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Progestin Androgenic Activity

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141. Osteoporosis: Prevention and Treatment

glucocorticoids would benefit from treatment. Table 5 provides guidelines for patient management based on both BMD and clinical risk factors. Non-Pharmacologic Strategies Exercise. Observational data and clinical trials indicate that weight-bearing activities, such as aerobics, walking, and resistance training are effective at increasing spine BMD. Most of these studies are of limited quality, primarily due to the difficulty of blinding patients. Exercise has not been shown to reduce the risk of osteoporotic (...) exposed to ultraviolet light and is the form of vitamin D present in fish. Both D3 and ergocalciferol (D2) can be synthesized and are used in vitamin supplements and to fortify foods, such as milk. D2 and D3 are converted to the active form of vitamin D, calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), by hydroxylation first in the liver and then in the kidney. In spite of multiple studies and meta-analyses, the effects of calcium and vitamin D on fracture risk remain unclear. Most studies that have shown

2013 University of Michigan Health System

142. Diagnosis and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Two systematic reviews were conducted to summarize supporting evidence. Conclusions: We suggest using the Rotterdam criteria for diagnosing PCOS (presence of two of the following criteria: androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, or polycystic ovaries). Establishing a diagnosis of PCOS is problematic in adolescents and menopausal women. Hyperandrogenism is central to the presentation in adolescents (...) , whereas there is no consistent phenotype in postmenopausal women. Evaluation of women with PCOS should exclude alternate androgen-excess disorders and risk factors for endometrial cancer, mood disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Hormonal contraceptives are the first-line management for menstrual abnormalities and hirsutism/acne in PCOS. Clomiphene is currently the first-line therapy for infertility; metformin is beneficial for metabolic/glycemic abnormalities

2013 The Endocrine Society

143. The 2012 Hormone Therapy Position Statement of The North American Menopause Society

in individual sections of this report), for oneagenttoallagentswithinthesamehormonalfamily.Ona theoretical basis, however, there are likely to be differences within each family based on factors such as relative potency of the compound, androgenicity, glucocorticoid effects, bio- availability, and route of administration. Progestogen indication The primary menopause-related indication for progestogen use is to negate the increased risk of endometrial cancer from systemic ET use. All women with an intact (...) . 162 In this study, all progestogens performed similarly within a given regimen. Oral progestogens, combined with systemic estrogen, and combined progestogen-estrogen matrix patches have demonstrated endometrial protection and are government ap- proved. A progestin-containing intrauterine systemand a vagi- nal progesterone cream are government approved for use in premenopausal women; however, neither has been approved for useinpostmenopausalwomen.A small study reportedthat when used with systemic

2012 The North American Menopause Society

144. Management of endometrial precancers: recommendations based on risk of endometrioid endometrial cancer

in neoplastic endo- metrial glands in concert with tissue sloughing during withdrawal shedding. 60 Activation of progestin recep- tors is thought to lead to stromal decidualization and thinning of the endometrial lining. 61 Clinical studies of progesterone therapy have limitations. To date, neither the dose nor the schedule for progestational agents has been well-standardized. Published studies tend to be medium in size (with less than 100 partic- ipants) and descriptive clinical series administering (...) - uals receiving medroxyprogesterone acetate, 10 mg daily for 12–14 days per month, or micronized pro- gesterone in vaginal cream, when treated for 3 months. 60,62–64 Daily medroxyprogesterone acetate doses of 600 mg resulted in 82% complete responses among 17 women at a multicenter trial with 25 to 73 months of follow-up. 65–67 Wheeler et al 66 observed that individuals who responded to progestins had decreased gland-to-stroma ratio, decreased glandular cellularity, decreased mitotic activity

2012 Society of Gynecologic Oncology

145. Medicalization of aging and the testosterone deficiency syndrome

it is me- tabolized to dehydroandrosterone, its most active form, thanks to the action of the alpha-reductase enzyme. it acts by binding to nucleus receptors and produces androgenic and anabolic effects. Estradiol is produced as a result of catabolic activity. Testos- terone is segregated by the masculine fetus from the eighth week after conception (plasma levels of 250 ng/dl ) and as a result internal and external genital organs develop. During childhood secre- tion is minimal, and at puberty, males (...) database and PubMed with the following key words: “testosterone deficiency”, “late-onset hypogonadism”, “male andropause” and “androgen deficiency in aging males” filtered by the type of study (clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, meta-analyses or clinical trials). Information on consumption and sales was obtained from invoiced prescriptions in Navarre from 2001 upto 2011. Results: many of the signs and symptoms that define this syndrome overlap with those produced by other health problems

