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Quinupristin-Dalfopristin

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181. In vivo transfer of the vanA resistance gene from an Enterococcus faecium isolate of animal origin to an E. faecium isolate of human origin in the intestines of human volunteers. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, together with a vancomycin-susceptible E. faecium recipient of human origin. Transconjugants were recovered in three of six volunteers. In one volunteer, not only was vancomycin resistance transferred, but also quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance. This study shows that transfer of the vanA gene from an E. faecium isolate of animal origin to an E. faecium isolate of human origin can occur in the intestines of humans. It suggests that transient intestinal colonization by enterococci carrying mobile

2006 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

182. Activity of a new oral streptogramin, XRP2868, against gram-positive cocci harboring various mechanisms of resistance to streptogramins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on the activity of XRP2868 and its components were also tested by cloning these genes individually or in various combinations in gram-positive recipient strains susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. The species tested included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other species of streptococci. XRP2868 was generally fourfold more potent than quinupristin-dalfopristin against S. aureus, E. faecium (...) , and streptococci and had activity against E. faecalis (MICs = 0.25 to 1 microg/ml). XRP2868 appeared to be affected by the same mechanisms of resistance as those to quinupristin-dalfopristin. Nevertheless, the strong activity of factor A of the oral streptogramin enabled the combination to be very potent against streptogramin-susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and E. faecium (MICs = 0.03 to 0.25 microg/ml) and to retain low MICs against the strains harboring a mechanism of resistance to factor

2006 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

183. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate from a patient in Pennsylvania. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and macrodilution methods following National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines. The isolate was resistant to vancomycin (MIC = 32 micro g/ml), aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracycline, but it was susceptible to linezolid, minocycline, quinupristin-dalfopristin, rifampin, teicoplanin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The isolate, which was originally detected by using disk diffusion and a vancomycin agar screen plate, was vancomycin susceptible

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

184. Activities of cethromycin and telithromycin against recent North American isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

/ml; the corresponding values for telithromycin were quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant strains, the cethromycin MICs were 0.25 to 16 micro g/ml and the telithromycin MICs were 1 to 4 micro g/ml. However, there was only 0.3% resistance to telithromycin.

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

185. In vitro activities of 28 antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from tertiary-care hospitals in Korea: a nationwide survey. Full Text available with Trip Pro

macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotype was common, no isolates were resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin or linezolid. Rifampin, fusidic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and arbekacin showed superior in vitro activity compared with the other antibiotics against the MRSA isolates. No isolates showed reduced susceptibility to vancomycin.

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

186. In vitro selection and characterization of resistance to macrolides and related antibiotics in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro selection and characterization of resistance to macrolides and related antibiotics in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Macrolide-resistant mutants of Mycoplasma pneumoniae were selected in vitro from the susceptible reference strain M129, by 23 to 50 serial passages in subinhibitory concentrations of macrolides and related antibiotics, erythromycin A, azithromycin, josamycin, clindamycin, quinupristin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, pristinamycin, and telithromycin. Mutants for which the MICs (...) are increased could be selected with all antibiotics except the streptogramin B quinupristin. Portions of genes encoding 23S rRNA (domains II and V) and ribosomal proteins L4 and L22 of mutants were amplified by PCR, and their nucleotide sequences were compared to those of the susceptible strain M129. No mutation could be detected in domain II of 23S rRNA. Two point mutations in domain V of 23S rRNA, C2611A and A2062G, were selected in the presence of erythromycin A, azithromycin, josamycin, quinupristin

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

187. Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing nosocomial infections at a university hospital in Taiwan from 1986 to 2001. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing nosocomial infections at a university hospital in Taiwan from 1986 to 2001. A rapid emergence of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection (from 26.3% in 1986 to 77% in 2001) was found. The susceptibility of 200 nonduplicate blood isolates of MRSA and 100 MRSA isolates causing refractory bacteremia to 22 antimicrobial agents disclosed that glycopeptides, quinupristin-dalfopristin

