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1. Iris hooks versus a pupil expansion ring: Operating times, complications, and visual acuity outcomes in small pupil cases. (PubMed)

Iris hooks versus a pupil expansion ring: Operating times, complications, and visual acuity outcomes in small pupil cases. To compare iris hooks and a pupil expansion ring (Malyugin ring) in eyes with a small pupil.Epsom and St. Helier University National Health Service Trust, London, United Kingdom.Retrospective case series.Patients who had primary phacoemulsification cataract surgery from January 1, 2012, to December 30, 2016, were included. Combined procedures and surgeons with fewer than 50 (...) cases were excluded. Anonymized data were demographics, surgeon grade, case complexity, iris hooks or Malyugin ring use, posterior capsule rupture, zonular fiber rupture or dialysis, vitreous loss, operating time, postoperative complications, and visual acuity.Of the 9552 cases included, 425 (4.4%) had a small pupil, 314 of which required a pupil expansion ring and 95 iris hooks. Compared with no pupil expander, iris hooks were associated with an additional operating time of 14 minutes

2018 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

2. B-HEX Pupil Expander: Pupil expansion redefined (PubMed)

B-HEX Pupil Expander: Pupil expansion redefined The B-HEX® Pupil Expander (Med Invent Devices) is a disposable 6.5 mm flexible hexagonal device with notches at corners and flanges at sides. Alternate flanges with positioning holes are tucked under the iris to engage the notches to the margin of the pupil to provide a 5.5 mm expanded pupil. Unlike devices with scrolls or pockets which require an injector to avoid snagging the incision, the preloaded B-HEX is inserted and removed through a 1 mm (...) assisted cataract surgery (FLACS), small pupil pars plana vitrectomy, and shallow anterior chamber eyes.

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2017 Indian journal of ophthalmology

3. Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases

Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (...) (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Efficacy of the Canabrava/s Pupil Expansion Device in Cataract Surgery With Small Pupils: The First 30 Cases The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03206983 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : July 2, 2017 Last Update

2017 Clinical Trials

4. Effects of mavoglurant on visual attention and pupil reactivity while viewing photographs of faces in Fragile X Syndrome. (PubMed)

Effects of mavoglurant on visual attention and pupil reactivity while viewing photographs of faces in Fragile X Syndrome. Numerous preclinical studies have supported the theory that enhanced activation of mGluR5 signaling, due to the absence or reduction of the FMR1 protein, contributes to cognitive and behavioral deficits in patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However multiple phase 2 controlled trials in patients with FXS have failed to demonstrate efficacy of compounds that negatively (...) modulate mGluR5, including two phase 2b randomized controlled trials (RCT) of mavoglurant (AFQ056, Novartis Pharma AG), when the primary measures of interest were behavioral ratings. This has cast some doubt onto the translation of the mGluR5 theory from animal models to humans with the disorder.We evaluated social gaze behavior-a key phenotypic feature of the disorder-and sympathetic nervous system influence on pupil size using a previously-validated eye tracking paradigm as a biobehavioral probe

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2019 PLoS ONE

5. Pupil responses to hidden photoreceptor-specific modulations in movies. (PubMed)

Pupil responses to hidden photoreceptor-specific modulations in movies. Under typical daytime light levels, the human pupillary light response (PLR) is driven by the activity of the L, M, and S cones, and melanopsin expressed in the so-called intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). However, the importance of each of these photoreceptive mechanisms in defining pupil size under real-world viewing conditions remains to be established. To address this question, we embedded (...) cones and melanopsin or no modulation at all. We find that all photoreceptors active at photopic light levels regulate pupil size under this condition. Our data imply that embedding modulations in photoreceptor contrast could provide a method to manipulate key adaptive aspects of the human visual system in everyday, real-world activities such as watching a movie.

2019 PLoS ONE

6. Curriculum-based outdoor learning for children aged 9-11: A qualitative analysis of pupils' and teachers' views. (PubMed)

Curriculum-based outdoor learning for children aged 9-11: A qualitative analysis of pupils' and teachers' views. The relationship between child health, wellbeing and education demonstrates that healthier and happier children achieve higher educational attainment. An engaging curriculum that facilitates children in achieving their academic potential has strong implications for educational outcomes, future employment prospects, and health and wellbeing during adulthood. Outdoor learning (...) is a pedagogical approach used to enrich learning, enhance school engagement and improve pupil health and wellbeing. However, its non-traditional means of achieving curricular aims are not yet recognised beyond the early years by education inspectorates. This requires evidence into its acceptability from those at the forefront of delivery. This study aimed to explore headteachers', teachers' and pupils' views and experiences of an outdoor learning programme within the key stage two curriculum (ages 9-11

2019 PLoS ONE

7. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions to Prevent and/or Reduce Substance Use among Primary and Secondary School Pupils: A Review of Reviews].

