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172 results for

Prevention of Waterborne Illness


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141. Water-borne Diarrheal Infection

Infection Water-borne Diarrheal Infection Aka: Water-borne Diarrheal Infection , Waterborne Illness From Related Chapters II. Risk Factors Travel to endemic areas of Waterborne Illness Hiking in wilderness areas (especially drinking from mountain streams) Intake Untreated water Unpasteurized dairy products III. Causes: Waterborne Diarrheal infection (rapid onset 12-72 hours) Nontyphoidal (rapid onset 12-36 hours) (Intermediate onset 1-3 days) (slow onset 3-7 days) (Intermediate onset 3-5 days) (onset (...) Water-borne Diarrheal Infection Water-borne Diarrheal Infection Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Water-borne Diarrheal

2015 FP Notebook

142. Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis Leptospirosis Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Leptospirosis Leptospirosis Aka: Leptospirosis (...) , Leptospira , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospira biflexa , Weil's Disease From Related Chapters II. Epidemiology Worldwide: Common United States: 100-200/year (underestimated) Hawaii accounts for 50% of cases III. Pathophysiology Fresh-waterborne (Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira biflexa and 14 other species) Transmission Passed via infected animals urine Rats (most common) Livestock (e.g. horses, cattle, sheeps, goats) Dogs (often asymptomatic) Leptospira remains viable for months in water and soil

2015 FP Notebook

143. Trial of Ceramic Water Filters to Reduce Cryptosporidium Infection in Kenya

and Prevention Collaborator: Kenya Medical Research Institute Information provided by (Responsible Party): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The aim of the study is to examine the efficacy of ceramic water filters to reduce the burden of waterborne diarrheal illness among infants in selected villages in Kenya. In Kenya very young children are given drinking water or water is used in reconstitution of their food. We hypothesize that ceramic water (...) filters will remove Cryptosporidium from drinking water reducing infection in infants. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Cryptosporidium; Diarrhea Cryptosporidiosis Communicable Diseases Diarrheal Disease Other: Ceramic water filter Not Applicable Detailed Description: Diarrhea is a major cause of illness among children in Africa. Cryptosporidium is a protozoan waterborne diarrheal pathogen resistant to chlorine. Ceramic filters are effective at improving drinking water quality

2012 Clinical Trials

144. Evaluation of Safe-Water Programs in Baja California Sur, Mexico

of California, Berkeley. While the systems have been tested for safety and effectiveness at inactivating waterborne pathogens, FCA is interested in rigorously evaluating the impact of their safe drinking-water program at the population level. FCA is looking to expand their safe-water program during 2009 and 2010 to newly identified communities that lack safe-drinking water. In order to evaluate the community level effectiveness of their program FCA has agreed to randomize the timing of this expansion which (...) prevalence of gastrointestinal illness, and reductions in fecal contamination of household drinking-water, measured as concentrations of Escherichia Coli per 100 ml of water. Similarly, the investigators hypothesize that these communities will also have reduced health care costs, and school and work absenteeism due to the implementation of the safe drinking-water programs. The investigators further hypothesize that household level characteristics and specific program characteristics will differentially

2012 Clinical Trials

145. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence. (PubMed)

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence. A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection.Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity (...) and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure co-morbid anxiety

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2012 BMC Gastroenterology

146. Trial of Safe Water Storage Among People Living With HIV

to prevent recontamination of water in household use. All households will be followed for an additional 9 months. Results of this study will help determine whether this promising water quality intervention can reduce diarrhoea and related outcomes in this and similar vulnerable populations. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Diarrhea Waterborne Disease HIV Device: Safe storage device Not Applicable Detailed Description: Specific Aim #1: To assess environmental health-related risk (...) (individual and household level stratification) (conclusion of baseline). After nine months of data collection, we will perform an initial analysis to determine WSH-related risk by HIV status. Specific Aim #3: To assess the impact of a water quality intervention on the longitudinal prevalence of Highly Credible Gastrointestinal Illness (HCGI) among PLWHA (randomized controlled trial, year 2). We will conduct a randomised, controlled trial of a safe water storage intervention. We will assess the health