2012 Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin of Navarre (Spain)

146. Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group

–binding globulin(SHBG),which,inturn,resultsinadecreaseincircu- lating free T levels. The progestin in the pill can compete for 5a-reductase at the level of the androgen receptor. Oral con- traception also decreases adrenal androgen production by a mechanism yet unclear, possibly due to a decrease in adre- nocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) production. There are few randomized double-blind studies compar- ing the metabolic effects of a combination of two OCPs, or combined with an insulin sensitizer (21 (...) are applied. Typically, PCOSis?rstidenti?edduringtheearly reproductiveyears.Theclinicalexpres- sion varies but commonly includes oligo-ovulation or anovulation, hyper- androgenism (either clinical or bio- chemical), and the presence of polycystic ovaries. The etiology of the syndrome remains obscure, and the variability in phenotype expression continues to render the clinical care Received July 1,2011; accepted September 13, 2011; published online December 6, 2011

2012 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

147. A Pre-operative Window Study of Letrozole Plus PR Agonist (Megestrol Acetate) Versus Letrozole Alone in Post-menopausal Patients With ER-positive Breast Cancer

oestrogen receptor, and PR was established as a biomarker of ER functionality in breast cancer. However, recent preclinical discoveries have provided an alternative explanation to the previous over-simplistic assumption, providing new insights into progestogen action and functional 'cross-talk' between ER and PR in breast cancer. In the presence of agonist ligands, progesterone-activated PR causes rapid sequestration of ERa chromatin binding sites in breast cancer cells, resulting in a unique gene (...) Measures : Change in tumour apoptosis, measured by Caspase 3 (IHC) [ Time Frame: Over 15 days of treatment with letrozole (alone or in combination with high or low dose megestrol acetate) ] Caspase-3 is activated by cleavage in cells undergoing apoptosis. Capase-3 IHC has been validated as a marker of apoptosis in breast cancer. Change in expression of Androgen receptor and Progesterone receptor by IHC [ Time Frame: Over 15 days of treatment with letrozole (alone or in combination with high or low dose

2017 Clinical Trials

148. How DHEA Supplements Affect Coagulation in Women Using Birth Control Pills

), controversy exists over whether the various synthetic progestogens (progestins) used in combination with ethinyl estradiol in COC formulations may modify the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Several studies have demonstrated that different types of progestins used in COCs influence the magnitude of the estrogen-induced changes in coagulation pathway proteins. However, since hepatocytes do not express progesterone receptor, any activity of a progestin must be indirect. While all progestins (...) on the market are strong agonists for the progesterone receptor (PR), most have variable affinity for the androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Generations of progestins have been developed, each successive generation exhibiting decreasing levels of androgenicity. Recent epidemiologic studies have suggested an increased risk of VTE in women using low-androgen progestins relative to those using levonorgestrel-containing products. Although no pattern

2017 Clinical Trials

149. Study to Evaluate a Nutraceutical Supplement for Treatment of Hair Loss and Thinning in Females

Completion Date : November 10, 2017 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: related topics: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Active Comparator: Active Dietary Supplement: Nutrafol Eligible subjects will receive Nutrafol® to take daily for 180 days Placebo Comparator: Placebo Dietary Supplement: placebo Eligible subjects will receive Placebo to take daily for 180 days Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : change in hair density [ Time (...) for the duration of the study, an effective contraception method (ie, abstinence, barrier control, intrauterine device [IUD], or hormonal [estrogen/progestin] contraceptives) for at least one menstrual cycle prior to study; if using IUD or hormonal contraceptives - then at least 2 years prior to screening, the initiation of which should not have been associated with initiation of hair loss/thinning. Be willing and able to cooperate with the requirements of the study. Voluntarily sign and date an informed

