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Prostate Cancer Staging

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61. LncRNA TINCR is associated with clinical progression and serves as tumor suppressive role in prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

LncRNA TINCR is associated with clinical progression and serves as tumor suppressive role in prostate cancer Terminal differentiation-induced non-coding RNA (TINCR) has been suggested to have aberrant expression in multiple human cancers, and functions as tumor suppressor or promoter in various types of human tumors depending on the specific cancer types. The expression status and biological function of TINCR in prostate cancer is still unknown.In our study, we detected TINCR expression (...) in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines, and analyzed the association between TINCR expression and clinical parameters in 160 prostate cancer patients. Moreover, we conducted gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in prostate cancer cell to explore the biological function and molecular mechanism of TINCR.In our results, low-expression TINCR was observed in prostate cancer, and correlated with advanced clinical T stage, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, high Gleason score and poor

2018 Cancer management and research

62. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth in prostate cancer via the enhancement of FOXO1 expression Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth in prostate cancer via the enhancement of FOXO1 expression Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant tumor with a high incidence in males. Localized tumors can be treated via surgery or radiation; however, it remains difficult to prevent disease progression. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic reader protein that binds to acetylated lysine on histones and has been reported to serve critical roles in numerous types of cancers (...) . In the present study, it was demonstrated that BRD4 expression levels were significantly increased in cancerous prostate tissue specimens and cells, which were associated with clinical stage and metastasis. In addition, the present study reported that inhibition of BRD4 via short hairpin RNA or JQ1 (a bromodomain inhibitor) decreased PCa cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, mitigated cell invasion and migration in vitro, and impaired tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, BRD4

2018 International journal of oncology

63. Tumor microenvironment promotes prostate cancer cell dissemination via the Akt/mTOR pathway Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tumor microenvironment promotes prostate cancer cell dissemination via the Akt/mTOR pathway Metastasis causes high mortality in various malignancies, including prostate cancer (PCa). Accumulating data has suggested that cancer cells spread from the primary tumor to distant sites at early stage, which is characterized by disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). However, lack of direct evidence of partial localized PCa cells occurring epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and disseminating (...) to distant sites (e.g bone marrow). In this study, we used luciferase labeled PCa cells to establish an EMT mouse model and to detect whether DTCs spread into the bone marrow. We observed tumor cells existing in mouse bone marrow when tumor grew subcutaneously at palpable stage. Studies also showed that ex vivo tumor cells exhibited increased proliferative, migratory, invasive and angiogenesis abilities. When compared ex vivo tumor cells with parental cells, hallmarks of EMT including E-cadherin

2018 Oncotarget

64. Technical Feasibility of Tissue Microarray (TMA) Analysis of Tumor-Associated Immune Response in Prostate Cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Technical Feasibility of Tissue Microarray (TMA) Analysis of Tumor-Associated Immune Response in Prostate Cancer Introduction: The androgen receptor (AR) regulates immune-related epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. Primary tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) [CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ TILs] are potential prognostic indicators in PCa, and variations may contribute to racial disparities in tumor biology and PCa outcomes. Aim: To assess the technical (...) resected prostate cancer is technically feasible in this pilot study. Future studies will evaluate primary tumor immunoscore using semi-quantitative, IHC-based methodology to assess differences in the spectrum, quantity, and/or localization of TILs, and to gain insights into racial disparities in PCa tumor biology and clinical outcomes.

2018 Journal of Cancer

65. AIRE promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer by directly regulating IL-6 and modulating tumor microenvironment Full Text available with Trip Pro

AIRE promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer by directly regulating IL-6 and modulating tumor microenvironment Early stage prostate cancers are dependent on androgens for their growth and survival and androgen withdrawal causes them to regress. Progressive prostate cancers eventually acquire androgen independence rendering anti-androgen therapy ineffective. However, the factors leading to this have not been adequately addressed. This study shows that AIRE finds differential expression (...) in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells. AIRE expression is more in androgen-independent cells due to its regulation by transcription factor Elk-1. These enhanced levels of AIRE modulate the prostate tumor microenvironment by transcriptionally activating a malignancy gene IL-6 in androgen-independent cells. Additionally, AIRE prevents the cancer cells from anticancer drug-induced death and enhances their invasiveness. Moreover, AIRE by modulating the cytokine milieu skews the tumor

