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Prevention of Waterborne Illness

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161. Mycobacterium Marinum (Overview)

MJ. Nodular lymphangitis: a distinctive but often unrecognized syndrome. Ann Intern Med . 1993 Jun 1. 118(11):883-8. . Lewis FM, Marsh BJ, von Reyn CF. Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis . 2003 Aug 1. 37(3):390-7. . Nguyen C. Images in clinical medicine. Mycobacterium marinum. N Engl J Med . 2004 Feb 26. 350(9):e8. . Petrini B. Mycobacterium marinum: ubiquitous agent of waterborne (...) region. New Microbiol . 2005 Jan. 28(1):89-92. . Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, et al. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 2007 Feb 15. 175(4):367-416. . Harth M, Ralph ED, Faraawi R. Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium marinum. J Rheumatol . 1994 May. 21(5):957-60. . Hartmark-Hill JR, Kanodia AK, Frey KA. 53-year-old man with a swollen finger. Mayo Clin Proc . 2008 Feb. 83(2):217-20

2014 eMedicine.com

162. Listeria Monocytogenes (Overview)

resemble a gastrointestinal illness. [ ] The microorganism has gained recognition because of its association with epidemic . In 1997, an outbreak of noninvasive gastroenteritis occurred in 2 schools in northern Italy, involving more than 1500 children and adults. [ ] Bacteremia and are more serious manifestations of disease that can affect individuals at high risk. Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Next: Pathophysiology L monocytogenes (...) Oak, MI: Physicians Press; 2008. Armstrong D, Cohen J, eds. Listeria Monocytogenes. Infectious Diseases . London, UK: Mosby; 1999. 8.15.1-8.15.20. Berenguer J, Solera J, Diaz MD, Moreno S, Lopez-Herce JA, Bouza E. Listeriosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Rev Infect Dis . 1991 Jan-Feb. 13(1):115-9. . Blatt SP, Zajac RA. Treatment of Listeria bacteremia with vancomycin. Rev Infect Dis . 1991 Jan-Feb. 13(1):181-2. . Broome CV. Listeriosis: Can we prevent it?. ASM News

2014 eMedicine.com

163. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Overview)

-Blackfan anemia Osteopetrosis Inborn errors of metabolism Autoimmune disorders *Uncommon in children; common reasons for transplantation in adults Previous Next: Prognosis Transplantation-related mortality and morbidity rates have considerably decreased because of improved conditioning regimens, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, supportive care, and prevention and treatment of serious infections. Currently, overall and event-free survival rates are based on the individual's disease pathology (...) to treat the following conditions: Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Acute myeloid leukemia Neuroblastoma Germ cell tumors Autoimmune disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], systemic sclerosis) Amyloidosis Allogeneic HSCT is used to treat the following disorders: Acute myeloid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Myeloproliferative disorders Myelodysplastic syndromes Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma

2014 eMedicine.com

164. Giardiasis (Overview)

of the epidemics documented over the last 2 decades have originated in day-care centers. Estimates of the prevalence of infection, defined by the presence of cyst passage, have been as high as 20-25% in children younger than 3 years. [ , ] According to 2003–2005 data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the greatest number of reported cases occurred among children aged 1-4 and 5-9 years and adults aged 35-44 years. [ ] Previous Next: Prognosis The prognosis for patients with giardiasis (...) visceral sensitivity in Giardia-induced postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. Effect of the 5HT3-antagonist ondansetron. Neurogastroenterol Motil . 2007 Dec. 19(12):977-82. . Penrose AS, Wells EV, Aiello AE. Infectious causation of chronic disease: examining the relationship between Giardia lamblia infection and irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol . 2007 Sep 14. 13(34):4574-8. . Hanevik K, Dizdar V, Langeland N, Hausken T. Development of functional

2014 eMedicine.com

165. Toxoplasmosis (Overview)

lesions in children with toxoplasmosis who were not treated during the first year of life. Am J Ophthalmol . 2008 Sep. 146(3):375-384. . . Holland GN. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a global reassessment. Part II: disease manifestations and management. Am J Ophthalmol . 2004 Jan. 137(1):1-17. . Jones JL, Dubey JP. Foodborne toxoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Sep. 55(6):845-51. . Jones JL, Dubey JP. Waterborne toxoplasmosis--recent developments. Exp Parasitol . 2010 Jan. 124(1):10-25. . Jabs DA, Green WR (...) , Copyright © 1994-2019 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Ocular Toxoplasmosis) and Ocular Toxoplasmosis What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Most Popular Articles According to Infectious Disease Physicians Recommended 2002 2044905-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 229969-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 1208706-overview