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

188. Antistaphylococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a new broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

against methicillin-resistant strains. Against 151 coagulase-negative staphylococci (including 4 vancomycin-intermediate strains), MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were, respectively, 0.125 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml against methicillin-susceptible and 1 microg/ml and 2 microg/ml against methicillin-resistant strains. Teicoplanin was less active than vancomycin against coagulase-negative strains. Linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and daptomycin were active against all strains, whereas increased MICs

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

189. Serotypes, Clones, and Mechanisms of Resistance of Erythromycin-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates Collected in Spain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

%. Multiresistance (to three or more antimicrobials) was observed in 81.6% of these strains. Among 15 antimicrobials studied, cefotaxime, moxifloxacin, telithromycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were the most active drugs. The most frequent serotypes of erythromycin-resistant isolates were 19F (25%), 19A (17%), 6B (12%), 14 (10%), and 23F (10%). Of the 125 strains, 109 (87.2%) showed the MLS(B) phenotype [103 had the erm(B) gene and 6 had both erm(B) and mef(E) genes]. Sixteen (12.8%) strains showed the M

2007 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

190. Pharmacodynamics of cefepime alone and in combination with various antimicrobials against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacodynamic infection model. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with vancomycin, linezolid, or quinupristin-dalfopristin had an improved or enhanced effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We investigated various regimens of cefepime alone and in combination against two clinical MRSA isolates (R2481 and R2484) in an established in vitro pharmacodynamic model. Human pharmacokinetic regimen simulations were as follows: cefepime, 2 g every 8 h (q8h) (C8) and 12 h (C12), continuous-infusion 2-g loading dose followed by 4 g alone or in combination

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

191. Antistaphylococcal activity of dalbavancin, an experimental glycopeptide. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antistaphylococcal activity of dalbavancin, an experimental glycopeptide. Dalbavancin, tested against 146 staphylococci, was more potent than other drugs tested, with an MIC at which 50% of staphylococci were inhibited of 0.03 microg/ml and an MIC at which 90% of staphylococci were inhibited of 0.06 microg/ml by microdilution. For all strains, MICs of vancomycin, linezolid, ranbezolid, oritavancin, daptomycin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

192. Antipneumococcal activity of LBM415, a new peptide deformylase inhibitor, compared with those of other agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antipneumococcal activity of LBM415, a new peptide deformylase inhibitor, compared with those of other agents. The MICs of LBM415, a new peptide diformylase inhibitor, were evaluated and ranged from 0.03 to 4.0 microg/ml for 300 pneumococci, irrespective of their beta-lactam, macrolide, and quinolone susceptibilities. By comparison, vancomycin, teicoplanin, linezolid, and quinupristin-dalfopristin were also active, with MICs

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

193. Antistaphylococcal activity of LBM415, a new peptide deformylase inhibitor, compared with those of other agents. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antistaphylococcal activity of LBM415, a new peptide deformylase inhibitor, compared with those of other agents. The MICs of LBM415, a new peptide diformylase inhibitor, were quinupristin (...) -dalfopristin. LBM415 at the MIC was bacteriostatic after 24 h.

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

194. Antistaphylococcal activity of CB-181963 (CAB-175), an experimental parenteral cephalosporin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, tigecycline, and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Most methicillin-resistant strains were levofloxacin resistant. CB-181963 was bactericidal against all six methicillin-resistant strains at four times the MIC after 24 h.

