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Prostate Cancer Staging

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101. PRL-3 increases the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer cells in vitro and its expression correlates with high-grade prostate tumors in patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

PRL-3 increases the aggressive phenotype of prostate cancer cells in vitro and its expression correlates with high-grade prostate tumors in patients The increased expression of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL‑3) has been shown to be associated with the aggressive and metastatic phenotype of different solid tumors. However, it is not known whether PRL‑3 plays a similar role in the progression of prostate cancer (PCa). In this study, immunoblot analysis of androgen receptor (AR)-positive (...) ) was immunostained to assess whether PRL‑3 expression and its subcellular localization (cytoplasmic and nuclear levels) is associated with the Gleason score (GS), Gleason grade (GG) and tumor stage (T-stage). Digital image analysis (DIA) revealed that PRL‑3 expression was significantly higher in the malignant cores, as compared to the non‑malignant areas. Increases in both total and nuclear PRL‑3 levels were also associated with a higher GS and GG. Metastatic tumors (T4‑stage) had lower cytoplasmic, but higher

2017 International journal of oncology

102. Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate on Diagnostic Needle Biopsy Predicts Prostate Cancer Mortality: A Population-Based Study. (Abstract)

Intraductal Carcinoma of the Prostate on Diagnostic Needle Biopsy Predicts Prostate Cancer Mortality: A Population-Based Study. Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) is a distinct histopathologic feature associated with high-grade, advanced prostate cancer. Although studies have shown that IDC-P is a predictor of progression following surgical or radiation treatment for prostate cancer, there are sparse data regarding IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy as a prognosticator of prostate (...) cancer mortality.This was a population-based study of all prostate cancer patients diagnosed using needle biopsy and without evidence of systemic disease between 1991 and 1999 within a defined geographic region of Norway. Patients were identified by cross-referencing the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Of 318 eligible patients, 283 had biopsy specimens available for central pathology review. Clinical data were obtained from medical charts. We examined whether IDC-P on diagnostic needle biopsy

2017 Prostate

103. Circulating Tumor DNA Analysis in Patients With Cancer: An ASCO/CAP Joint Review

; however, there is insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility for the majority of ctDNA assays in advanced cancer. Evidence shows discordance between the results of ctDNA assays and genotyping tumor specimens and supports tumor tissue genotyping to confirm undetected results from ctDNA tests. There is no evidence of clinical utility and little evidence of clinical validity of ctDNA assays in early-stage cancer, treatment monitoring, or residual disease detection. There is no evidence (...) categorization for risk of disease, screening unaffected patients for the disease, differential diagnosis of a proven malignancy, prognosis in the absence of further treatment, prediction that a specific treatment is likely to be effective, and monitoring disease activity—either to detect impending recurrence in a patient presumed free of disease or to determine whether a patient with known cancer has evidence of progressive disease. In solid tumors, the latter few uses may differ in implications, depending

2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology Guidelines

104. Low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy for intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer

MBS items to cover the urological component and radiation oncology component of LDR-BT for use as a boost to EBRT in patients with high- intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. The proposed MBS item descriptors are summarised in Table 1. 4 Table 1 Applicant proposed MBS item descriptor Category 3 – Therapeutic procedures PROSTATE, radioactive seed implantation (radiation oncology component), using transrectal ultrasound guidance, for localised (non-metastatic) prostatic malignancy classified (...) (urological component), using transrectal ultrasound guidance, for localised (non-metastatic) prostatic malignancy classified as high-intermediate risk (defined as having a prostate specific antigen (PSA) of 10-20 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7 and a tumour classified as T2b-c) or high risk (defined as having a PSA of greater than 20 ng/ml and/or a Gleason score of 8-10 and/or a tumour classified as T3). It is recommended the procedure only be performed as ‘boost’ treatment, in addition to external beam

2020 Medical Services Advisory Committee

105. Enzalutamide for hormone-relapsed non-metastatic prostate cancer

that there are fewer people with undetected metastases who would otherwise be labelled as having non- metastatic disease. NICE technology appraisal guidance already recommends enzalutamide for hormone-relapsed metastatic prostate cancer before and after treatment with docetaxel. This appraisal relates to using enzalutamide at an earlier point in the treatment pathway. The committee noted that NHS England's policy stipulates that either enzalutamide or abiraterone (another antiandrogen) is to be offered only once (...) stopping treatment may speed up metastasis. The clinical experts commented that bicalutamide and dexamethasone are sometimes used for hormone-relapsed non-metastatic disease, but that the evidence for their effectiveness is limited. The committee considered ADT to be the standard of care in patients with hormone-relapsed prostate cancer, and the relevant comparator in this appraisal. The compan The company's definition of high risk does not closely match what is considered high y's definition of high