2014 eMedicine.com

166. Leptospirosis (Follow-up)

-Apr. 30(2):109-15. . Githeko AK, Lindsay SW, Confalonieri UE, Patz JA. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ . 2000. 78(9):1136-47. . . National Research Council. Advancing the Science of Climate Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000. JAMA . 2001 (...) in Langau, Austria, 2010. Wien Klin Wochenschr . 2011 Dec. 123(23-24):751-5. . CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of acute febrile illness and pulmonary hemorrhage--Nicaragua, 1995. JAMA . 1995 Dec 6. 274(21):1668. . Gaynor K, Katz AR, Park SY, Nakata M, Clark TA, Effler PV. Leptospirosis on Oahu: an outbreak associated with flooding of a university campus. Am J Trop Med Hyg . 2007 May. 76(5):882-5. . Socolovschi C, Angelakis E, Renvoisé A, Fournier PE, Marié JL, Davoust

2014 eMedicine.com

167. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Follow-up)

-Blackfan anemia Osteopetrosis Inborn errors of metabolism Autoimmune disorders *Uncommon in children; common reasons for transplantation in adults Previous Next: Prognosis Transplantation-related mortality and morbidity rates have considerably decreased because of improved conditioning regimens, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, supportive care, and prevention and treatment of serious infections. Currently, overall and event-free survival rates are based on the individual's disease pathology (...) to treat the following conditions: Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Acute myeloid leukemia Neuroblastoma Germ cell tumors Autoimmune disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], systemic sclerosis) Amyloidosis Allogeneic HSCT is used to treat the following disorders: Acute myeloid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Myeloproliferative disorders Myelodysplastic syndromes Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma

2014 eMedicine.com

168. Pneumonia, Community-Acquired (Follow-up)

infiltrates, and shock in the absence of conditions associated with hyposplenism should be evaluated for imitators of pneumonia, such as acute myocardial infarction or acute . Conditions that predispose to severe CAP should be considered in patients presenting with CAP and shock in the absence of one of the aforementioned cardiopulmonary diseases. The following disorders and therapies have been associated with severe CAP: Chronic alcoholism Amyloidosis Chronic active hepatitis Hyposplenism in elderly (...) in individuals with comorbid factors such as underlying cardiopulmonary disease, diminished splenic function, and/or heightened pathogenic virulence. Even in young and/or healthy hosts, severe CAP can develop if the causative pathogen is sufficiently virulent. For example, , ( ), ( ), and Legionnaires disease may present as severe CAP. [ , , , ] Patients with severe CAP should have the benefit of an infectious disease specialist to assist in the underlying cause of their condition. Complications associated

2014 eMedicine.com

169. Acanthamoeba (Overview)

. Acanthamoeba was first established as a cause of human disease in the 1970s and might be considered an emerging infection. This genus causes 3 clinical syndromes: granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), disseminated granulomatous amebic disease (eg, skin, sinus, and pulmonary infections), and, most commonly, amebic ocular . Individuals who develop GAE or disseminated disease are usually immunocompromised, whereas those with keratitis are usually immunocompetent. Disseminated disease and GAE carry a poor (...) have occurred among persons with a wide variety of immunocompromising conditions, including AIDS [ ] , posttransplantation, cancer being treated with chemotherapy, , steroid use, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, or liver disease. [ ] Children who are malnourished, but otherwise healthy, are also at increased risk. Likewise, persons with disseminated disease without CNS involvement are usually immunocompromised; this condition is most common among patients with AIDS who have low CD4 counts (eg, 15

2014 eMedicine.com

170. Mycobacterium Marinum (Follow-up)

Medications Continue combination therapy or monotherapy 1-2 months after the infection resolves. Previous Next: Transfer Transfer to other facilities is unnecessary. Refer patients with M marinum infection to an infectious diseases physician or a dermatologist in an outpatient clinical setting. Previous Next: Deterrence/Prevention People who work near salt water should take precautions to avoid abrasions, trauma, or bites from fish and marine animals. People who work in aquariums should wear gloves (...) . An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 2007 Feb 15. 175(4):367-416. . Harth M, Ralph ED, Faraawi R. Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium marinum. J Rheumatol . 1994 May. 21(5):957-60. . Hartmark-Hill JR, Kanodia AK, Frey KA. 53-year-old man with a swollen finger. Mayo Clin Proc . 2008 Feb. 83(2):217-20. . Horowitz EA, Sanders WE. Other Mycobacterium Species. Mandell G, Bennett J, Dolin R, eds. Principles

