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Progestin Androgenic Activity

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21. A Study With an Open-Label Active Control to Evaluate the Potential of Nestorone® to Delay Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Female Volunteers

A Study With an Open-Label Active Control to Evaluate the Potential of Nestorone® to Delay Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Female Volunteers A Study With an Open-Label Active Control to Evaluate the Potential of Nestorone® to Delay Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Female Volunteers - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save (...) this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Study With an Open-Label Active Control to Evaluate the Potential of Nestorone® to Delay Cardiac Repolarization in Healthy Female Volunteers The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details

2014 Clinical Trials

22. Effects and mechanisms of progestogens and androgens in ictal activity. (PubMed)

Effects and mechanisms of progestogens and androgens in ictal activity. Steroid hormones, such as progestogens and androgens, influence seizures. Progestogens and androgens exert organizational and/or activational effects that may mitigate vulnerability to, and/or expression of, some seizure disorders. Progestogens, such as progesterone (P(4)) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), which vary across the reproductive cycle and lifespan, may (...) protect against seizures through actions at intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) and membrane receptors, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. Similarly, androgens, such as testosterone (T), which also vary across the reproductive cycle and the lifespan, can have antiseizure effects. Some of these effects of T may be due to aromatization to estrogen and/or 5alpha-reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and its subsequent conversion through 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

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2010 Epilepsia

23. Progestin-induced virilisation

., for in protocols or for prevention of in pregnant women with a history of at least one spontaneous preterm birth) are: progesterone, hydroxyprogesterone caproate, dydrogesterone, and allylestrenol. Doses of 19-nortestosterones required for virilization are 10 to 20 mg/day, far in excess of those associated with inadvertent exposure during pregnancy. Genital ambiguity due to progestin exposure in pregnancy is thus mostly a topic of historical concern. History [ ] Androgens [ ] The first drugs reported to cause (...) and might prevent , but oral of progesterone is low and injections of progesterone can be painful, so orally active progestins were tried beginning with , followed by other progestins as they became available: noretynodrel (Enovid) and norethisterone (Norlutin) in 1957, medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) in 1959, norethisterone acetate (Norlutate) in 1961, and dydrogesterone (Duphaston) in 1962. The first case reports of fetal masculinization of external genitalia of female infants born to mothers

2012 Wikipedia

24. The use of newer progestins for contraception. (PubMed)

The use of newer progestins for contraception. The synthetic progestins used for contraception so far are structurally related either to testosterone (estranes and gonanes) or to progesterone (pregnanes and 19-norpregnanes). Several new progestins have been designed to minimize side-effects related to androgenic, estrogenic or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) interactions. Dienogest (DNG) and drospirenone (DRSP) exhibit a partial antiandrogenic action, and DRSP has predominant anti (...) with estradiol (E2). Nestorone is not active orally but proved to be the most active antiovulatory progestin when used parenterally. It has been developed in various formulations such as implants, vaginal rings or transdermal gel or spray. Risks and benefits of the new progestins depend upon the type of molecular structure, the type of estrogen associated in a combination and the route of administration.Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

2010 Contraception

25. The Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism

The Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism The Effect of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. The Effect (...) of Hormonal Contraceptives on Androgens and Glucose Metabolism The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01087879 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : March 16, 2010 Last Update Posted : September 7, 2011 Sponsor: University of Oulu Information provided by: University of Oulu Study Details

2010 Clinical Trials

26. Ovarian Stimulation for IVF/ICSI

cycle 51 REFERENCES 52 5. LH suppression regimes 54 KEY QUESTION: Which LH suppression protocol is preferable? 54 5.1 GnRH agonist protocols 54 5.2 GnRH antagonist protocol 55 5.3 Progestin 57 References 57 6. Types of gonadotropins 60 KEY QUESTION: Is the type of stimulation drug associated with efficacy and safety? 60 6.1 RECOMBINANT FSH (RFSH) 60 6.2 HIGHLY PURIFIED FSH (HP-FSH) VS HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN (HMG) 63 6.3 HUMAN MENOPAUSAL GONADOTROPIN (HMG) VS RECOMBINANT FSH + RECOMBINANT LH (...) dosage of hCG, adding LH or LH like activity to the FSH as principal drug, management of high and poor responders, use of adjuvant medications to improve follicle availability, etcetera. At the same time, debates have been there on beliefs like “the more (oocytes) the better”, less (mild stimulation) is more (quality), “normal (8-17 oocytes) is the best”, and “we need eggs, not ALL the eggs”. It seems that agreement on the optimal ovarian stimulation approach, aimed at getting more than 1 oocyte

