How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

7,263 results for

Pupil

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

1. Does training teachers in mental health literacy improve the mental and emotional wellbeing of school pupils?

Does training teachers in mental health literacy improve the mental and emotional wellbeing of school pupils? Knowledge & Library Services (KLS) Evidence Briefing Does training teachers in mental health literacy improve the mental and emotional wellbeing of school pupils? Nicola Pearce-Smith 30 th January 2018 Does training teachers in mental health literacy improve the mental and emotional wellbeing of school pupils? KLS Evidence Briefing 30th January 2018 Question This briefing summarises (...) in knowledge, attitudes and confidence of teachers, but did not measure the effect on school pupils’ mental health and wellbeing. ? A systematic review assessing the effectiveness of teacher training interventions to promote health and well-being in schools found mainly weak study designs which varied in the content and delivery of training, a tentative positive impact on teachers, but no assessment of impact of training on pupils themselves. ? A number of UK and international primary research studies

2018 Public Health England - Evidence Briefings

2. Iris hooks versus a pupil expansion ring: Operating times, complications, and visual acuity outcomes in small pupil cases. (Abstract)

Iris hooks versus a pupil expansion ring: Operating times, complications, and visual acuity outcomes in small pupil cases. To compare iris hooks and a pupil expansion ring (Malyugin ring) in eyes with a small pupil.Epsom and St. Helier University National Health Service Trust, London, United Kingdom.Retrospective case series.Patients who had primary phacoemulsification cataract surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 30, 2016, were included. Combined procedures and surgeons with fewer than 50 (...) cases were excluded. Anonymized data were demographics, surgeon grade, case complexity, iris hooks or Malyugin ring use, posterior capsule rupture, zonular fiber rupture or dialysis, vitreous loss, operating time, postoperative complications, and visual acuity.Of the 9552 cases included, 425 (4.4%) had a small pupil, 314 of which required a pupil expansion ring and 95 iris hooks. Compared with no pupil expander, iris hooks were associated with an additional operating time of 14 minutes

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

3. B-HEX Pupil Expander: Pupil expansion redefined Full Text available with Trip Pro

B-HEX Pupil Expander: Pupil expansion redefined The B-HEX® Pupil Expander (Med Invent Devices) is a disposable 6.5 mm flexible hexagonal device with notches at corners and flanges at sides. Alternate flanges with positioning holes are tucked under the iris to engage the notches to the margin of the pupil to provide a 5.5 mm expanded pupil. Unlike devices with scrolls or pockets which require an injector to avoid snagging the incision, the preloaded B-HEX is inserted and removed through a 1 mm (...) assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), small pupil pars plana vitrectomy, and shallow anterior chamber eyes.

2017 Indian journal of ophthalmology

4. Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases

Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03206983 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : July 2, 2017 Last Update

2017 Clinical Trials

5. Pupil responses to hidden photoreceptor-specific modulations in movies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pupil responses to hidden photoreceptor-specific modulations in movies. Under typical daytime light levels, the human pupillary light response (PLR) is driven by the activity of the L, M, and S cones, and melanopsin expressed in the so-called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). However, the importance of each of these photoreceptive mechanisms in defining pupil size under real-world viewing conditions remains to be established. To address this question, we embedded (...) cones and melanopsin or no modulation at all. We find that all photoreceptors active at photopic light levels regulate pupil size under this condition. Our data imply that embedding modulations in photoreceptor contrast could provide a method to manipulate key adaptive aspects of the human visual system in everyday, real-world activities such as watching a movie.

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Curriculum-based outdoor learning for children aged 9-11: A qualitative analysis of pupils' and teachers' views. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Curriculum-based outdoor learning for children aged 9-11: A qualitative analysis of pupils' and teachers' views. The relationship between child health, wellbeing and education demonstrates that healthier and happier children achieve higher educational attainment. An engaging curriculum that facilitates children in achieving their academic potential has strong implications for educational outcomes, future employment prospects, and health and wellbeing during adulthood. Outdoor learning (...) is a pedagogical approach used to enrich learning, enhance school engagement and improve pupil health and wellbeing. However, its non-traditional means of achieving curricular aims are not yet recognised beyond the early years by education inspectorates. This requires evidence into its acceptability from those at the forefront of delivery. This study aimed to explore headteachers', teachers' and pupils' views and experiences of an outdoor learning programme within the key stage two curriculum (ages 9-11