2017 Clinical Trials

150. Functional Study of the Hypothalamus in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Identifier: NCT03043924 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : February 6, 2017 Last Update Posted : May 18, 2018 See Sponsor: University Hospital, Lille Collaborator: National Research Agency, France Information provided by (Responsible Party): University Hospital, Lille Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The aim to evaluate whether activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in PCOS is associated with transient microstructural and metabolic changes in the female (...) ) will be recruited. Drug: Levonorgestrel, Ethinyl Estradiol 0.1-0.02Mg Oral Tablet Healthy volunteers receive combined oral contraceptive (COC) consisting 0.02 mg ethinylestradiol and 0.1mg of progestins (Leeloo Gé®) Other Name: Leeloo Gé® Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Change in the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) [ Time Frame: Baseline and 3 months after treatment start ] The change in the ADC will be analyzed in healthy volunteers and PCOS women before starting the oral contraceptives

2017 Clinical Trials

151. Dienogest Versus GnRH-a Pre-treatment in Women With Endometriosis Undergoing IVF

pain. It is well tolerated with no androgenic, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid activity. Dienogest creates a hyperprogestogenic and hypoestrogenic environment that initially induces a secretory state and then a decidualization of the ectopic endometrium and finally its atrophy. It also inhibits aromatase and COX-2 expression as well as prostaglandin E2 production in endometriotic stromal cells. It also normalizes the activity of natural killer cells and decreases the release of interleukin-1b (...) % of infertile women have the diagnosis of endometriosis . Infertility secondary to endometriosis is thought to be multifactorial. Women with endometriosis often require in vitro fertilization (IVF). One medical intervention that has been shown to improve IVF outcomes in women with endometriosis is hormonal suppression with gonadotropic releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) for a period of 3 to 6 months . In recent years, the effectiveness of dienogest, a fourth-generation progestin, for endometriosis treatment

2017 Clinical Trials

152. Combination Study of AZD5069 and Enzalutamide.

Intervention/treatment Phase Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Drug: AZD5069 Drug: Enzalutamide 40 MG Phase 1 Phase 2 Detailed Description: The purpose of this study is to find out the side effects and safety of a combination of the CXCR2 antagonist, AZD5069 in combination with the androgen receptor antagonist, enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer and to determine the most appropriate dose of this combination. In the Phase I part of this study groups (...) in combination with enzalutamide at 160mg OD. [ Time Frame: 12 months ] The maximum dose at which no more than 1 of 6 patients at same dose level experience a drug related toxicity (DLT), as defined in the protocol. Antitumour activity of AZD5069 in combination with enzalutamide as measured by response rate in Phase II [ Time Frame: 12 months ] Prostate specific antigen (PSA) decline ≥ 50% criteria confirmed 4 weeks or later and/or, Confirmed soft tissue objective response by RECIST (v1.1) in patients

2017 Clinical Trials

153. Comparing the Effects of Oral Contraceptive Pills Versus Metformin

randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have shown that 20mcg ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone 1.0 mg was well tolerated. The study will utilize a 20mcg OCP but a less androgenic third generation progestin (desogestrel 0.15mg) with potentially lesser impact on lipids and insulin sensitivity. The OCP will be started on the first Sunday after spontaneous or induced menses. All subjects with no menses the 4 weeks before randomization will be given medroxyprogesterone acetate after a negative pregnancy test (...) and metformin (OCP, through lowering androgens, and metformin, through improvement in insulin sensitivity) will affect the prevalence of MetS, thereby altering the risk profile for the development of diabetes and possible cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young women with PCOS. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase PCOS Drug: OCP + Metformin Drug: OCP + Placebo Drug: Metformin + Placebo Phase 3 Detailed Description: The intervention will consist of randomizing subjects to one of three arms

2017 Clinical Trials

154. Treating Inflammation in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome to Ameliorate Ovarian Dysfunction

androgens. In addition, in vitro exposure to proinflammatory stimuli is capable of directly stimulating ovarian theca cell androgen production. Nonacetylated salicylates suppress NFĸB activation and are well tolerated in humans. The proposed research is a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study of 90 women with PCOS. Forty-five subjects with PCOS (15 lean without IR), 15 lean with IR and 15 obese) receiving salsalate, a nonacetylated salicylate, at an oral dose of 3-4 gm daily for 12 weeks (...) and protein content of inflammation markers, NFĸB activation and cytokine release in culture. The investigators expect that women with PCOS receiving salsalate will exhibit decreased ovarian androgen secretion and reduced inflammation regardless of adiposity or IR status. These results will be significant if they show a causal contribution of inflammation to ovarian dysfunction in PCOS, thus improving our understanding of the pathogenesis of PCOS, opening previously unexplored therapeutic avenues

