing resistance) or High resistance to (MIC >64 mg/ml) Quinupristin/dalfopristin ( ) ( ) Combination 1 (three drugs) and and Combination 2 (two drugs) or and Fosfomycin (...) Combination 3 (four drugs) Chloramphenicol and and and Quinupristin/dalfopristin ( ) Antibiotics effective against some strains of VRE (consult infectious disease) Tigecycline (increasing resistance) Imipenem (against E. faecalis only) Telavansin ( s) Quinupristin/dalfopristin or (against E faecium only) Antibiotics effective against UTI with VRE Remove indwelling if possible (may alone, clear VRE) or (UTI) Fosfomycin (UTI) (UTI) Antibiotics for VRE Endocarditis may be needed AND AND VIII. Prevention

2015 FP Notebook

98. Molecular characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus from migratory birds: song thrush (Turdus philomelos) Full Text available with Trip Pro

Molecular characterization of vanA-containing Enterococcus from migratory birds: song thrush (Turdus philomelos) Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were detected in two faecal samples (1.3%) of song thrush in Portugal. vanA isolates showed high level vancomycin/teicoplanin resistance, as well as resistance to ciprofloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin and cloranfenicol. Thrush can be a reservoir of VRE and transmit these resistant bacteria to other animals including humans.

2012 Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

99. The evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of urine enterococci with the Vitek 2 automated system in eastern Turkey. (Abstract)

and detect antimicrobial susceptibility to ten antibiotics: ampicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, tetracycline, tigecyclin, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin and high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) against kanamycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. The predominant species was Enterococci faecalis (74.5%) followed by Enterococcus faecium (18.6%). The resistance rates for Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium, were 54.5%/77.2% for ampicillin, 0/77.2

2012 Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health

100. Twenty-five years of shared life with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: is it time to divorce? Full Text available with Trip Pro

, have facilitated niche adaptation of this distinct E. faecium subpopulation that is multiply resistant to antibiotics. Quinupristin/dalfopristin and linezolid are licensed for the treatment of VREm infections, with linezolid often used as a first-line treatment. However, the emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to linezolid by production of a Cfr methyltransferase in Enterococcus faecalis is worrying. Daptomycin has not been extensively evaluated for the treatment of VREm infections

2012 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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