2019 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

27. Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer - A review of the evidence

Intrauterine device (IUD) contraception 36 3.4.4 Menopausal hormone therapy/Hormone replacement therapy 38 3.5 Lifestyle factors 42 3.5.1 Alcohol consumption 42 3.5.2 Body fatness 44 3.5.3 Coffee and tea 47 3.5.4 Diet ?acrylamide 51 3.5.5 Diet ?fat 52 3.5.6 Diet ?glycaemic load 53 3.5.7 Environmental tobacco smoke 55 Endometrial cancer risk factors: A review of the evidence iii 3.5.8 Physical activity 56 3.5.9 Sedentary behaviour 58 3.5.10 Tobacco smoking 60 3.5.11 Weight loss 62 3.6 Medical factors 64 (...) on the statistically insignificant decreased risk observed in two randomised controlled trials, the Women’s Health Initiative and the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Therapy trial. The findings from both RCTs were limited by small number of cases and short exposure durations. There have been mixed findings from cohort studies regarding duration of use of Endometrial cancer risk factors: a review of the evidence 41 continuous combined MHT. Larger protective effects are observed among women with a high Body Mass Index

2019 Cancer Australia

28. Estradiol

demographic characteristics were associated with unscheduled bleeding, absent scheduled 2016 6. 17β- Estradiol and natural progesterone for menopausal hormone therapy: REPLENISH phase 3 study design of a combination capsule and evidence review. Several formulations combining estrogens and progestins for hormone therapy (HT) have been approved worldwide for the treatment of menopausal symptoms, yet recent data indicate a decline in their use and an increase in compounded bioidentical HT. Up to now (...) 10.1016/j.contraception.2011.11.011 The study was conducted to assess the efficacy of estradiol valerate (...) Journal Article Multicenter Study Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't 2012 01 10 United States Contraception 0234361 0010-7824 0 Androgens 0 Contraceptives, Oral, Combined 0 Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal 0 Estrogens 0 estradiol valerate-dienogest 4TI98Z838E Estradiol 6PG9VR430D Nandrolone IM Adolescent Adult Androgens administration & dosage adverse effects therapeutic use Contraceptives, Oral

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

29. International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)

Council (NHMRC) through the funded Centre for Research Excellence in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (CREPCOS) (APP1078444) and the members of this Centre who led and co-ordinated this international guideline effort 2 Our partner organisations which co-funded the guideline: ? American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) ? European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) 3 Our collaborating and engaged societies and consumer groups: ? Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Society (...) Exercise interventions 79 3.5 Obesity and weight assessment 82 CONTENTS International evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome 2018 3 Chapter Four Pharmacological treatment for non-fertility indications 84 4.1 Pharmacological treatment principles in PCOS 85 4.2 Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills and & combined oral contraceptive pills in 4.3 combination with other agents 86 4.4 Metformin 91 4.5 Anti-obesity pharmacological agents 95 4.6 Anti-androgen

2018 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology

30. ESC/ESH Management of Arterial Hypertension

day) ONTARGET Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial PAC Plasma aldosterone concentration PAD Peripheral artery disease PATHS Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension Study PRA Plasma renin activity PRC Plasma renin concentration PROGRESS Perindopril protection against recurrent stroke study PWV Pulse wave velocity RAS Renin–angiotensin system RCT Randomized controlled trial RWT Relative wall thickness SBP Systolic blood pressure SCOPE Study on Cognition

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2018 European Society of Cardiology

31. Overweight, Obesity and Contraception

, sexual activity, contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy among women with raised BMI 3 5 Suitability of contraceptive methods for women who are overweight or women with obesity 4 5.1 Intrauterine contraception (IUC) 6 5.1.1 IUC effectiveness 6 5.1.2 IUC safety 7 5.1.3 Weight gain with IUC 8 5.1.4 Health benefits of IUC 8 5.1.5 Practical considerations with IUC 8 5.2 Progestogen-only implants (IMP) 8 5.2.1 Implant effectiveness 9 5.2.2 Implant safety 11 5.2.3 Weight gain with implants 11 5.2.4 (...) and inflammatory factors were not adversely affected by DMPA use, with concentration of D-dimer significantly reduced from baseline. 100 The study was limited by very small numbers and no control group, making the findings difficult to interpret. However, the findings were not suggestive of DMPA having a negative effect on possible markers of thrombosis. A prospective study 101 examining the short-term effects of DMPA-SC on androgenic markers (testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, 3a