2017 Clinical Trials

155. The Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism

The Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism The Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. The Effect (...) of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. Identifier: NCT01087879 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : March 16, 2010 Last Update Posted : September 7, 2011 Sponsor: University of Oulu Information provided by: University of Oulu Study Details

2010 Clinical Trials

156. Progesterone

in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY. Concepts Pharmacologic Substance ( T121 ) , Hormone ( T125 ) , Steroid ( T110 ) MSH SnomedCT 283016001 , 20249007 , 116614001 , 419430000 LNC LP31481-2, LP31663-5 English Gestagens , Progestagens , Progestogens , PROGESTINS , progestational hormones , progestins (...) (medication) , progestins , Synthetic Progestagen , [HS800] PROGESTINS , Progestational agents , Progestational hormones , progestagen , gestagen , progestogens , progestogen , gestagens , progestagens , Progestins , Progestogen (product) , Progestational Hormones , Gestagenic Agents , Progestational Agents , Progestational Compounds , Progestagenic Agents , Progestogen product , Progestational hormone (substance) , Progestin preparation (product) , Progestin preparation , Progestogen preparation

2018 FP Notebook

157. Genetics of Breast and Ovarian Cancer (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Data exist from both observational and randomized clinical trials regarding the association between postmenopausal HRT and breast cancer. A meta-analysis of data from 51 observational studies indicated a RR of breast cancer of 1.35 (95% CI, 1.21–1.49) for women who had used HRT for 5 or more years after menopause.[ ] The ( ), a randomized controlled trial of about 160,000 postmenopausal women, investigated the risks and benefits of HRT. The estrogen-plus-progestin arm of the study, in which more (...) than 16,000 women were randomly assigned to receive combined HRT or placebo, was halted early because health risks exceeded benefits.[ , ] Adverse outcomes prompting closure included significant increase in both total (245 vs. 185 cases) and invasive (199 vs. 150 cases) breast cancers (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02–1.5, P < . 001) and increased risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism. Similar findings were seen in the estrogen-progestin arm of the prospective observational Million

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

158. Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

cancers. Other risk factors for breast cancer include the following: Family health history.[ ] Major inheritance susceptibility.[ , ] - Germline mutation of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and other breast cancer susceptibility genes.[ , ] Alcohol intake. Breast tissue density (mammographic).[ ] Estrogen (endogenous).[ - ] - Menstrual history (early menarche/late menopause).[ , ] - Nulliparity. - Older age at first birth. Hormone therapy history. - Combination estrogen plus progestin hormone replacement (...) , Gierach GL, et al.: Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women. Breast Cancer Res Treat 135 (2): 571-80, 2012. [ ] [ ] Key TJ, Appleby PN, Reeves GK, et al.: Circulating sex hormones and breast cancer risk factors in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of 13 studies. Br J Cancer 105 (5): 709-22, 2011. [ ] [ ] Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ, et al.: Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

159. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

who have the lowest breast density.[ ] Study Design : Cohort, case-control studies. Internal Validity : Good. Consistency : Good. External Validity : Good. Modifiable Factors With Adequate Evidence of Increased Risk of Breast Cancer Combination hormone therapy Based on solid evidence, combination hormone therapy (HT) (estrogen-progestin) is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Magnitude of Effect : Approximately a 26% increase in incidence of invasive breast cancer (...) . Internal Validity : Good. Consistency : Good. External Validity : Poor. Interventions With Adequate Evidence of Decreased Risk of Breast Cancer Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): benefits Based on solid evidence, tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and tamoxifen reduces the risk of breast cancer in high-risk premenopausal women. The effects observed for tamoxifen and raloxifene show persistence several years after active treatment

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

160. Endometrial Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

associated with unopposed estrogen and actually reduce the risk by 35%.[ ] Tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, progestogenic, and androgenic properties, has been associated with an increased incidence rate ratio of endometrial cancer of 3.56 (95% CI, 3.08–4.69) for current users compared with never users. Tibolone is approved for use to manage menopausal symptoms or to prevent osteoporosis in many countries. However, it is not approved for use in Canada or the United States. Other combined (...) therapy (HT) with estrogen: Unopposed estrogen Based on solid evidence, unopposed estrogen is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer. This excess risk can be eliminated by adding continuous progestin to estrogen therapy, but this combination is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.[ - ] (Refer to the PDQ summary on for more information.) Magnitude of Effect : The associated risk of endometrial cancer in women who use unopposed estrogen for 5 or more years is at least

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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