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

195. Evolution of the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. in Spain: five nationwide prevalence studies, 1986 to 2002. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in resistance to most antimicrobials among Staphylococcus aureus/coagulase-negative staphylococci, mainly to oxacillin (1.5%/32.5% in 1986 versus 31.2%/61.3% in 2002) (P < 0.001), erythromycin (7%/41.1% in 1986 versus 31.7%/63% in 2002) (P < 0.001), gentamicin (5.2%/25.4% in 1986 versus 16.9%/27.8% in 2002) (P < 0.001; P = 0.5), and ciprofloxacin (0.6%/1.1% in 1986 versus 33.9%/44.9% in 2002) (P < 0.001). All of the isolates were uniformly susceptible to glycopeptides, linezolid, and quinupristin (...) /dalfopristin. Resistance of S. aureus to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was very low (from 0.5% to 2.1%) (P = 0.152). Periodic performance of prevalence studies is a useful, inexpensive, and easy tool to know the nationwide situation of a microorganism and its resistance to antimicrobials; it also helps us assess the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

196. Activity of OPT-80, a novel macrocycle, compared with those of eight other agents against selected anaerobic species. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Activity of OPT-80, a novel macrocycle, compared with those of eight other agents against selected anaerobic species. Agar dilution MIC was used to compare activities of OPT-80, linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 350 gram-positive and -negative anaerobes. OPT-80 was active against gram-positive strains only, especially Clostridium spp. (85 strains tested, including 21 strains of C. difficile

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

197. Antibiotic susceptibility in neonatal invasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a 2-year nationwide surveillance study in Germany. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Antibiotic susceptibility in neonatal invasive isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae in a 2-year nationwide surveillance study in Germany. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 296 invasive neonatal group B streptococcus isolates from a nationwide 2-year surveillance study in Germany was investigated. All isolates were susceptible to beta-lactams, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and vancomycin. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was found in 10.1 and 5.7%, respectively. The ermB, ermTR

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

198. Use of streptogramin growth promoters in poultry and isolation of streptogramin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Use of streptogramin growth promoters in poultry and isolation of streptogramin-resistant Enterococcus faecium from humans. Virginiamycin use in poultry selects for Enterococcus faecium with cross-resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin, a drug for vancomycin-resistant E. faecium in humans. We conducted an epidemiologic study of poultry exposures as risk factors for human carriage of quinupristin-dalfopristin-resistant E. faecium.Rectal or fecal samples for E. faecium testing were obtained from (...) 567 newly admitted hospital patients and 100 healthy vegetarians. Participants were interviewed regarding poultry exposure. Retail poultry washes (160 conventional and 26 antibiotic free) were also tested for the presence of E. faecium. Constitutive and inducible quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance were assessed in E. faecium isolates, and resistance genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction.E. faecium was isolated from 105 patients, 65 vegetarians, and 77 conventional and 23 antibiotic

2006 Journal of Infectious Diseases

199. Antipneumococcal activity of ceftobiprole, a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin. Full Text available with Trip Pro

MICs against all pneumococcal strains than amoxicillin, cefepime, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefuroxime, or cefdinir. Macrolide and penicillin G MICs generally varied in parallel, whereas fluoroquinolone MICs did not correlate with penicillin or macrolide susceptibility or resistance. All strains were susceptible to linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin. Time-kill analyses showed that at 1x and 2x the MIC, ceftobiprole was bactericidal against 10/12 and 11/12 (...) strains, respectively. Levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were each bactericidal against 10 to 12 strains at 2x the MIC. Azithromycin and clarithromycin were slowly bactericidal, and telithromycin was bactericidal against only 5/12 strains at 2x the MIC. Linezolid was mainly bacteriostatic, whereas quinupristin-dalfopristin and daptomycin showed marked killing at early time periods. Prolonged serial passage in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of ceftobiprole failed

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

200. In vitro activity of an oral streptogramin antimicrobial, XRP2868, against gram-positive bacteria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

In vitro activity of an oral streptogramin antimicrobial, XRP2868, against gram-positive bacteria. The comparative in vitro potency of XRP2868, a new oral semisynthetic streptogramin antibiotic, was evaluated against gram-positive bacteria. XRP2868 inhibited all staphylococci at < or = 1 microg/ml and all non-pneumococcal streptococci at < or = 0.25 microg/ml and was fourfold more potent than quinupristin-dalfopristin against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium.

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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