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Prostate Cancer Staging

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61. Immune infiltrates and PD-L1 expression in treatment-naïve acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma: an exploratory analysis. (Abstract)

Immune infiltrates and PD-L1 expression in treatment-naïve acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma: an exploratory analysis. Tumour-induced immunosuppression plays a role in the development and progression of cancer. Of interest is the interaction between programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) which can be targeted through immune checkpoint blockade; however, there are limited data surrounding the composition of the immune milieu in prostate cancer. We preliminarily assessed 21 (...) radical prostatectomies in therapy-naïve patients for immune markers and PD-L1 expression. The immune infiltrates were higher in adenocarcinoma than benign prostate (lymphocytes p<0.001, macrophages p=0.010) with 5% of cases being PD-L1 high (≥5% expression). Increased peritumoural CD68 and CD163 expression correlated with lower grade group (GG) (p=0.024 and p=0.014, respectively) with a trend towards increased CD68 expression in lower stage cases (p=0.086). There was also increased CD45 expression

2018 Journal of Clinical Pathology

62. Proteomic characterization of paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines distinguishes them by structural proteins. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Proteomic characterization of paired non-malignant and malignant African-American prostate epithelial cell lines distinguishes them by structural proteins. While many factors may contribute to the higher prostate cancer incidence and mortality experienced by African-American men compared to their counterparts, the contribution of tumor biology is underexplored due to inadequate availability of African-American patient-derived cell lines and specimens. Here, we characterize the proteomes of non (...) -malignant RC-77 N/E and malignant RC-77 T/E prostate epithelial cell lines previously established from prostate specimens from the same African-American patient with early stage primary prostate cancer.In this comparative proteomic analysis of RC-77 N/E and RC-77 T/E cells, differentially expressed proteins were identified and analyzed for overrepresentation of PANTHER protein classes, Gene Ontology annotations, and pathways. The enrichment of gene sets and pathway significance were assessed using Gene

2017 BMC Cancer

63. A comprehensive study of circulating tumour cells at the moment of prostate cancer diagnosis: biological and clinical implications of EGFR, AR and SNPs Full Text available with Trip Pro

A comprehensive study of circulating tumour cells at the moment of prostate cancer diagnosis: biological and clinical implications of EGFR, AR and SNPs Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been recently accepted as prognostic markers in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). However, very few studies have analyzed their role in early-stage PCa. The aim of this research is to study the value of CTCs at the moment of PCa diagnosis and to identify different subpopulations of CTCs. Patients with PSA (...) was 14.2%, 78.4%, 31.2% and 57.4%, respectively. Up to 75% of CTC-positive patients were AR-negative. A direct association was found between the expression of AR in the prostatic tissue and the presence of CTCs in blood (p<0.05). We observed an inverse relation between the expression of EGFR in the tissue and the expression of AR in the CTCs. No significant association between SNPs and CTCs was found. The low detection rate of CTCs in early-stage PCa limits their role as a diagnostic marker

2017 Oncotarget

64. Effect of Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields, 150 kHz) as Front-Line Treatment of Locally-advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Concomitant With Gemcitabine and Nab-paclitaxel (PANOVA-3)

Exclusion Criteria: Prior palliative treatment (e.g. surgery, radiation) to the tumor Cancer requiring anti-tumor treatment within the 5 years before inclusion, excluding treated stage I prostate cancer, in situ cervical or uterus cancer, in situ breast cancer and non-melanomatous skin cancer. Serious co-morbidities: Clinically significant (as determined by the investigator) hematological, hepatic and renal dysfunction, defined as: Neutrophil count < 1.5 x 10^9/L and platelet count < 100 x 10^9/L (...) , randomized controlled phase III trial aimed to test the efficacy and safety of Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) in combination with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel, for front line treatment of locally-advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma.The device is an experimental, portable, battery operated device for chronic administration of alternating electric fields (termed TTFields or TTF) to the region of the malignant tumor, by means of surface, insulated electrode arrays. Condition or disease Intervention

2017 Clinical Trials

65. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Print | PDF PROSPERO This information has been provided by the named contact for this review. CRD has accepted this information in good faith and registered the review in PROSPERO. The registrant confirms that the information supplied for this submission is accurate and complete. CRD bears no responsibility or liability for the content of this registration record, any (...) ); sex (stratified per sex); duration of index ischemia (linear); stem cell dose (linear); blinding of outcome assessment reported (stratified yes vs no). For stratified analyses, a minimum number of 8 studies per subgroup is required. ">Subgroup analyses A sensitivity analysis is conducted to assess the impact of decisions taken in the review process on the meta-analysis outcome. These decisions may have been made in various stages of the review, e.g. the decision to exclude certain disease models