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

106. Prostate Cancer Part 1: Diagnosis and Referral in Primary Care

Cancer Tips, Advice, and Support – Prostate Centre Canada – Canadian Cancer Society – Diagnostic Code: 185 (malignant neoplasm of prostate) Abbreviations CCO - Cancer Care Ontario DRE - digital rectal exam ERSPC - European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer LUTS - lower urinary tract symptoms PSA - prostate specific antigen This guideline is based on scientific evidence current as of November 2017 (refer to Methodology ). The guideline was developed by the BC Cancer Primary Care (...) the age of 60 when they are diagnosed and most men will survive their prostate cancer. It is estimated that 1 in 29 men who are diagnosed with prostate cancer would be expected to die of the disease. The following risk factors are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and should be considered when assessing men who present with symptoms or with questions about testing: Men of African descent. Family history of prostate cancer (paternal side; first-degree relatives (i.e., father

2020 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

107. Prostate Cancer Part 2: Follow-up in Primary Care

diagnosis onwards (see ). Palliative Care and Advance Care Planning While the majority of prostate cancers advance slowly and/or are potentially curable, some will be discovered in late stages, or will be aggressive and treatment resistant. Patients with a potentially life-limiting disease or illness may benefit from the development of an advance care plan (ACP) that incorporates the patient’s values and personal goals, indicates potential outcomes, and identifies linkages with other health care (...) Treatment, Cancer Care Ontario, A Palliative Care Approach for Primary Care, HealthLinkBC – Advance Care Planning, Provincial Health Services Authority Trans Care BC – A Primary Care Toolkit – Gender-affirming Care for Trans, Two-spirit, and Gender Diverse Patients in BC, ​ ​ Diagnostic Code: 185 (malignant neoplasm of prostate) Abbreviations ACP - advance care plan ADT - androgen deprivation therapy AGREE - appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation CBC - complete blood count CCO - Cancer Care

2020 Clinical Practice Guidelines and Protocols in British Columbia

108. Darolutamide with androgen deprivation therapy for treating hormone-relapsed non-metastatic prostate cancer

) © NICE 2020. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 3 of 221 1 Recommendations Recommendations 1.1 Darolutamide with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is recommended, within its marketing authorisation, as an option for treating hormone-relapsed prostate cancer in adults at high risk of developing metastatic disease. It is recommended only if the company provides darolutamide according to the commercial arrangement (...) . Why the committee made these recommendations Why the committee made these recommendations When prostate cancer no longer responds to hormone treatment (ADT), but has not spread beyond the prostate, the only current option is to continue ADT. Darolutamide added to ADT would be another option at this stage. Clinical trial evidence shows that people taking darolutamide with ADT have more time before their prostate cancer spreads compared with ADT alone. Although the trial results suggest

2020 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Technology Appraisals

109. PTEN loss and ERG protein expression are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas and concurrent acinar carcinomas. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PTEN loss and ERG protein expression are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas and concurrent acinar carcinomas. Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma is an unusual and aggressive morphologic subtype of prostate cancer. PTEN gene deletion and ERG gene rearrangement are among the most common genomic changes in acinar prostate cancers. Though ductal adenocarcinoma most commonly occurs with synchronous usual-type acinar adenocarcinoma, little is known about the molecular phenotype (...) ductal adenocarcinomas and 91% (31/34) concordance among 34 pure acinar carcinomas. Similar to previous FISH results, ERG expression by IHC was significantly less common among ductal adenocarcinomas (11% or 4/37) and their synchronous acinar tumors (6% or 1/18) compared to matched pure acinar adenocarcinoma cases (50% or 17/34; P = 0.0005 and 0.002, respectively). PTEN loss by IHC was also less common among ductal adenocarcinomas (18% or 6/34) and their synchronous acinar tumors (22% or 4/18

2015 Prostate

110. Prostate imaging features that indicate benign or malignant pathology on biopsy Full Text available with Trip Pro

to be an adverse prognostic factor with greater risk of metastatic spread than organ-confined disease. Tumor volume may be an independent prognostic factor and should be considered in conjunction with other factors. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has become an increasingly important tool in the diagnosis and characterization of prostate cancer. MP-MRI allows T2-weighted (T2W) anatomical imaging to be combined with functional and physiological assessment. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI (...) Prostate imaging features that indicate benign or malignant pathology on biopsy Accurate diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer is essential in identifying patients who should be offered treatment with curative intent. Modifications to the Gleason grading system in recent years show that accurate grading and reporting at needle biopsy can improve identification of clinically significant prostate cancers. Extracapsular extension of prostate cancer has been demonstrated