2019 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

32. An International Consortium Update: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of PCOS in Adolescence

suggested that the follicles in a PCOS ovary inherently differ from follicles in a normal ovary [ ]. Theca cells obtained from women with PCOS retain their phenotype with increased androgen secretion from increased CYP17A1 expression or P450c17 activity [ ]. Immunohistochemical studies have indicated that proteins involved in the alternate “backdoor pathway” of steroidogenesis are more highly expressed in PCOS theca cells [ ]. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) directed investigation to a specific (...) [ ]. Insulin can also decrease the hepatic synthesis of SHBG increasing circulating free androgens [ ]. Additionally, insulin may directly stimulate the activity of ovarian P450c17 and P450scc enzymes to promote ovarian androgen steroidogenesis [ ]. In addition, pancreatic beta cell secretory dysfunction has been described in a subset of women with PCOS; this subset probably has the highest risk of developing carbohydrate intolerance and type 2 diabetes [ ]. Other potential mechanisms, including pubertal

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2019 Pediatric Endocrine Society

33. Male Infertility

Obstet Gynecol, 2009. 21: 223. 57. Baccetti, B., et al. Ultrastructural studies of spermatozoa from infertile males with Robertsonian translocations and 18, X, Y aneuploidies. Hum Reprod, 2005. 20: 2295. 58. Miyagawa, Y., et al. Outcome of gonadotropin therapy for male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism at university affiliated male infertility centers: a 30-year retrospective study. J Urol, 2005. 173: 2072. 59. Ferlin, A., et al. Male infertility and androgen receptor gene mutations: clinical features (...) and identification of seven novel mutations. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2006. 65: 606. 60. Gottlieb, B., et al. Molecular pathology of the androgen receptor in male (in)fertility. Reprod Biomed Online, 2005. 10: 42. 61. Rajender, S., et al. Phenotypic heterogeneity of mutations in androgen receptor gene. Asian J Androl, 2007. 9: 147. 62. Tincello, D.G., et al. Preliminary investigations on androgen receptor gene mutations in infertile men. Mol Hum Reprod, 1997. 3: 941. 63. Giwercman, A., et al. Preserved male

2019 European Association of Urology

34. Management of Infertility

between tamoxifen and clomiphene Low (Iimprecise) Active Acupuncture + Clomiphene vs. Control Acupuncture + Clomiphene vs. Active Acupuncture + Placebo vs. Control Acupuncture + Placebo Live birth 1 RCT 96 (1000) Improvement: Live birth

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

35. Breast Cancer: Medication Use to Reduce Risk

of the Gail model is used in the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool, which is publicly accessible through the NCI website. Expanding on the Gail model, newer models include race/ethnicity, prior false-positive mammography results or benign breast disease, body mass index or height, estrogen and progestin use, history of breastfeeding, menopause status or age, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, education, breast density, and diet. Several models have been tested in large US populations in good (...) in the Clinical Considerations section. How Does Evidence Fit With Biological Understanding? Tamoxifen and raloxifene are selective ER modulators that inhibit ERs in breast tissue and reduce risk for ER-positive breast cancer by blocking the proliferation of estrogen-sensitive epithelial cells where breast cancer can develop. These medications have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for risk reduction of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors inhibit conversion of androgen to estrogen and can

2019 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

36. Contraceptive Choices for Young People

Framework 2 3.1 Sexual activity 2 3.2 Consent, confidentiality and safeguarding young people 2 3.3 Consultation 3 4 Contraceptive Options for Young People 4 4.1 Contraceptive use among young people 4 4.2 Non-adherence and discontinuation 4 4.3 Medical eligibility 5 4.4 Starting hormonal contraception in young people 6 4.5 Emergency contraception 6 5 Addressing Young People’s Health Concerns and Risks 7 5.1 Weight gain 7 5.2 Acne 7 5.3 Mood changes and depression 8 5.4 Fertility 8 5.5 Bleeding patterns (...) Guidance Comments and Feedback on Published Guidance i © FSRH 2010 CEU GUIDANCECEU GUIDANCE ii © FSRH 2010SUMMARY OF KEY RECOMMENDATIONS Legal and Ethical Framework Practitioners may wish to inform a young person of the law in relation to sexual activity. A clinician should assess a young person’s competence to consent to treatment by their ability to understand information provided, to weigh up the risks and benefits, and to express their own wishes. Competence to consent to treatment should