2018 Oncogenesis

66. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and oncological outcomes of prostate cancer in men aged ≤50 years: a population-based study. (Abstract)

Tumor characteristics, treatments, and oncological outcomes of prostate cancer in men aged ≤50 years: a population-based study. To examine clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and oncological outcomes of prostate cancer (PCa) according to young (≤50) vs. old age.Of 407,599 men with primary adenocarcinoma of the prostate within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-database (2004 to 2013), 18,387 were aged ≤50 years (4.5%). Time trends, cumulative incidence (...) ), and brachytherapy (BT) rates decreased and external beam radiation (EBRT) rates remained unchanged. Moreover, the rate of de novo metastatic prostate cancer increased in young patients from 2% (2004) to 3.2% (2013) (p = 0.004). CRR models showed no difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) between young and old, across all local treatment types.Young PCa patients have more favorable disease characteristics at presentation, are less frequently treated with RP or BT and more frequently benefit

2018 Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases

67. PSCA expression is associated with favorable tumor features and reduced PSA recurrence in operated prostate cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PSCA expression is associated with favorable tumor features and reduced PSA recurrence in operated prostate cancer. Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) is frequently expressed in prostate cancer but its exact function is unclear.To clarify contradictory findings on the prognostic role of PSCA expression, a tissue microarray containing 13,665 prostate cancers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.PSCA staining was absent in normal epithelial and stromal cells of the prostate. Membranous (...) was an independent predictor of prognosis in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.84, p < 0.0001).The absence of statistical relationship to TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status, chromosomal deletion or high tumor cell proliferation argues against a major role of PSCA for regulation of cell cycle or genomic integrity. PSCA expression is linked to favorable prognosis. PSCA measurement is a candidate for inclusion in multi-parametric prognostic prostate cancer tests.

2018 BMC Cancer

68. Nc886 is epigenetically repressed in prostate cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor through the inhibition of cell growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(in vitro and in vivo) and invasion (in vitro) was evaluated using lentiviral transduced DU145 and LNCaP cell lines. The association between the expression of nc886 and selected genes was analyzed in the TCGA-PRAD cohort.Nc886 promoter methylation increases in tumor vs. normal prostate tissue, as well as in metastatic vs. normal prostate tissue. Additionally, nc886 promoter methylation correlates with prostate cancer clinical staging, including biochemical recurrence, Clinical T-value and Gleason score (...) Nc886 is epigenetically repressed in prostate cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor through the inhibition of cell growth. Nc886 is a 102 bp non-coding RNA transcript initially classified as a microRNA precursor (Pre-miR-886), later as a divergent homologue of the vault RNAs (vtRNA 2-1) and more recently as a novel type of RNA (nc886). Although nc886/vtRNA2-1/Pre-miR-886 identity is still controversial, it was shown to be epigenetically controlled, presenting both tumor suppressor and oncogenic

2018 BMC Cancer

69. Treatment of the primary tumor in metastatic prostate cancer. (Abstract)

Treatment of the primary tumor in metastatic prostate cancer. The cornerstone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients has been conventional androgen deprivation therapy, with additional systemic therapy initiated only after castration resistance, and local therapy reserved for palliation. Compelling results from modern trials challenge this paradigm, arguing for initiating escalated hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy during the castration-sensitive disease state for many patients (...) . Furthermore, modern radiotherapy techniques allow for local control of disease with low risk of toxicity. Finally, new PET probes with enhanced sensitivity and accuracy are likely to become a part of routine staging and will lead to an increased incidence of patients with metastatic disease at presentation, with a shift toward identification of patients with limited metastatic disease. As such, the landscape is primed for investigations aimed to explore the role of primary tumor therapy for patients

2018 World journal of urology

70. Association of doublecortin-like kinase 1 with tumor aggressiveness and poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of doublecortin-like kinase 1 with tumor aggressiveness and poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) has been proven to be involved in numerous tumors, while its role in prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the expression pattern and prognostic value of DCLK1 in PCa.Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were employed to determine DCLK1 mRNA and protein levels in 25 paired fresh (...) samples of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as in PCa cell lines. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed in 125 PCa and 65 BPH tissues to assess DCLK1 expression. Then, the association of DCLK1 expression with clinicopathological parameters and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy was statistically analyzed. In addition, the role of DCLK1 in PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion was evaluated by using MTT and transwell assays.The mRNA and protein

