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Q Fever

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101. Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic. (PubMed)

Seroprevalence of Q fever, Brucellosis, and Bluetongue in Selected Provinces in Lao People's Democratic Republic. This study has determined the proportional seropositivity of two zoonotic diseases, Q fever and brucellosis, and bluetongue virus (BTV) which is nonzoonotic, in five provinces of Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) (Loungphabang, Luangnumtha, Xayaboury, Xiengkhouang, and Champasak, and Vientiane Province and Vientiane capital). A total of 1,089 samples from buffalo, cattle, pigs (...) , and goats were tested, with seropositivity of BTV (96.7%), Q fever (1.2%), and brucellosis (0.3%). The results of this survey indicated that Q fever seropositivity is not widely distributed in Lao PDR; however, Xayaboury Province had a cluster of seropositive cattle in seven villages in four districts (Botan, Kenthao, Paklaiy, and Phiang) that share a border with Thailand. Further studies are required to determine if Xayaboury Province is indeed an epidemiological hot spot of Q fever activity

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2016 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

102. Q fever hepatitis and endocarditis in the context of haemochromatosis (PubMed)

Q fever hepatitis and endocarditis in the context of haemochromatosis Hereditary haemochromatosis is associated with increased susceptibility to some infections. We report here a case of Q fever in a patient with coexistent haemochromatosis. The literature is reviewed in regard to the effect of haemochromatosis on susceptibility to infectious disease in general and Q fever in particular. Although there is documented increased risk in these patients for some infectious conditions, a specific (...) association with Q fever has not been previously reported. The present report raises the possibility of such a clinically relevant connection.2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

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2016 BMJ case reports

103. From Q Fever to Coxiella burnetii Infection: a Paradigm Change (PubMed)

From Q Fever to Coxiella burnetii Infection: a Paradigm Change Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, or "query fever," a zoonosis first described in Australia in 1937. Since this first description, knowledge about this pathogen and its associated infections has increased dramatically. We review here all the progress made over the last 20 years on this topic. C. burnetii is classically a strict intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. However, a major step in the characterization (...) of this pathogen was achieved by the establishment of its axenic culture. C. burnetii infects a wide range of animals, from arthropods to humans. The genetic determinants of virulence are now better known, thanks to the achievement of determining the genome sequences of several strains of this species and comparative genomic analyses. Q fever can be found worldwide, but the epidemiological features of this disease vary according to the geographic area considered, including situations where it is endemic

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2016 Clinical microbiology reviews

104. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015 (PubMed)

A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015 In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same (...) . burnetti.Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case) and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75%) of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting.This cluster of Q fever

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2016 Western Pacific surveillance and response journal : WPSAR

105. Presentation and diagnosis of acute Q fever in Portugal — A case series (PubMed)

Presentation and diagnosis of acute Q fever in Portugal — A case series Q fever is a worldwide zoonotic infection caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii that can course with acute or chronic disease. This series describes 7 cases of acute Q fever admitted in a Portuguese University Hospital between 2014 and 2015. All cases presented with hepatitis and had epidemiological history. Diagnosis was done by PCR on majority (5) and by serology and PCR in only 2. Serological

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2016 IDCases

106. First Identification and Description of Rickettsioses and Q Fever as Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua (PubMed)

First Identification and Description of Rickettsioses and Q Fever as Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua Rickettsial infections and Q fever present similarly to other acute febrile illnesses, but are infrequently diagnosed because of limited diagnostic tools. Despite sporadic reports, rickettsial infections and Q fever have not been prospectively studied in Central America.We enrolled consecutive patients presenting with undifferentiated fever in western Nicaragua and collected (...) epidemiologic and clinical data and acute and convalescent sera. We used ELISA for screening and paired sera to confirm acute (≥4-fold rise in titer) spotted fever and typhus group rickettsial infections and Q fever as well as past (stable titer) infections. Characteristics associated with both acute and past infection were assessed.We enrolled 825 patients and identified acute rickettsial infections and acute Q fever in 0.9% and 1.3%, respectively. Clinical features were non-specific and neither