[Effectiveness of School-based Interventions to Prevent and/or Reduce Substance Use among Primary and Secondary School Pupils: A Review of Reviews]. The aim of this study is to provide a current overview of the effectiveness of school-based interventions on prevention and/or reduction of substance use among children and adolescents aged 5-19 years.A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, NICE and ERIC. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses

2017 Gesundheitswesen (Bundesverband der Arzte des Offentlichen Gesundheitsdienstes (Germany))

8. A systematic review of economic evaluations of schools based interventions aimed at improving pupil health, well-being and educational outcomes

A systematic review of economic evaluations of schools based interventions aimed at improving pupil health, well-being and educational outcomes Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content

2019 PROSPERO

9. Factors from middle childhood that predict pupil academic performance at 15-17 years in the UK: a protocol for a systematic review

Factors from middle childhood that predict pupil academic performance at 15-17 years in the UK: a protocol for a systematic review Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record

2019 PROSPERO

10. Combined use of an iris hook and pupil expansion ring for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery in patients with cataracts complicated by insufficient mydriasis and an ectopic pupil. (PubMed)

Combined use of an iris hook and pupil expansion ring for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery in patients with cataracts complicated by insufficient mydriasis and an ectopic pupil. We developed a surgical technique that combines use of an iris hook and a pupil expansion ring in femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery complicated by insufficient mydriasis and an ectopic pupil. With this technique, the surgery, including femtosecond laser assistance, phacoemulsification

2016 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

11. Comparison of 2 pupil expansion devices for small-pupil cataract surgery. (PubMed)

Comparison of 2 pupil expansion devices for small-pupil cataract surgery. We compared the degree of postoperative iris distortion with the diamond-shaped Malyugin ring and the circular Visitec I-Ring iris dilators using postoperative iris photographs in a patient with bilateral small nondilating pupils. Routine phacoemulsification was performed in the right eye with the assistance of a Malyugin ring for iris dilation. One month later, the same procedure was performed in the left eye using (...) the circular ring for iris dilation. Anterior chamber slitlamp photographs were taken of both eyes. The amount of distortion in the postoperative pupils was calculated using the ratio of the postoperative pupil area to the area of the circle of best fit. The circular ring, constructed from a softer material, resulted in 11% distortion and the Malyugin ring, 49%, suggesting that the circular ring caused less trauma to the iris.None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material

2016 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

12. Pupil light reflex evoked by light-emitting diode and computer screen: Methodology and association with need for recovery in daily life. (PubMed)

Pupil light reflex evoked by light-emitting diode and computer screen: Methodology and association with need for recovery in daily life. Pupil light reflex (PLR) has been widely used as a method for evaluating parasympathetic activity. The first aim of the present study is to develop a PLR measurement using a computer screen set-up and compare its results with the PLR generated by a more conventional setup using light-emitting diode (LED). The parasympathetic nervous system, which is known (...) activity were calculated from the pupil responses. We tested the split-half reliability across two consecutive blocks of trials, and the relationships between the parameters of PLRs evoked by the two set-ups. Participants rated their need for recovery prior to the PLR recordings.PLR parameters acquired in the screen and LED set-ups showed good reliability for amplitude related parameters. The PLRs evoked by both set-ups were consistent, but showed systematic differences in absolute values of all

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2018 PLoS ONE

13. Changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure after topical application of 0.5% tropicamide to the eyes of dogs sedated with butorphanol. (PubMed)

Changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure after topical application of 0.5% tropicamide to the eyes of dogs sedated with butorphanol. To assess changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure (IOP) following topical application of a 0.5% tropicamide solution in the eyes of healthy butorphanol-sedated dogs.12 healthy adult Beagles.In a randomized crossover study consisting of 2 treatment periods with a 1-week washout between periods, dogs received an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg (...) ) or an equal volume of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. For each dog, 1 drop of 0.5% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was topically instilled in one eye and 1 drop of artificial tear solution was topically instilled in the other eye 10 minutes after the IM injection and again 5 minutes later. Extent of sedation, pupil size, and IOP were evaluated from 20 minutes before to 80 minutes after the IM injection and compared among treatment combinations.Butorphanol induced mild (n = 9) or moderate (3) sedation

2019 American journal of veterinary research

14. The "face race lightness illusion": An effect of the eyes and pupils? (PubMed)

The "face race lightness illusion": An effect of the eyes and pupils? In an internet-based, forced-choice, test of the 'face race lightness illusion', the majority of respondents, regardless of their ethnicity, reported perceiving the African face as darker in skin tone than the European face, despite the mean luminance, contrast and numbers of pixels of the images were identical. In the laboratory, using eye tracking, it was found that eye fixations were distributed differently on the African (...) face and European face, so that gaze dwelled relatively longer onto the locally brighter regions of the African face and, in turn, mean pupil diameters were smaller than for the European face. There was no relationship between pupils' size and implicit social attitude (IAT) scores. In another experiment, the faces were presented either tachistoscopically (140 ms) or longer (2500 ms) so that, when gaze was prevented from looking directly at the faces in the former condition, the tendency to report

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2018 PLoS ONE

15. Pupil response to social-emotional material is associated with rumination and depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. (PubMed)