2018 OncoTargets and therapy

71. Marked Prognostic Impact of Minimal Lymphatic Tumor Spread in Prostate Cancer. (Abstract)

patients.Analysis of lymphatic invasion provides comparable prognostic information than lymph node analysis. Even minimal involvement of the lymphatic system has pivotal prognostic impact in prostate cancer. Thus, a thorough search for lymphatic involvement helps to identify more patients with an increased risk for disease recurrence.Already minimal amounts of tumor cells inside the lymph nodes or intraprostatic lymphatic vessels have a severe impact on patient prognosis.Copyright © 2018 European Association (...) Marked Prognostic Impact of Minimal Lymphatic Tumor Spread in Prostate Cancer. Nodal metastasis (N1) is a strong prognostic parameter in prostate cancer; however, lymph node evaluation is always incomplete.To study the prognostic value of lymphatic invasion (L1) and whether it might complement or even replace lymph node analysis in clinical practice.Retrospective analysis of pathological and clinical data from 14 528 consecutive patients.Radical prostatectomy.The impact of L1 and N1 on patient

2018 European Urology

72. Metabolic reprogramming-based characterization of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

+CTCs (marked by PGK1/G6PD) were detectable in 64.8% (35/54) of prostate cancer patients, accounting for 46.5% (134/288) of total CTCs. An increased GM+CTCs level was associated with advanced tumor stage and metastasis (P <  0.05). In the discrimination of cancer metastasis from non-metastasis, GM+CTCs presented a higher AUC of the ROC curve (0.780) compared with the EMT CTCs subtypes (E-CTCs 0.729, H-CTCs 0.741, and M-CTCs 0.648). A triple tPSA-Gleason-GM+CTCs marker increased the AUC to 0.904 (...) Metabolic reprogramming-based characterization of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), an advantageous target of liquid biopsy, is an important biomarker for the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. Currently, detection techniques for CTCs are mainly based on the physical and/or epithelial characteristics of tumor cells. However, biofunctional activity markers that can indicate the high metastatic capacity of CTCs are lacking.Functional microarray

2018 Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR

73. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) ); sex (stratified per sex); duration of index ischemia (linear); stem cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models

2020 PROSPERO

74. A microRNA/Runx1/Runx2 network regulates prostate tumor progression from onset to adenocarcinoma in TRAMP mice Full Text available with Trip Pro

A microRNA/Runx1/Runx2 network regulates prostate tumor progression from onset to adenocarcinoma in TRAMP mice While decades of research have identified molecular pathways inducing and promoting stages of prostate cancer malignancy, studies addressing dynamic changes of cancer-related regulatory factors in a prostate tumor progression model are limited. Using the TRAMP mouse model of human prostate cancer, we address mechanisms of deregulation for the cancer-associated transcription factors (...) , Runx1 and Runx2 by identifying microRNAs with reciprocal expression changes at six time points during 33 weeks of tumorigenesis. We molecularly define transition stages from PIN lesions to hyperplasia/neoplasia and progression to adenocarcinoma by temporal changes in expression of human prostate cancer markers, including the androgen receptor and tumor suppressors, Nkx3.1 and PTEN. Concomitant activation of PTEN, AR, and Runx factors occurs at early stages. At late stages, PTEN and AR

2016 Oncotarget

75. Randomized trial evaluating the role of weight loss in overweight and obese men with early stage prostate Cancer on active surveillance: Rationale and design of the Prostate Cancer Active Lifestyle Study (PALS). (Abstract)

Randomized trial evaluating the role of weight loss in overweight and obese men with early stage prostate Cancer on active surveillance: Rationale and design of the Prostate Cancer Active Lifestyle Study (PALS). Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly used to monitor patients with low-risk prostate cancer; however, approximately 50% of AS patients experience disease reclassification requiring definitive treatment and little is known about patient characteristics that modify the risk (...) of reclassification. Obesity may be one of the major contributing factors. The Prostate Cancer Active Lifestyle Study (PALS) is a clinical trial evaluating the impact of weight loss among overweight/obese (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) men with clinically localized prostate cancer on AS. Two hundred participants will be randomized to either the PALS intervention, a 6-month structured diet and exercise program adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program followed by 6 months of maintenance, or control (general