2011 Clinical Trials

147. Adenovirus Infections

and supportive. Ribavirin and cidofovir have been used in immunocompromised patients; results varied. To minimize transmission, health care practitioners should change gloves and wash hands after examining infected patients, sterilize instruments adequately, and avoid using the same ophthalmologic instruments in multiple patients. Prevention Vaccines containing live adenovirus types 4 and 7, given orally in an enteric-coated capsule, can prevent most illness caused by these two types. The vaccine (...) of worldwide vaccination, the current threat of a smallpox outbreak is most likely to come from which of the following? Bioterrorism Immunodeficiency Travel abroad Vaccination refusal NEWS & VIDEOS Pneumococcal Vaccination at Age 50 Prevents the Most Disease MONDAY, March 4, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Recommending pneumococcal vaccination for all 50-year-olds prevents the most disease in underserved minorities and the general population, but the cost... Video Overview of Tuberculosis (TB) SOCIAL MEDIA Add

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

148. Overview of Gastroenteritis

, metals, plant substances). Acquisition may be foodborne, waterborne, or via person-to-person spread. In the US, an estimated 1 in 6 people contracts foodborne illness each year. Symptoms include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. Diagnosis is clinical or by stool culture, although PCR and immunoassays are increasingly used. Treatment is symptomatic, although some parasitic and some bacterial infections require specific anti-infective therapy. Gastroenteritis is usually (...) , and vomiting. In healthy people, the illness is self-limited, lasting about 2 wk. In immunocompromised patients, illness may be severe, causing substantial electrolyte and fluid loss. Cryptosporidium is usually acquired through contaminated water. It is not easily killed by chlorine and is the most common cause of recreational waterborne illness in the US, accounting for about three fourths of outbreaks. Other parasites that can cause symptoms similar to those of cryptosporidiosis include

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

149. Biological Agents as Weapons

Overview of Heat Illness Withdrawal from which of the following substances is most likely to increase a patient’s heat input? Alcohol Cannabis Cocaine Phencyclidine NEWS & VIDEOS Fractures Have Long-Term Impact on Quality of Life for Older Adults TUESDAY, Feb. 12, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Incident fragility fractures are associated with long-term impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older people, according to a study... 3D Model Musculoskeletal Connective Tissues Video Prone Quadriceps (...) agents carried out during the 20th century by most major powers (including development of strains resistant to multiple drugs). The area of most concern is the use of BW agents by terrorist groups. BW agents are thought by some to be an ideal weapon for terrorists. These agents may be delivered clandestinely, and they have delayed effects, allowing the user to remain undetected. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has created a priority list of biological agents and toxins (see

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

150. Rotavirus

disease death rates dropped during the 2009 rotavirus season by more than 65 percent among children age two and under. In Nicaragua, which in 2006 became the first developing country to introduce a rotavirus vaccine, severe rotavirus infections were reduced by 40 percent and emergency room visits by a half. In the United States, rotavirus vaccination since 2006 has led to drops in rotavirus-related hospitalisations by as much as 86 percent. The vaccines may also have prevented illness in non (...) , rotaviruses caused 37 percent of deaths of children from diarrhoea and 215,000 deaths worldwide, and almost two million more became severely ill. Most of these deaths occurred in developing countries. In the United States, before initiation of the programme in the 2000s, rotavirus caused about 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children, almost 60,000 hospitalisations, and around 37 deaths each year. Following rotavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, hospitalisation rates have

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2012 Wikipedia

151. Haiti cholera outbreak

than 700,000 Haitians had become ill with the disease and the death toll had climbed to 9,000. As of March 2017, around 7% of Haiti's population (around 800,665 people) have been affected with cholera, and 9,480 Haitians have died. Latest epidemiological report by WHO in 2018 indicate a total of 812,586 cases of cholera in Haiti since October 2010, resulting in 9,606 deaths. International [ ] The first case of cholera was reported in the Dominican Republic in mid-November 2010, following the Pan (...) or community. There is also a chronic shortage of health care personnel, and hospitals lack adequate resources to treat those infected with cholera- a situation that became readily apparent after the January 2010 earthquake. Insufficient water and sanitation infrastructure, coupled with a massive earthquake in 2010, made Haiti particularly vulnerable to an outbreak of waterborne disease. Physiological [ ] Malnutrition of the population, another pre-existing condition that was exacerbated by the earthquake