2020 PROSPERO

66. Tumor heterogeneity, aggressiveness, and immune cell composition in a novel syngeneic PSA-targeted Pten knockout mouse prostate cancer (MuCaP) model. (Abstract)

Tumor heterogeneity, aggressiveness, and immune cell composition in a novel syngeneic PSA-targeted Pten knockout mouse prostate cancer (MuCaP) model. Prostate cancer is recognized as a heterogeneous disease demanding appropriate preclinical models that reflect tumor complexity. Previously, we established the PSA-Cre;PtenLoxP/LoxP genetic engineered mouse model (GEMM) for prostate cancer reflecting the various stages of tumor development. Prostate tumors in this Pten KO model slowly develop (...) , requiring more than 10 months. In order to enhance its practical utility, we established a syngeneic panel of cell lines derived from PSA-Cre targeted Pten KO tumors, designated the mouse prostate cancer (MuCap) model.Four different MuCaP epithelial cell lines were established from three independent primary Pten KO mouse prostate tumors. Tumorigenic capacity of the MuCaP cell lines was determined by subcutaneous inoculation of these cell lines in immunocompetent mice. Response to PI3K-targeted therapy

2018 Prostate

67. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and oncological outcomes of prostate cancer in men aged ≤50 years: a population-based study. (Abstract)

Tumor characteristics, treatments, and oncological outcomes of prostate cancer in men aged ≤50 years: a population-based study. To examine clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and oncological outcomes of prostate cancer (PCa) according to young (≤50) vs. old age.Of 407,599 men with primary adenocarcinoma of the prostate within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-database (2004 to 2013), 18,387 were aged ≤50 years (4.5%). Time trends, cumulative incidence (...) ), and brachytherapy (BT) rates decreased and external beam radiation (EBRT) rates remained unchanged. Moreover, the rate of de novo metastatic prostate cancer increased in young patients from 2% (2004) to 3.2% (2013) (p = 0.004). CRR models showed no difference in prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) between young and old, across all local treatment types.Young PCa patients have more favorable disease characteristics at presentation, are less frequently treated with RP or BT and more frequently benefit

2018 Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases

68. Nc886 is epigenetically repressed in prostate cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor through the inhibition of cell growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(in vitro and in vivo) and invasion (in vitro) was evaluated using lentiviral transduced DU145 and LNCaP cell lines. The association between the expression of nc886 and selected genes was analyzed in the TCGA-PRAD cohort.Nc886 promoter methylation increases in tumor vs. normal prostate tissue, as well as in metastatic vs. normal prostate tissue. Additionally, nc886 promoter methylation correlates with prostate cancer clinical staging, including biochemical recurrence, Clinical T-value and Gleason score (...) Nc886 is epigenetically repressed in prostate cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor through the inhibition of cell growth. Nc886 is a 102 bp non-coding RNA transcript initially classified as a microRNA precursor (Pre-miR-886), later as a divergent homologue of the vault RNAs (vtRNA 2-1) and more recently as a novel type of RNA (nc886). Although nc886/vtRNA2-1/Pre-miR-886 identity is still controversial, it was shown to be epigenetically controlled, presenting both tumor suppressor and oncogenic

2018 BMC Cancer

69. Tumor microenvironment promotes prostate cancer cell dissemination via the Akt/mTOR pathway Full Text available with Trip Pro

Tumor microenvironment promotes prostate cancer cell dissemination via the Akt/mTOR pathway Metastasis causes high mortality in various malignancies, including prostate cancer (PCa). Accumulating data has suggested that cancer cells spread from the primary tumor to distant sites at early stage, which is characterized by disseminated tumor cells (DTCs). However, lack of direct evidence of partial localized PCa cells occurring epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and disseminating (...) to distant sites (e.g bone marrow). In this study, we used luciferase labeled PCa cells to establish an EMT mouse model and to detect whether DTCs spread into the bone marrow. We observed tumor cells existing in mouse bone marrow when tumor grew subcutaneously at palpable stage. Studies also showed that ex vivo tumor cells exhibited increased proliferative, migratory, invasive and angiogenesis abilities. When compared ex vivo tumor cells with parental cells, hallmarks of EMT including E-cadherin

2018 Oncotarget

70. Association of doublecortin-like kinase 1 with tumor aggressiveness and poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Association of doublecortin-like kinase 1 with tumor aggressiveness and poor biochemical recurrence-free survival in prostate cancer Doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1) has been proven to be involved in numerous tumors, while its role in prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the expression pattern and prognostic value of DCLK1 in PCa.Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were employed to determine DCLK1 mRNA and protein levels in 25 paired fresh (...) samples of PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) as well as in PCa cell lines. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was also performed in 125 PCa and 65 BPH tissues to assess DCLK1 expression. Then, the association of DCLK1 expression with clinicopathological parameters and biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy was statistically analyzed. In addition, the role of DCLK1 in PCa cell proliferation, migration, and invasion was evaluated by using MTT and transwell assays.The mRNA and protein