Pupil response to social-emotional material is associated with rumination and depressive symptoms in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by repetitive thinking and high rates of depression. Understanding the extent to which repetitive negative thinking in ASD reflects autistic stereotypy versus general depressive thinking patterns (e.g., rumination) could help guide treatment research to improve emotional health in ASD. We compared associations between (...) rumination, depressive symptoms, and pupil response to social-emotional material in adults with ASD and typically developing (TD) adults with and without depression.N = 53 verbally fluent young adults were recruited to three cohorts: ASD, n = 21; TD-depressed, n = 13; never-depressed TD-controls, n = 19. Participants completed Ruminative Response Scale and Beck Depression Inventory self-reports and a passive-viewing task employing emotionally-expressive faces, during which pupillary motility was assessed

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2018 PLoS ONE

16. Eye tracking cognitive load using pupil diameter and microsaccades with fixed gaze. (PubMed)

Eye tracking cognitive load using pupil diameter and microsaccades with fixed gaze. Pupil diameter and microsaccades are captured by an eye tracker and compared for their suitability as indicators of cognitive load (as beset by task difficulty). Specifically, two metrics are tested in response to task difficulty: (1) the change in pupil diameter with respect to inter- or intra-trial baseline, and (2) the rate and magnitude of microsaccades. Participants performed easy and difficult mental (...) arithmetic tasks while fixating a central target. Inter-trial change in pupil diameter and microsaccade magnitude appear to adequately discriminate task difficulty, and hence cognitive load, if the implied causality can be assumed. This paper's contribution corroborates previous work concerning microsaccade magnitude and extends this work by directly comparing microsaccade metrics to pupillometric measures. To our knowledge this is the first study to compare the reliability and sensitivity of task-evoked

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2018 PLoS ONE

17. Task-induced pupil response and visual perception in adults. (PubMed)

Task-induced pupil response and visual perception in adults. We assessed whether there are differences in pupil response that underlie the selection of local vs. global parts of a stimulus array in healthy adults. We designed a Navon Figures eyetracking paradigm (i.e. large figure composed of small figures), requiring an individual to vary only the information attended to within an image. We found that participants have a characteristic constriction of the pupil waveform during selection (...) of local information relative to global information. Because stimuli and lighting conditions were identical across conditions, this indicates that pupil changes may serve in a visual filtering mechanism important for attentional selection. This work represents the first characterization of pupil response in the context of selective attention, suggesting that mechanisms underlying the earliest stages of visual processes could be relevant for perception and visual selection.

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2018 PLoS ONE

18. Small-pupil versus multifocal strategies for expanding depth of focus of presbyopic eyes. (PubMed)

Small-pupil versus multifocal strategies for expanding depth of focus of presbyopic eyes. To compare the visually weighted image quality and depth of focus achieved with small-pupil and multifocal strategies for expanding depth of focus of presbyopic or pseudophakic eyes.School of Optometry, Indiana University, Bloomington, USA.Computational modeling.The visual Strehl ratio was computed from monochromatic optical transfer functions over a wide range of primary spherical aberration and defocus (...) levels for pupil diameters ranging from 1.0 mm to 7.0 mm under high photopic light levels (retinal illuminance >900 trolands) and mesopic light levels (2 candelas/m2).Pupil miosis and added spherical aberration were effective at reducing the impact of spherical defocus. With high light levels at which Weber's law makes neural contrast sensitivity independent of retinal illuminance, small pupils (eg, 1.0 to 3.0 mm) generated higher peak image quality and more effective expansion of depth of focus than

2019 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery

19. A comparison of manual pupil examination versus an automated pupillometer in a specialised neurosciences intensive care unit. (PubMed)

A comparison of manual pupil examination versus an automated pupillometer in a specialised neurosciences intensive care unit. The assessment of pupil size and reaction to light is a fundamental part of the neurological assessment; however, manual examination is prone to inaccuracies. The use of an automated infrared pupillometer is one strategy to limit error in pupil examination.The main objective was to assess agreement between manual examination and examination using an automated infrared (...) pupillometer in relation to pupil reaction and size in a specialised neurosciences intensive care unit.We conducted a single-centre prospective observational study in a specialised tertiary neurosciences intensive care unit. Participants' pupils were examined hourly for 24 h by both manual examination using a pen torch and examination using an automated infrared pupillometer.Twenty-two participants were enrolled. A total of 935 paired pupil observations were obtained for both pupil reaction and size

2019 Australian Critical Care

20. School-based intervention study examining approaches for well-being and mental health literacy of pupils in Year 9 in England: study protocol for a multischool, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial (AWARE). (PubMed)

School-based intervention study examining approaches for well-being and mental health literacy of pupils in Year 9 in England: study protocol for a multischool, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial (AWARE). The prevalence of emotional difficulties in young people is increasing. This upward trend is largely accounted for by escalating symptoms of anxiety and depression. As part of a public health response, there is increasing emphasis on universal prevention programmes delivered (...) in school settings. This protocol describes a three-arm, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial, investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two interventions, alongside a process and implementation evaluation, to improve mental health and well-being of Year 9 pupils in English secondary schools.A three-arm, parallel group cluster randomised controlled trial comparing two different interventions, the Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM) or the Mental Health and High School

2019 BMJ open

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