2018 Translational andrology and urology

111. Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging, using metabolic imaging to improve the detection and management of prostate, bladder, and kidney urologic malignancies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging, using metabolic imaging to improve the detection and management of prostate, bladder, and kidney urologic malignancies Approximately 25% of the 2 million new cancer diagnoses in the United States in 2018 were comprised of malignancies of the urogenital system. Of these cancers, 75% occurred in the kidney/renal pelvis, prostate, and urinary bladder. Early diagnosis is beneficial to long-term survival. Currently, urologists rely heavily on computed (...) a new avenue for early diagnosis with much higher resolution, reliability, and accuracy through 13C hyperpolarized MRI. Preferential cancer pathways can be elucidated through this technique using 13C-labeled molecules utilized for energy generation and tumor growth. As these pathways are identified, targeted therapies are being designed to inhibit these pathways to allow for treatment that is cytotoxic to malignant cells but preserves native cells. In this paper, we review the current understanding

2018 Translational andrology and urology

112. Assessment of Expression of Ki-67 in Benign and Malignant Prostatic Lesions among Sudanese Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

paraffin blocks from diagnosed cases of prostatic tumours with different grade, and stages were included in this study. Ki-67 expression was examined immunohistochemically by using monoclonal mouse anti-human Ki67 IS626. The results were correlated with Gleason score and tumour differentiation and stage.The frequency of histological types was as follow: 11 cases of benign prostate, atic hyperplasia (19%) and 47 cases of prostatic cancer (81%). Our results stated that prostatic adenocarcinoma among (...) Sudanese patients was of low grade which means tumours are less aggressive. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that Ki-67 expression in prostatic carcinoma smears was correlated significantly with the degree of Gleason score (P < 0.05).We found that the prostatic adenocarcinoma among Sudanese patients was less aggressive. Furthermore, Ki-67 expression was proportional to the grade of a tumour and it was a useful prognostic and diagnostic biomarker.

2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

113. Assessment of the prognostic value of the 8th AJCC staging system for patients with clinically staged prostate cancer; A time to sub-classify stage IV? Full Text available with Trip Pro

for AJCC 8th edition was 0.907. For stage IVB prostate cancer (i.e.M1 disease), further sub-staging was proposed according to M1 sub-stage (i.e. M1a, M1b and M1c). Pair wise comparison between these proposed sub-stages was conducted for both cancer-specific and overall survival. For both cancer-specific and overall survival, all pair wise P values for comparisons were <0.0001.Compared to older staging systems (6th and 7th), the 8th system is more discriminatory. Further sub-classification of stage IV (...) Assessment of the prognostic value of the 8th AJCC staging system for patients with clinically staged prostate cancer; A time to sub-classify stage IV? The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system (8th edition) for prostate cancer has been published. The current study seeks to validate the prognostic performance of the changes in the new system among clinically staged prostate cancer patients registered within the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database.SEER

2017 PLoS ONE

114. Fatal prostate cancer incidence trends in the United States and England by race, stage, and treatment. (Abstract)

Fatal prostate cancer incidence trends in the United States and England by race, stage, and treatment. Differential uptake of prostate-specific antigen testing in the US and UK has been linked to between-country differences for prostate cancer incidence. We examined stage-specific fatal prostate cancer incidence trends in the US and England, by treatment and race/ethnicity.Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and Public Health (...) England's National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service, we identified prostate cancer patients diagnosed between 1995 and 2005, aged 45-84 years. Fatal prostate cancer was defined as death attributed to the disease within 10 years of diagnosis. We used age-period-cohort models to assess trends in fatal prostate cancer incidence.Fatal prostate cancer incidence declined in the US by -7.5% each year and increased in England by 7.7% annually. These trends were primarily driven by locoregional disease

2020 British Journal of Cancer

115. Expanding the role of small-molecule PSMA ligands beyond PET staging of prostate cancer. (Abstract)

genitourinary malignancies, particularly renal cell carcinoma, has led to new fields of investigation. Therapeutic delivery of radiolabelled PSMA small molecules has shown considerable promise in advanced prostate cancer. The ability to use the same molecule for imaging and therapy - theranostics - enables a highly personalized approach. PSMA PET can also have a considerable influence in the selection and guidance of radiotherapy fields for high-risk and recurrent disease. Intriguingly, changes in intensity (...) Expanding the role of small-molecule PSMA ligands beyond PET staging of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly being established as arguably the leading contemporary imaging modality in the management of prostate cancer. Outside of its conventional use in the de novo staging of localized disease and detection of biochemical recurrence, additional applications for the use of PSMA PET are emerging. Uptake of PSMA tracers in other

2020 Nature reviews. Urology

116. Long-term Trends in Prostate Cancer Incidence by Stage at Diagnosis in Japan Using the Multiple Imputation Approach, 1993-2014. (Abstract)