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2016 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

107. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran (PubMed)

Seroprevalence of Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Q Fever among Butchers and Slaughterhouse Workers in South-Eastern Iran Zoonotic diseases can be occupational hazards to people who work in close contact with animals or their carcasses. In this cross-sectional study, 190 sera were collected from butchers and slaughterhouse workers in different regions of the Sistan va Baluchestan province, in Iran in 2011. A questionnaire was filled for each participant to document personal and behavioural (...) information. The sera were tested for detection of specific IgG antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever (phase I and II) using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The seroprevalence of brucellosis was 7.9%, leptospirosis 23.4%, and phase I and II of Q fever were 18.1% and 14.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence of Q fever and leptospirosis, but not brucellosis, varied among regions within the province (p = 0.01). Additionally, a significant relationship was found

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2016 PloS one

108. Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia’s Veterinary Workforce in 2014 (PubMed)

Q Fever Knowledge, Attitudes and Vaccination Status of Australia’s Veterinary Workforce in 2014 Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a serious zoonotic disease in humans with a worldwide distribution. Many species of animals are capable of transmitting C. burnetii, and consequently all veterinary workers are at risk for this disease. An effective Q fever vaccine has been readily available and used in Australia for many years in at-risk groups, and the European Centre for Disease (...) Prevention and Control has recently also called for the use of this vaccine among at-risk groups in Europe. Little is known about attitudes towards this vaccine and vaccine uptake in veterinary workers. This study aimed to determine the Q fever vaccination status of veterinarians and veterinary nurses in Australia and to assess and compare the knowledge and attitudes towards Q fever disease and vaccination of each cohort. An online cross-sectional survey performed in 2014 targeted all veterinarians

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2016 PloS one

109. Q Fever Endocarditis Presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism and Renal Infarction (PubMed)

Q Fever Endocarditis Presenting with Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism and Renal Infarction Q fever is a zoonotic disease with a reservoir in mammals, birds, and ticks. Acute cases in human beings can be asymptomatic, or they can present with a flu-like illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Approximately 5% of cases progress to chronic Q fever. Endocarditis, the most typical manifestation of chronic Q fever, is usually associated with small vegetations that occur in patients who have had prior (...) valvular damage or who are immunocompromised. We present what we think is the first reported case of superior mesenteric artery embolism from Q fever endocarditis of the aortic valve, in a 39-year-old woman who needed surgical embolectomy and subsequent aortic valve replacement.

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2016 Texas Heart Institute Journal

110. Fatigue following Acute Q-Fever: A Systematic Literature Review (PubMed)

Fatigue following Acute Q-Fever: A Systematic Literature Review Long-term fatigue with detrimental effects on daily functioning often occurs following acute Q-fever. Following the 2007-2010 Q-fever outbreak in the Netherlands with over 4000 notified cases, the emphasis on long-term consequences of Q-fever increased. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of all relevant available literature, and to identify knowledge gaps regarding the definition, diagnosis, background, description (...) from fatigue within 6-12 months after acute Q-fever, approximately 20% remain chronically fatigued. Several names are used indicating fatigue following acute Q-fever, of which Q-fever fatigue syndrome (QFS) is most customary. Although QFS is described to occur frequently in many countries, a uniform definition is lacking. The studies report major health and work-related consequences, and is frequently accompanied by nonspecific complaints. There is no consensus with regard to aetiology, prevention

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2016 PloS one

111. Coxiella burnetii Induces Inflammatory Interferon-Like Signature in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells: A New Feature of Immune Response in Q Fever (PubMed)

Coxiella burnetii Induces Inflammatory Interferon-Like Signature in Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells: A New Feature of Immune Response in Q Fever Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a major role in antiviral immunity via the production of type I interferons (IFNs). There is some evidence that pDCs interact with bacteria but it is not yet clear whether they are protective or contribute to bacterial pathogenicity. We wished to investigate whether Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever (...) fever endocarditis. Using flow cytometry and a specific gating strategy, we found that the number of circulating pDCs was significantly lower in patients with Q fever endocarditis as compared to healthy donors. In addition, the remaining circulating pDCs expressed activation and migratory markers. As a whole, our study identified non-previously reported activation of pDCs by C. burnetii and their modulation during Q fever.