2019 Contemporary clinical trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

76. Prostate cancer: diagnosis and management

. Ov Overview erview This guideline covers the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer in secondary care, including information on the best way to diagnose and identify different stages of the disease, and how to manage adverse effects of treatment. It also includes recommendations on follow-up in primary care for people diagnosed with prostate cancer. Who is it for? Healthcare professionals Commissioners and providers of prostate cancer services People with prostate cancer, their families (...) and support 1.5.1 Offer people with metastatic prostate cancer tailored information and access to specialist urology and palliative care teams to address their specific needs. Give them the opportunity to discuss any significant changes in their disease status or symptoms as these occur. [2008] [2008] 1.5.2 Integrate palliative interventions at any stage into coordinated care, and facilitate any transitions between care settings as smoothly as possible. [2008] [2008] 1.5.3 Discuss personal preferences

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

77. Urothelial carcinoma involving the prostate: the association of revised tumour stage and coexistent bladder cancer with survival after radical cystectomy. (Abstract)

Urothelial carcinoma involving the prostate: the association of revised tumour stage and coexistent bladder cancer with survival after radical cystectomy. To evaluate survival among patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC) within the prostate in order to assess the impact of depth of tumour invasion as well as the importance of a concurrent bladder tumour.We identified 201 patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) between 1980 and 2006 and were found to have UC involving the prostate. All (...) specimens were re-reviewed by a genitourinary pathologist. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Cox hazard regression models tested the association of clinicopathological variables with outcome.In all, 93 patients had pTis disease in the prostate, 43 had pT2 tumours, and 66 patients were pT4a. The median follow-up was 10.5 years. The 5-year cancer-specific survival for patients with pTis, pT2, and pT4a prostate UC was 73%, 57%, and 21% respectively (P

2014 BJU international

78. Hypofractionated image guided radiation therapy followed by prostate seed implant boost for men with newly diagnosed intermediate and high risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Preliminary results of a phase 2 prospective study Full Text available with Trip Pro

-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate.This is a report of an interim analysis on 24 patients enrolled on an institutional review board-approved phase 2 single-institution study of patients with intermediate- and high-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level was 8.15 ng/mL. The median Gleason score was 4 + 3 = 7 (range, 3 + 4 = 7 - 4 + 4 = 8), and the median T stage was T2a. Of the 24 patients, 4 (17%) were high-risk patients as defined (...) Hypofractionated image guided radiation therapy followed by prostate seed implant boost for men with newly diagnosed intermediate and high risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate: Preliminary results of a phase 2 prospective study A phase 2 protocol was designed and implemented to assess the toxicity and efficacy of hypofractionated image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) combined with low-dose rate 103Pd prostate seed implant for treatment of localized intermediate- and high

2016 Advances in radiation oncology

79. Correction: A novel highly potent trivalent TGF-β receptor trap inhibits early-stage tumorigenesis and tumor cell invasion in murine Pten-deficient prostate glands Full Text available with Trip Pro

Correction: A novel highly potent trivalent TGF-β receptor trap inhibits early-stage tumorigenesis and tumor cell invasion in murine Pten-deficient prostate glands [This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.13343.].

2017 Oncotarget

80. Prostate tumors downregulate microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) in the surrounding benign prostate epithelium and this response is associated with tumor aggressiveness. (Abstract)

of the prostate to tumor grade, stage, and distance to the tumor. Implantation of Dunning cancer cells into the rat prostate resulted in reduced MSMB protein levels in the tumor-adjacent benign prostate tissue. Rapidly growing and metastatic MatLyLu tumors had a more pronounced effect than slow-growing non-metastatic G tumors.Our data suggest that aggressive prostate tumors suppress MSMB synthesis in the benign prostate and that this could explain why serum levels of MSMB are decreased in prostate cancer (...) Prostate tumors downregulate microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) in the surrounding benign prostate epithelium and this response is associated with tumor aggressiveness. Microseminoprotein-beta (MSMB) is a major secretory product from prostate epithelial cells. MSMB synthesis is decreased in prostate tumors in relation to tumor grade. MSMB levels are also reduced in the circulation and MSMB is therefore used as a serum biomarker for prostate cancer. We hypothesized that cancers induce a reduction

2017 Prostate

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