Long-term Trends in Prostate Cancer Incidence by Stage at Diagnosis in Japan Using the Multiple Imputation Approach, 1993-2014. This study aimed to assess long-term trends in the incidence of prostate cancer by stage at diagnosis before and after the introduction of population-based PSA screening.We used data from three population-based cancer registries in Japan. A total of 29,458 malignant prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2014 were used for the analysis. Multiple imputation (...) with chained equations was used to impute a specific stage at diagnosis for cases with "unknown" and missing status. We estimated the age-standardized incidence rates by stage at diagnosis from 1993 to 2014, and used joinpoint linear regression models to assess changes in trend.Joinpoint analyses after imputation showed that localized cancer was stable from 1993 to 2000, followed by a pronounced but insignificant increase through 2003 (from 12.1 per 100,000 in 2001 to 34.1 per 100,000 in 2003

2020 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

117. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prostate Cancer Incidence, Distant Stage Diagnosis, and Mortality by U.S. Census Region and Age Group, 2012-2015. (Abstract)

Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prostate Cancer Incidence, Distant Stage Diagnosis, and Mortality by U.S. Census Region and Age Group, 2012-2015. We sought to characterize recent prostate cancer incidence, distant stage diagnosis, and mortality rates by region, race/ethnicity, and age group.In SEER*Stat, we examined age-specific and age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence, distant stage diagnosis, and mortality rates by race/ethnicity, census region, and age group. Incidence and mortality analyses (...) included men diagnosed with (n = 723,269) and dying of (n = 112,116) prostate cancer between 2012 and 2015.Non-Hispanic black (NHB) and non-Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander (NHAPI) men had the highest and lowest rates, respectively, for each indicator across regions and age groups. Hispanic men had lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic white (NHW) men in all regions except the Northeast where they had higher incidence [RR, 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.19] and similar

2020 Cancer Epidemiology & Biomarkers and Prevention

118. PSA, stage, grade and prostate cancer specific mortality in Asian American patients relative to Caucasians according to the United States Census Bureau race definitions. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PSA, stage, grade and prostate cancer specific mortality in Asian American patients relative to Caucasians according to the United States Census Bureau race definitions. The United States Census Bureau recommends distinguishing between "Asians" vs. "Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders" (NHOPI). We tested for prognostic differences according to this stratification in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) of all stages.Descriptive statistics, time-trend analyses, Kaplan-Meier plots (...) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to test for differences at diagnosis, as well as for cancer specific mortality (CSM) according to the Census Bureau's definition in either non-metastatic or metastatic patients vs. 1:4 propensity score (PS)-matched Caucasian controls, identified within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2016).Of all 380,705 PCa patients, NHOPI accounted for 1877 (0.5%) vs. 23,343 (6.1%) remaining Asians vs. 93.4% Caucasians. NHOPI invariably harbored

2020 World journal of urology

119. KLK3 and TMPRSS2 for molecular lymph-node staging in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

KLK3 and TMPRSS2 for molecular lymph-node staging in prostate cancer patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Lymph-node (LN) metastasis in prostate cancer (PC) is a main risk factor for tumor recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP). Molecular analysis facilitates detection of small-volume LN metastases with higher sensitivity than histopathology. We aimed to prospectively evaluate six candidate gene markers for detection of pelvic LN metastases and to determine their ability to predict (...) biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) in patients treated with RP.The expression of kallikrein 2, 3, and 4 (KLK2, KLK3, and KLK4), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) was assessed using qPCR. We analyzed LNs from 111 patients (intermediate PC, n = 32 (29%); high-risk PC, n = 79 (71%)) who underwent RP and extended pelvic lymph-node dissection without neoadjuvant

2020 Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases

120. Assessment of body composition in the advanced stage of castration-resistant prostate cancer: special focus on sarcopenia. (Abstract)

Assessment of body composition in the advanced stage of castration-resistant prostate cancer: special focus on sarcopenia. To assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and whether body composition parameters are associated with disease progression and overall survival (OS) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients.This single-centre retrospective study evaluated data of 186 consecutive patients who underwent chemohormonal therapy between 2005 and 2016 as first-line systemic treatment (...) -up of 24.1 months, age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, p = 0.02), high PSA (1.55, 95% CI 1.07-2.25, p = 0.02) and low skeletal muscle volume (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.10-2.35, p = 0.02) were the only independent prognostic factor for tumor progression. Overall, 93 (50%) patients died during the follow-up period. The established prognosticator, the prechemotherapy presence of liver metastases (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61, p < 0.01) was associated with shorter OS. Moreover, we noted that patients

2020 Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases

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