2019 PLoS ONE

7. Effects of mavoglurant on visual attention and pupil reactivity while viewing photographs of faces in Fragile X Syndrome. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of mavoglurant on visual attention and pupil reactivity while viewing photographs of faces in Fragile X Syndrome. Numerous preclinical studies have supported the theory that enhanced activation of mGluR5 signaling, due to the absence or reduction of the FMR1 protein, contributes to cognitive and behavioral deficits in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However multiple phase 2 controlled trials in patients with FXS have failed to demonstrate efficacy of compounds that negatively (...) modulate mGluR5, including two phase 2b randomized controlled trials (RCT) of mavoglurant (AFQ056, Novartis Pharma AG), when the primary measures of interest were behavioral ratings. This has cast some doubt onto the translation of the mGluR5 theory from animal models to humans with the disorder.We evaluated social gaze behavior-a key phenotypic feature of the disorder-and sympathetic nervous system influence on pupil size using a previously-validated eye tracking paradigm as a biobehavioral probe

2019 PLoS ONE Controlled trial quality: uncertain

8. Task-induced pupil response and visual perception in adults. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Task-induced pupil response and visual perception in adults. We assessed whether there are differences in pupil response that underlie the selection of local vs. global parts of a stimulus array in healthy adults. We designed a Navon Figures eyetracking paradigm (i.e. large figure composed of small figures), requiring an individual to vary only the information attended to within an image. We found that participants have a characteristic constriction of the pupil waveform during selection (...) of local information relative to global information. Because stimuli and lighting conditions were identical across conditions, this indicates that pupil changes may serve in a visual filtering mechanism important for attentional selection. This work represents the first characterization of pupil response in the context of selective attention, suggesting that mechanisms underlying the earliest stages of visual processes could be relevant for perception and visual selection.

2018 PLoS ONE

9. A novel method of inducing endogenous pupil oscillations to detect patients with unilateral optic neuritis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

A novel method of inducing endogenous pupil oscillations to detect patients with unilateral optic neuritis. To use and test a new method of inducing endogenously generated pupillary oscillations (POs) in patients with unilateral optic neuritis (ON), to describe a signal analysis approach quantifying pupil activity and to evaluate the extent to which POs permit to discriminate patients from control participants.Pupil size was recorded with an eye-tracker and converted in real time to modulate (...) the luminance of a stimulus (a 20° disk) presented in front of participants. With this biofeedback setting, an increasing pupil size transforms into a high luminance, entraining a pupil constriction that in turn decreases the stimulus luminance, and so on, resulting in endogenously generated POs. POs were recorded for 30 seconds in the affected eye, in the fellow eye and in binocular conditions with 22 patients having a history of unilateral ON within a period of 5 years, and with 22 control participants

2018 PLoS ONE

10. Eye tracking cognitive load using pupil diameter and microsaccades with fixed gaze. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Eye tracking cognitive load using pupil diameter and microsaccades with fixed gaze. Pupil diameter and microsaccades are captured by an eye tracker and compared for their suitability as indicators of cognitive load (as beset by task difficulty). Specifically, two metrics are tested in response to task difficulty: (1) the change in pupil diameter with respect to inter- or intra-trial baseline, and (2) the rate and magnitude of microsaccades. Participants performed easy and difficult mental (...) arithmetic tasks while fixating a central target. Inter-trial change in pupil diameter and microsaccade magnitude appear to adequately discriminate task difficulty, and hence cognitive load, if the implied causality can be assumed. This paper's contribution corroborates previous work concerning microsaccade magnitude and extends this work by directly comparing microsaccade metrics to pupillometric measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to compare the reliability and sensitivity of task-evoked