2018 OncoTargets and therapy

71. LncRNA TINCR is associated with clinical progression and serves as tumor suppressive role in prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

LncRNA TINCR is associated with clinical progression and serves as tumor suppressive role in prostate cancer Terminal differentiation-induced non-coding RNA (TINCR) has been suggested to have aberrant expression in multiple human cancers, and functions as tumor suppressor or promoter in various types of human tumors depending on the specific cancer types. The expression status and biological function of TINCR in prostate cancer is still unknown.In our study, we detected TINCR expression (...) in prostate cancer tissue samples and cell lines, and analyzed the association between TINCR expression and clinical parameters in 160 prostate cancer patients. Moreover, we conducted gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in prostate cancer cell to explore the biological function and molecular mechanism of TINCR.In our results, low-expression TINCR was observed in prostate cancer, and correlated with advanced clinical T stage, lymph node involvement, distant metastasis, high Gleason score and poor

2018 Cancer management and research

72. Elevated expression of PTCD3 correlates with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Elevated expression of PTCD3 correlates with tumor progression and predicts poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer Pentatricopeptide repeat domain protein 3 (PTCD3) is a mitochondrial RNA‑binding protein that serves a role in mitochondrial translation. PTCD3 was originally reported as an oncogene that is involved in breast cancer and lymphoma. However, the expression and function of PTCD3 in prostate cancer (PCa) are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate (...) the expression of PTCD3 and its clinical significance in PCa. Immunohistochemistry and dataset analyses revealed that PTCD3 protein expression levels were enhanced in human PCa tissues and mouse PCa models. PTCD3 expression levels were positively correlated with advanced PCa pathological grade and clinical stage. Additionally, PTCD3 mRNA expression was positively correlated with tissue malignancy, high Gleason score and distant metastasis in The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. Kaplan‑Meier analysis revealed

2018 Molecular medicine reports

73. High levels of glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 1 predicts a poor prognosis for prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

that in the benign prostate tissues (immunoreactivity score, P=0.015; mRNA levels: cancer, 447.7±6.45 vs. benign, 343.5±4.21; P<0.001). Additionally, the increased GLTSCR1 protein expression was associated with certain clinical variables in the prostate cancer tissues, including advanced clinical stage (P<0.001), enhanced tumor invasion (P=0.003), lymph node metastasis (P=0.003) and distant metastasis (P=0.001). TCGA data revealed similar results, demonstrating that the upregulation of GLTSCR1 mRNA expression (...) High levels of glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 1 predicts a poor prognosis for prostate cancer Glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 1 (GLTSCR1) is associated with the progression of oligodendroglioma. However, there has been little study of GLTSCR1 in prostate cancer. In the present study, the association between the expression of GLTSCR1, and the progression and prognosis of tumors in patients with prostate cancer was assessed. An immunohistochemical analysis

2018 Oncology letters

74. Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth in prostate cancer via the enhancement of FOXO1 expression Full Text available with Trip Pro

Inhibition of BRD4 suppresses tumor growth in prostate cancer via the enhancement of FOXO1 expression Prostate cancer (PCa) is a malignant tumor with a high incidence in males. Localized tumors can be treated via surgery or radiation; however, it remains difficult to prevent disease progression. Bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic reader protein that binds to acetylated lysine on histones and has been reported to serve critical roles in numerous types of cancers (...) . In the present study, it was demonstrated that BRD4 expression levels were significantly increased in cancerous prostate tissue specimens and cells, which were associated with clinical stage and metastasis. In addition, the present study reported that inhibition of BRD4 via short hairpin RNA or JQ1 (a bromodomain inhibitor) decreased PCa cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, mitigated cell invasion and migration in vitro, and impaired tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, BRD4

2018 International journal of oncology

75. PSCA expression is associated with favorable tumor features and reduced PSA recurrence in operated prostate cancer. Full Text available with Trip Pro

PSCA expression is associated with favorable tumor features and reduced PSA recurrence in operated prostate cancer. Prostate Stem Cell Antigen (PSCA) is frequently expressed in prostate cancer but its exact function is unclear.To clarify contradictory findings on the prognostic role of PSCA expression, a tissue microarray containing 13,665 prostate cancers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.PSCA staining was absent in normal epithelial and stromal cells of the prostate. Membranous (...) was an independent predictor of prognosis in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.84, p < 0.0001).The absence of statistical relationship to TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status, chromosomal deletion or high tumor cell proliferation argues against a major role of PSCA for regulation of cell cycle or genomic integrity. PSCA expression is linked to favorable prognosis. PSCA measurement is a candidate for inclusion in multi-parametric prognostic prostate cancer tests.