2014 eMedicine.com

171. Listeria Monocytogenes (Follow-up)

Diseases . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders; 1998. 1750-5. Gross E, Slauson S. Update on emerging infections: news from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preliminary FoodNet Data on the incidence of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--selected sites, United States, 2003. Ann Emerg Med . 2004 Nov. 44(5):532-6. . Hof H, Nichterlein T, Kretschmar M. Management of listeriosis. Clin Microbiol Rev . 1997 Apr. 10(2):345-57. . John JF. Listeria Monocytogenes. Vinken (...) ? Sections Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Find Us On About Membership WebMD Network Editions All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2019 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis)) and Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Slideshow Most

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Cholera (Follow-up)

are inadequate. WHO recommends improvements in water supply and sanitation as the most sustainable approach for protecting against cholera and other waterborne epidemic diarrheal diseases. However, such an approach is unrealistic for the many impoverished populations most affected by cholera. Outbreaks can be mitigated and case-fatality rates can be reduced by means of several other measures, many of which are suitable for community participation. Human behaviors related to personal hygiene and food (...) . [ ] Previous References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera. Available at . Accessed: July 7, 2011. CDC. 150th anniversary of John Snow and the pump handle. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . Accessed: March 29, 2006. Kenneth Todar. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Available at . Accessed: April 12, 2010. Sack D, Cadoz M. Cholera vaccines. Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA. Vaccines . Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1999. 639-649. Steinberg EB, Greene KD, Bopp CA

2014 eMedicine.com

173. Cryptosporidiosis (Follow-up)

with cryptosporidiosis should not use recreational waters for 2 weeks after symptoms resolve. Wearing gloves and handwashing after handling diapers can prevent person-to-person spread in daycare centers and hospitals. Endoscopes and similar instruments should be disinfected between uses. Prompt antiparasitic treatment of infected children decreases oocyst shedding. Individuals with AIDS or another immunosuppressive condition should avoid swimming in communal pools or recreational water. In hospitalized patients (...) diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine targets for cryptosporidium. Lancet Infect Dis . 2015 Jan. 15 (1):85-94. . Bouzid M, Hunter PR, Chalmers RM, Tyler KM. Cryptosporidium pathogenicity and virulence. Clin Microbiol Rev . 2013 Jan. 26(1):115-34. . . Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States. Exp Parasitol . 2010 Jan. 124(1):31-9. . Painter JE, Hlavsa MC, Collier SA, Xiao L, Yoder JS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance

2014 eMedicine.com

174. Cyclospora (Follow-up)

, eye pain, documented iritis, arthralgias, right buccal painful ulcer), serology was negative for Lyme disease and chlamydia; HLA testing was negative for HLA-B27; and stools were negative for parasites. He responded dramatically to oral steroids and doxycycline. Pulmonary conditions: Cyclospora has been isolated from the sputum of two patients: one with active tuberculosis and the other with weight loss, cough, and purulent sputum. Its role as a pulmonary pathogen is not clear. Biliary disease (...) : This condition has been reported in association with cyclosporiasis. Previous Next: Prognosis In immunocompetent patients, the prognosis is excellent. In immunocompromised patients with HIV, diarrhea may last several months. After resolution, patients require prophylactic TMP-SMZ 3 times a week to prevent reinfection. Previous Next: Patient Education All travelers to developing countries should follow the food and water precautions outlined in Deterrence/Prevention. Raspberries imported from developing

2014 eMedicine.com

175. Toxoplasmosis (Follow-up)

lesions in children with toxoplasmosis who were not treated during the first year of life. Am J Ophthalmol . 2008 Sep. 146(3):375-384. . . Holland GN. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a global reassessment. Part II: disease manifestations and management. Am J Ophthalmol . 2004 Jan. 137(1):1-17. . Jones JL, Dubey JP. Foodborne toxoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Sep. 55(6):845-51. . Jones JL, Dubey JP. Waterborne toxoplasmosis--recent developments. Exp Parasitol . 2010 Jan. 124(1):10-25. . Jabs DA, Green WR (...) , Copyright © 1994-2019 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Ocular Toxoplasmosis) and Ocular Toxoplasmosis What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Most Popular Articles According to Infectious Disease Physicians Recommended 2002 2044905-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 229969-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 1208706-overview