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2016 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

112. Endemic Q Fever in New South Wales, Australia: A Case Series (2005-2013). (PubMed)

Endemic Q Fever in New South Wales, Australia: A Case Series (2005-2013). Q fever is endemic in Australia, and during the period 2005-2013 our laboratory diagnosed 379 cases in New South Wales. To evaluate clinical symptoms, epidemiology, mode of diagnosis, antibody profiles, and treatment, a subset of 160 (42%) Q fever cases were analyzed in detail following the return of a questionnaire by the patient's doctor and from their laboratory reports. Overall, 82% patients were male (...) and predominantly middle aged. The majority of patients (89%) had animal contact among which 63% were with cattle, 11% with sheep, and 7% with kangaroos. Clinical symptoms were nonspecific: myalgia (94%), fever (91%), headache (80%), acute fatigue (64%), and arthralgia (55%). Most cases (93%) were acute, and serology (immunofluorescence) was the main diagnostic modality. Positive real-time polymerase chain reaction results were useful in the diagnosis of both acute and chronic Q fever, as was the isolation

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2016 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

113. Q fever is an old and neglected zoonotic disease in Kenya: a systematic review. (PubMed)

Q fever is an old and neglected zoonotic disease in Kenya: a systematic review. Q fever is a neglected zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The knowledge of the epidemiology of Q fever in Kenya is limited with no attention to control and prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to understand the situation of Q fever in human and animal populations in Kenya in the past 60 years, and help identify future research priorities for the country.Databases were searched (...) for national and international scientific studies or reports on Q fever. We included studies and reports published between 1950 and 2015 if they reported on Q fever prevalence, incidence, and infection control programs in Kenya. Data were extracted with respect to studies on prevalence of Coxiella infections, study design, study region, the study populations involved, and sorted according to the year of the study.We identified 15 studies and reports which qualified for data extraction. Human seroprevalence

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2016 BMC public health

114. Comparison between Emerging Q Fever in French Guiana and Endemic Q fever in Marseille, France. (PubMed)

Comparison between Emerging Q Fever in French Guiana and Endemic Q fever in Marseille, France. Q fever is an emergent disease in French Guiana. We compared the incidence clinical and serologic profiles between patients from Cayenne, French Guiana and Marseille in metropolitan France during a four-year period. The annual incidence of diagnosed acute Q fever was significantly higher in Cayenne (17.5/100,000) than in Marseille (1.9/100,000) (P = 0.0004), but not the annual incidence (...) of endocarditis (1.29 versus 0.34/100,000). Most patients had fever (97%) and pneumonia (83%) in Cayenne versus 81% and 8% in Marseille (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively) but transaminitis was more common in patients from Marseille (54% versus 32%; P < 0.0001). The proportion of patients with cardiovascular infections was significantly lower in Cayenne (7%) than in Marseille (17%) (P = 0.017), although they showed a stronger immune response with higher levels of phase I IgG (P = 0.024). The differing

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2014 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

115. Q Fever Is Underestimated in the United States: A Comparison of Fatal Q Fever Cases from Two National Reporting Systems. (PubMed)

Q Fever Is Underestimated in the United States: A Comparison of Fatal Q Fever Cases from Two National Reporting Systems. Two national surveillance systems capturing reports of fatal Q fever were compared with obtained estimates of Q fever underreporting in the United States using capture-recapture methods. During 2000-2011, a total of 33 unique fatal Q fever cases were reported through case report forms submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and through U.S. death (...) certificate data. A single case matched between both data sets, yielding an estimated 129 fatal cases (95% confidence interval [CI] = 62-1,250) during 2000-2011. Fatal cases of Q fever were underreported through case report forms by an estimated factor of 14 and through death certificates by an estimated factor of 5.2. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