2018 PLoS ONE

11. Effect of pupil dilation on biometric measurements and intraocular lens power calculations in schoolchildren. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of pupil dilation on biometric measurements and intraocular lens power calculations in schoolchildren. To investigate the effect of pupil dilation on ocular biometric parameters and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation in schoolchildren using the Lenstar LS 900.One hundred forty eyes of 140 healthy schoolchildren were included in the analysis. Axial length (AL), central corneal thickness (CCT), aqueous depth (AD), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), flat keratometry (K (...) ), steep K, astigmatism, white-to-white (WTW), and iris/pupil barycenter distance were measured, before and after pupil dilation. Anterior segment length (ASL) was defined as the sum of ACD and LT, and lens position (LP) was defined as ACD plus half of the LT. The relative lens position (RLP) was defined as LP divided by AL. IOL power was calculated using the eight formulas (Hill-RBF, Barrett, Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay, Olsen, SRK II, and SRK/T) integrated in the Lenstar LS 900. Parameters before

2018 PLoS ONE

12. Pupil response to social-emotional material is associated with rumination and depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pupil response to social-emotional material is associated with rumination and depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by repetitive thinking and high rates of depression. Understanding the extent to which repetitive negative thinking in ASD reflects autistic stereotypy versus general depressive thinking patterns (e.g., rumination) could help guide treatment research to improve emotional health in ASD. We compared associations between (...) rumination, depressive symptoms, and pupil response to social-emotional material in adults with ASD and typically developing (TD) adults with and without depression.N = 53 verbally fluent young adults were recruited to three cohorts: ASD, n = 21; TD-depressed, n = 13; never-depressed TD-controls, n = 19. Participants completed Ruminative Response Scale and Beck Depression Inventory self-reports and a passive-viewing task employing emotionally-expressive faces, during which pupillary motility was assessed

2018 PLoS ONE

13. The "face race lightness illusion": An effect of the eyes and pupils? Full Text available with Trip Pro

The "face race lightness illusion": An effect of the eyes and pupils? In an internet-based, forced-choice, test of the 'face race lightness illusion', the majority of respondents, regardless of their ethnicity, reported perceiving the African face as darker in skin tone than the European face, despite the mean luminance, contrast and numbers of pixels of the images were identical. In the laboratory, using eye tracking, it was found that eye fixations were distributed differently on the African (...) face and European face, so that gaze dwelled relatively longer onto the locally brighter regions of the African face and, in turn, mean pupil diameters were smaller than for the European face. There was no relationship between pupils' size and implicit social attitude (IAT) scores. In another experiment, the faces were presented either tachistoscopically (140 ms) or longer (2500 ms) so that, when gaze was prevented from looking directly at the faces in the former condition, the tendency to report

2018 PLoS ONE

14. Teachers' perceptions of behavioral problems in Dutch primary education pupils: The role of relative age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Teachers' perceptions of behavioral problems in Dutch primary education pupils: The role of relative age. A growing number of studies suggest that relatively young behavior of pupils gives them a much greater likelihood of being diagnosed with a disorder such as ADHD. This 'relative age effect' has also been demonstrated for special educational needs, learning difficulties, being bullied, and so on. The current study investigated the relationship between relative age of pupils in primary (...) education and teachers' perception of their behavior. The study sample included 1973 pupils, aged between 6 and 12. Six linear mixed models were carried out with birth day in a year as predictor variable and 'total problem score', 'problems with hyperactivity', 'behavioral problems', 'emotional problems', 'problems with peers' and 'pro-social behavior' as dependent variables. Random intercepts were added for school and teacher level. Cluster-mean centering disaggregated between-school effects and within

2018 PLoS ONE

15. Numerical stress analysis of the iris tissue induced by pupil expansion: Comparison of commercial devices. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Numerical stress analysis of the iris tissue induced by pupil expansion: Comparison of commercial devices. (1) To use finite element (FE) modelling to estimate local iris stresses (i.e. internal forces) as a result of mechanical pupil expansion; and to (2) compare such stresses as generated from several commercially available expanders (Iris hooks, APX dilator and Malyugin ring) to determine which design and deployment method are most likely to cause iris damage.We used a biofidelic 3-part iris (...) FE model that consisted of the stroma, sphincter and dilator muscles. Our FE model simulated expansion of the pupil from 3 mm to a maximum of 6 mm using the aforementioned pupil expanders, with uniform circular expansion used for baseline comparison. FE-derived stresses, resultant forces and area of final pupil opening were compared across devices for analysis.Our FE models demonstrated that the APX dilator generated the highest stresses on the sphincter muscles, (max: 6.446 MPa; average: 5.112