2019 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

37. Management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause in women with or at high risk for breast cancer: consensus recommendations from The North American Menopause Society and The International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health

to patient responses: ‘‘Tell me about it.’’ 23 This demonstratesthattheclinicianthinksdiscussingsexualhealth isimportantandnormalizesanduniversalizessexualconcerns for women. 24 Clinicians can also ask a direct screening question such as, ‘‘Do you have any problems or concerns related to sex or pain with sexual activity?’’ Structuredapproachestoincorporatingsexualityintoclini- cal practice provide strategies for identification, assessment, management, and/or referral for sexual health concerns. The From (...) and Psy- chiatry, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleve- land, OH. This CME activity is supported through unrestricted educational grants from Amag Pharmaceuticals, Aytu BioScience, Inc., and Cynosure. Funding was also provided by The International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health. Address correspondence to: The North American Menopause Society; 30100 Chagrin Blvd., Suite 210; Pepper Pike, OH 44124. E-mail: info@menopause.org. Website: www.menopause.org. CONTINUING

2019 The North American Menopause Society

38. Long-Term Drug Therapy and Drug Holidays for Osteoporosis Fracture Prevention: A Systematic Review

/progestin reduced clinical fractures (high SOE) and hip fractures (moderate SOE). After 3–5 years of prior treatment, continuation of zoledronate or alendronate versus drug holiday inconsistently reduced incident vertebral fracture outcomes (radiographic only for zoledronate [low SOE], clinical only for alendronate [moderate SOE]), but did not reduce nonvertebral fractures (low SOE). Hormone therapies increased cardiovascular events, mild cognitive impairment or dementia, and other harms. Observational (...) studies showed that long-term bisphosphonates may increase atypical femoral fractures (AFF) (low SOE) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (low SOE in 2 comparisons, insufficient in 1). Limitations. Most data were from white, healthy, postmenopausal women, limiting generalizability. Trials often had low power for incident clinical fractures. No trials compared active treatments, sequential treatments, or different durations of drug holidays. Harms and controls were inconsistently defined. Conclusions. Long

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

39. Screening and Management of the Hyperandrogenic Adolescent

active) testosterone. Although most data about the treatment of hyperandrogenism are on OCPs, similar effects have been shown with the patch and vaginal ring formulations (17, 18). Among the formulations, OCPs that contain third- generation progestins, such as desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate, have less androgenic activity when compared withsecond-generationprogestins(levonorgestrel).Drospir- enone, a progestin derived from spironolactone, has anti (...) ,whichconvertstestosteronetothe highly potent dihydrotestosterone. Varying expression of enzyme activity within the pilosebaceous unit leads to a lack of clear correlation between serum androgens and the presence or severity of acne and hirsutism. There also may be ethnic and familial variability (5). Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common cause of persistent hyperandrogenism beyond early puberty in adolescent girls and women and is estimated to affect 6– 15% of reproductive-aged women (6). In this syndrome

2019 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

40. Risk factors for breast cancer: A review of the evidence 2018

4.7.12 Diet—foods high in carotenoids 108 4.7.13 Diet—Mediterranean diet 110 4.7.14 Diet—phytoestrogens 112 Breast cancer risk factors: A review of the evidence iv 4.7.15 Diet—glycaemic index 114 4.7.16 Diet—total energy 115 4.7.17 Diet—sugar 117 4.7.18 Diet—fat 118 4.7.19 Diet—processed meat 119 4.7.20 Diet—red meat 121 4.7.21 Environmental tobacco smoke 123 4.7.22 Tobacco smoking 125 4.7.23 Physical activity 127 4.7.24 Shift work disrupting circadian rhythm 130 4.8 Medical factors 133 4.8.1 Aspirin (...) and risk of breast cancer 393 Table D.53 Diet—processed meat and risk of breast cancer 395 Table D.54 Diet—red meat and risk of breast cancer 398 Table D.55 Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of breast cancer 401 Table D.56 Tobacco smoking and risk of breast cancer 405 Table D.57 Physical activity and risk of breast cancer 409 Table D.58 Shift work disrupting circadian rhythm and risk of breast cancer 415 Table D.59 Aspirin and risk of breast cancer 420 Table D.60 Cardiac glycosides and risk

2018 Cancer Australia

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