2014 eMedicine.com

176. Streptococcus Group A Infections (Diagnosis)

. Assigning emm Types and Subtypes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . Accessed: June 5, 2012. McGregor KF, Spratt BG, Kalia A, Bennett A, Bilek N, Beall B, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pyogenes representing most known emm types and distinctions among subpopulation genetic structures. J Bacteriol . 2004 Jul. 186(13):4285-94. . . Stevens DL. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome: spectrum of disease, pathogenesis, and new concepts in treatment. Emerg Infect Dis (...) by bacterial toxins and enzymes (eg, lipase, hyaluronidase, collagenase, streptokinase), interactions among organisms (synergistic infections), local tissue factors (eg, decreased blood and oxygen supply), and general host factors (eg, immunocompromised state, chronic illness, surgery). As the infection spreads deep along the fascial planes, vascular occlusion, tissue ischemia, and necrosis occur. [ ] Although GAS is often isolated in cases of necrotizing fasciitis, this disease state is frequently

2014 eMedicine.com

177. Adenoviruses (Follow-up)

or nephrologist, as appropriate. Immunosuppressed patients may present with various adenoviral syndromes, ranging from afebrile hemorrhagic cystitis to fulminant disseminated disease (followed by shock and death). Consultation with an infectious disease specialist is helpful in this setting. Previous Next: Prevention After a 12-year hiatus, the FDA approved a live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 in 2011. It is indicated for use only by the US Department of Defense for military recruits entering (...) after lung transplantation, cidofovir has been used successfully. [ ] The management and prevention of severe adenovirus-related disease in hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is of particular importance and continues to evolve. There are as yet no evidence-based guidelines for or against specific antiviral therapies in this setting. Reduction of immunosuppression is not always feasible during the first 100 days post-transplantation, during which the risk is highest. The increasing use

2014 eMedicine.com

178. Acanthamoeba (Follow-up)

. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigational drug available directly from CDC for the treatment of infections with free-living amebae. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2013 Aug 23. 62 (33):666. . Gupta D, Panda GS, Bakhshi S. Successful treatment of acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis during induction therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer . 2008 Jun. 50(6):1292-3. . Brondfield MN, Reid MJ, Rutishauser RL, Cope JR, Tang J, Ritter JM, et al. Disseminated (...) and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Most Popular Articles According to Infectious Disease Physicians Recommended 2002 211214-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 996227-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2001 /viewarticle/902984 News News 2001 /viewarticle/911295 Need a Curbside Consult? Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape consult.

2014 eMedicine.com

179. Giardiasis (Follow-up)

& Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2006. Vol 2: 2420-3. Robertson LJ, Forberg T, Gjerde BK. Giardia cysts in sewage influent in Bergen, Norway 15-23 months after an extensive waterborne outbreak of giardiasis. J Appl Microbiol . 2008 Apr. 104(4):1147-52. . Ryu H, Alum A, Mena KD, Abbaszadegan M. Assessment of the risk of infection by Cryptosporidium and Giardia in non-potable reclaimed water. Water Sci Technol . 2007. 55(1-2):283-90. . Farthing MJ (...) ):11-5. . Dizdar V, Gilja OH, Hausken T. Increased visceral sensitivity in Giardia-induced postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia. Effect of the 5HT3-antagonist ondansetron. Neurogastroenterol Motil . 2007 Dec. 19(12):977-82. . Penrose AS, Wells EV, Aiello AE. Infectious causation of chronic disease: examining the relationship between Giardia lamblia infection and irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol . 2007 Sep 14. 13(34):4574-8. . Hanevik K, Dizdar V, Langeland

2014 eMedicine.com

180. Leptospirosis in Humans (Treatment)

Leptospira atop a 0.1-µm polycarbonate filter. (This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control/Rob Weyant) Signs and symptoms Leptospirosis ranges in severity from a mild illness suggesting a viral infection to a multisystemic syndrome with unique features. It is characterized by sudden onset of the following: Fever (38-40°C) Rigors Headache, retro-orbital pain, photophobia Muscle pain localized to the calf and lumbar areas (...) disease. [ ] Women who become ill during the last trimester of pregnancy and have had high-risk exposure should present promptly for treatment to prevent in utero infection. Newborns of ill mothers can also be treated. Leptospires may be shed in breastmilk for an unknown duration. Travelers and participants in "adventure racing" or other freshwater sports who may be hiking and may otherwise be exposed to fresh water, soil, mud, and vegetation are at higher risk, especially those older than 60 years

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

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