2018 PLoS ONE

16. Pupil light reflex evoked by light-emitting diode and computer screen: Methodology and association with need for recovery in daily life. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Pupil light reflex evoked by light-emitting diode and computer screen: Methodology and association with need for recovery in daily life. Pupil light reflex (PLR) has been widely used as a method for evaluating parasympathetic activity. The first aim of the present study is to develop a PLR measurement using a computer screen set-up and compare its results with the PLR generated by a more conventional setup using light-emitting diode (LED). The parasympathetic nervous system, which is known (...) activity were calculated from the pupil responses. We tested the split-half reliability across two consecutive blocks of trials, and the relationships between the parameters of PLRs evoked by the two set-ups. Participants rated their need for recovery prior to the PLR recordings.PLR parameters acquired in the screen and LED set-ups showed good reliability for amplitude related parameters. The PLRs evoked by both set-ups were consistent, but showed systematic differences in absolute values of all

2018 PLoS ONE

17. Effect of Topical 1% Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride on Tear Production, Intraocular Pressure, and Pupil Size in Healthy Turkman Horses. (Abstract)

Effect of Topical 1% Cyclopentolate Hydrochloride on Tear Production, Intraocular Pressure, and Pupil Size in Healthy Turkman Horses. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of topical 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on tear production (STT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and vertical pupil diameter (VPD) in healthy Turkman horses. Forty eyes of 20 clinically normal horses were used for this study, which were randomly assigned to two groups. Before instillation of 1% cyclopentolate

2019 Journal of equine veterinary science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

18. Small-pupil versus multifocal strategies for expanding depth of focus of presbyopic eyes. (Abstract)

Small-pupil versus multifocal strategies for expanding depth of focus of presbyopic eyes. To compare the visually weighted image quality and depth of focus achieved with small-pupil and multifocal strategies for expanding depth of focus of presbyopic or pseudophakic eyes.School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.Computational modeling.The visual Strehl ratio was computed from monochromatic optical transfer functions over a wide range of primary spherical aberration and defocus (...) levels for pupil diameters ranging from 1.0 mm to 7.0 mm under high photopic light levels (retinal illuminance >900 trolands) and mesopic light levels (2 candelas/m2).Pupil miosis and added spherical aberration were effective at reducing the impact of spherical defocus. With high light levels at which Weber's law makes neural contrast sensitivity independent of retinal illuminance, small pupils (eg, 1.0 to 3.0 mm) generated higher peak image quality and more effective expansion of depth of focus than

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

19. A comparison of manual pupil examination versus an automated pupillometer in a specialised neurosciences intensive care unit. (Abstract)

A comparison of manual pupil examination versus an automated pupillometer in a specialised neurosciences intensive care unit. The assessment of pupil size and reaction to light is a fundamental part of the neurological assessment; however, manual examination is prone to inaccuracies. The use of an automated infrared pupillometer is one strategy to limit error in pupil examination.The main objective was to assess agreement between manual examination and examination using an automated infrared (...) pupillometer in relation to pupil reaction and size in a specialised neurosciences intensive care unit.We conducted a single-centre prospective observational study in a specialised tertiary neurosciences intensive care unit. Participants' pupils were examined hourly for 24 h by both manual examination using a pen torch and examination using an automated infrared pupillometer.Twenty-two participants were enrolled. A total of 935 paired pupil observations were obtained for both pupil reaction and size

2019 Australian Critical Care

20. Photoreceptor inputs to pupil control. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Photoreceptor inputs to pupil control. The size of the pupil depends on light level. Watson and Yellott (2012) developed a unified formula to predict pupil size from luminance, field diameter, age, and number of eyes. Luminance reflects input from the L and M cones in the retina but ignores the contribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are known to control the size of the pupil. We discuss the role of melanopsin (...) in controlling pupil size by reanalyzing an extant data set (Bouma, 1962). We confirm that melanopsin-weighted quantities, in conjunction with Watson and Yellott's formula, adequately model intensity-dependent pupil size. We discuss the contributions of other photoreceptors into pupil control.

2019 Journal of vision

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>