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2014 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

116. Estimated prevalence of chronic Q fever among Coxiella burnetii seropositive patients with an abdominal aortic/iliac aneurysm or aorto-iliac reconstruction after a large Dutch Q fever outbreak. (PubMed)

Estimated prevalence of chronic Q fever among Coxiella burnetii seropositive patients with an abdominal aortic/iliac aneurysm or aorto-iliac reconstruction after a large Dutch Q fever outbreak. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Q fever and prevalence of chronic Q fever in patients with abdominal aortic and/or iliac disease after the Q fever outbreak of 2007-2010 in the Netherlands.In November 2009, an ongoing screening program for Q fever was initiated. Patients (...) with abdominal aortic and/or iliac disease were screened for presence of IgM and IgG antibodies to phase I and II antigens of Coxiella burnetii using immunofluorescence assay and presence of C. burnetii DNA in sera and/or vascular wall tissue using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).A total of 770 patients with abdominal aortic and/or iliac disease were screened. Antibodies against C. burnetii were detected in 130 patients (16.9%), of which 40 (30.8%) patients showed a serological profile of chronic Q fever

2014 Journal of Infection

117. Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels (PubMed)

Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum (Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. burnetii was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. burnetii in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. burnetii in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma (...) (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of H. dromedarii were infected with C. burnetii. The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for C. burnetii in H. dromedarii ticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and CO1 was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both H. dromedarii and H. excavatum. The phylogenetic status of H. dromedarii was distant from that of H

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2018 Veterinary world

118. Lassa fever

that she has no competing interests. Consultant in Tropical and Travel Medicine Hospitals for Tropical Diseases Senior Lecturer London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London UK Disclosures RB has provided expert testimony to the courts, on behalf of the Crown, regarding Q fever. RB has been a paid member of the Advisory Board for Takeda regarding Dengue vaccine. He has been a paid member of the Advisory Board for Valneva UK regarding Ixiaro, a vaccine for Japanese encephalitis. Peer reviewers (...) Lassa fever Lassa fever - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Lassa fever Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: February 2019 Summary Notifiable condition. Early recognition, isolation of the patient, and appropriate infection control measures are a critical part of management. Asymptomatic or mild febrile illness in approximately 80% of patients, which can make diagnosis difficult. Severe symptoms

2019 BMJ Best Practice

119. Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults

erythematosus Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis Rheumatoid arthritis Reactive arthritis Drug-induced fever Cirrhosis, complicated Hepatitis Deep vein thrombosis Sarcoidosis Familial Mediterranean fever Malaria Typhoid fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever Ascariasis Tularaemia Brucellosis Psittacosis Q fever Phaeochromocytoma Hyperthyroidism Munchausen syndrome Contributors Authors Chairman Jamaica Hospital Medical Center Albert Einstein College of Medicine Family Medicine Residency Program Jamaica New York (...) Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was initially defined as a temperature >38.3°C (>100.9°F) on several occasions lasting for more than 3 weeks, with no obvious source

2018 BMJ Best Practice

120. Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults

erythematosus Crohn's disease Ulcerative colitis Rheumatoid arthritis Reactive arthritis Drug-induced fever Cirrhosis, complicated Hepatitis Deep vein thrombosis Sarcoidosis Familial Mediterranean fever Malaria Typhoid fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever Ascariasis Tularaemia Brucellosis Psittacosis Q fever Phaeochromocytoma Hyperthyroidism Munchausen syndrome Contributors Authors Chairman Jamaica Hospital Medical Center Albert Einstein College of Medicine Family Medicine Residency Program Jamaica New York (...) Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults - Differential diagnosis of symptoms | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Assessment of fever of unknown origin in adults Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: November 2018 Summary Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was initially defined as a temperature >38.3°C (>100.9°F) on several occasions lasting for more than 3 weeks, with no obvious source

2018 BMJ Best Practice

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