2018 BMC Cancer

76. Technical Feasibility of Tissue Microarray (TMA) Analysis of Tumor-Associated Immune Response in Prostate Cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

Technical Feasibility of Tissue Microarray (TMA) Analysis of Tumor-Associated Immune Response in Prostate Cancer Introduction: The androgen receptor (AR) regulates immune-related epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and prostate cancer (PCa) metastasis. Primary tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) [CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ TILs] are potential prognostic indicators in PCa, and variations may contribute to racial disparities in tumor biology and PCa outcomes. Aim: To assess the technical (...) resected prostate cancer is technically feasible in this pilot study. Future studies will evaluate primary tumor immunoscore using semi-quantitative, IHC-based methodology to assess differences in the spectrum, quantity, and/or localization of TILs, and to gain insights into racial disparities in PCa tumor biology and clinical outcomes.

2018 Journal of Cancer

77. AIRE promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer by directly regulating IL-6 and modulating tumor microenvironment Full Text available with Trip Pro

AIRE promotes androgen-independent prostate cancer by directly regulating IL-6 and modulating tumor microenvironment Early stage prostate cancers are dependent on androgens for their growth and survival and androgen withdrawal causes them to regress. Progressive prostate cancers eventually acquire androgen independence rendering anti-androgen therapy ineffective. However, the factors leading to this have not been adequately addressed. This study shows that AIRE finds differential expression (...) in androgen-dependent and -independent prostate cancer cells. AIRE expression is more in androgen-independent cells due to its regulation by transcription factor Elk-1. These enhanced levels of AIRE modulate the prostate tumor microenvironment by transcriptionally activating a malignancy gene IL-6 in androgen-independent cells. Additionally, AIRE prevents the cancer cells from anticancer drug-induced death and enhances their invasiveness. Moreover, AIRE by modulating the cytokine milieu skews the tumor

2018 Oncogenesis

78. Metabolic reprogramming-based characterization of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer Full Text available with Trip Pro

+CTCs (marked by PGK1/G6PD) were detectable in 64.8% (35/54) of prostate cancer patients, accounting for 46.5% (134/288) of total CTCs. An increased GM+CTCs level was associated with advanced tumor stage and metastasis (P <  0.05). In the discrimination of cancer metastasis from non-metastasis, GM+CTCs presented a higher AUC of the ROC curve (0.780) compared with the EMT CTCs subtypes (E-CTCs 0.729, H-CTCs 0.741, and M-CTCs 0.648). A triple tPSA-Gleason-GM+CTCs marker increased the AUC to 0.904 (...) Metabolic reprogramming-based characterization of circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer Circulating tumor cells (CTCs), an advantageous target of liquid biopsy, is an important biomarker for the prognosis and monitoring of cancer. Currently, detection techniques for CTCs are mainly based on the physical and/or epithelial characteristics of tumor cells. However, biofunctional activity markers that can indicate the high metastatic capacity of CTCs are lacking.Functional microarray

2018 Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR

79. Treatment of the primary tumor in metastatic prostate cancer. (Abstract)

Treatment of the primary tumor in metastatic prostate cancer. The cornerstone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients has been conventional androgen deprivation therapy, with additional systemic therapy initiated only after castration resistance, and local therapy reserved for palliation. Compelling results from modern trials challenge this paradigm, arguing for initiating escalated hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy during the castration-sensitive disease state for many patients (...) . Furthermore, modern radiotherapy techniques allow for local control of disease with low risk of toxicity. Finally, new PET probes with enhanced sensitivity and accuracy are likely to become a part of routine staging and will lead to an increased incidence of patients with metastatic disease at presentation, with a shift toward identification of patients with limited metastatic disease. As such, the landscape is primed for investigations aimed to explore the role of primary tumor therapy for patients

2018 World journal of urology

80. Marked Prognostic Impact of Minimal Lymphatic Tumor Spread in Prostate Cancer. (Abstract)

patients.Analysis of lymphatic invasion provides comparable prognostic information than lymph node analysis. Even minimal involvement of the lymphatic system has pivotal prognostic impact in prostate cancer. Thus, a thorough search for lymphatic involvement helps to identify more patients with an increased risk for disease recurrence.Already minimal amounts of tumor cells inside the lymph nodes or intraprostatic lymphatic vessels have a severe impact on patient prognosis.Copyright © 2018 European Association (...) Marked Prognostic Impact of Minimal Lymphatic Tumor Spread in Prostate Cancer. Nodal metastasis (N1) is a strong prognostic parameter in prostate cancer; however, lymph node evaluation is always incomplete.To study the prognostic value of lymphatic invasion (L1) and whether it might complement or even replace lymph node analysis in clinical practice.Retrospective analysis of pathological and clinical data from 14 528 consecutive patients.Radical prostatectomy.The impact of L1 and N1 on patient

2018 European Urology

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