2012 Wikipedia

152. Health in Afghanistan

that children receive adequate health care to prevent growth faltering resulting from illness and early treatment of acute malnutrition and Promote appropriate hygiene practices. Leprosy [ ] Despite anti-leprosy initiatives by (LEPCO) dating to 1984, is present in Afghanistan, with 231 cases reported in the 2001-2007 period. Just over three-quarters of the cases were the MB-type, with the rest PB-type. Leprosy has been reported in the central mountain area of the country. Mainly in the provinces (...) for International Development is engaged in promulgating ( ) treatments, as well as TB awareness and prevention. is a development organisation that focuses on the alleviation of poverty through the empowerment of the poor to improve their lives. BRAC Afghanistan is involved in assisting in the implementation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Kabul, Badghis, Balkh and Nimroz. This implementation is mainly funded by the World Bank and the USAID-REACH (United States Agency for International

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2012 Wikipedia

153. Globalization and disease

: airborne, waterborne, bloodborne, by direct contact, and through ( or other creatures that carry germs from one species to another). As humans began traveling over seas and across lands which were previously isolated, research suggests that diseases have been spread by all five transmission modes. Contents Travel patterns and globalization [ ] The generally refers to the period between the 15th and 17th centuries. During this time, technological advances in and navigation made it easier for nations (...) , increasing the concentration of and in certain places, which led to the emergence of new diseases as some jumped in mutation from animals to humans. During this time ' and ' treatment of disease was often focused on and , and healing the entire and , rather than focusing on a few symptoms like . Early medicine often included the use of and . Based on archeological evidence, some prehistoric practitioners in both Europe and South America used , making a hole in the skull to release illness. Severe

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2012 Wikipedia

154. Giardia lamblia

be isolated and treated, or the entire pack at a kennel can be treated together regardless. Kennels should also be then cleaned with bleach or other cleaning disinfectants. The grass areas used for exercise should be considered contaminated for at least one month after dogs show signs of infection, as cysts can survive in the environment for long periods of time. Prevention can be achieved by of infected dogs for at least 20 days and careful management and maintenance of a clean water supply. Transmission (...) [ ] Giardia lamblia infection can occur through ingestion of dormant in contaminated water or food, or by the (through poor hygiene practices). The cyst can survive for weeks to months in cold water, so can be present in contaminated wells and water systems, especially stagnant water sources, such as naturally occurring ponds, storm water storage systems, and even clean-looking mountain streams. Giardia lamblia is a microscopic parasite that causes the diarrheal illness known as giardiasis. Can also

2012 Wikipedia

155. Wilderness acquired diarrhea

of the different that are most likely to cause infection. See also [ ] Footnotes [ ] ^ Hargreaves JS (2006). . Wilderness Environ Med . 17 (2): 94–102. : . . Diarrhea is a common illness of wilderness travelers, occurring in about one third of expedition participants and participants on wilderness recreation courses. The incidence of diarrhea may be as high as 74% on adventure trips. ...Wilderness diarrhea is not caused solely by waterborne pathogens, ... poor hygiene, with fecal-oral transmission, is also (...) spontaneously, with or without treatment, and the cause is typically unknown. The National Outdoor Leadership School has recorded about one incident per 5,000 person-field days by following strict protocols on hygiene and water treatment. More limited, separate studies have presented highly varied estimated rates of affliction that range from 3 percent to 74 percent of wilderness visitors. One survey found that long-distance Appalachian Trail hikers reported as their most common illness. Based on reviews

2012 Wikipedia

156. Medieval medicine

camps were not to be set up in any sort of region. lands tend to have standing water, which can draw in . Mosquitos, in turn, can carry deadly disease, such as . As the camp and troops were needed to be moved, the troops would be wearing heavy soled shoes in order to prevent wear on soldiers’ feet. Waterborne illness has also remained an issue throughout the centuries. When soldiers would look for water they would be searching for some sort of natural spring or other forms of flowing water. When (...) numbers of people flocked for cures. Healing visions and dreams formed the foundation for the curing process as the person seeking treatment from Asclepius slept in a special dormitory. The healing occurred either in the person's dream or advice from the dream could be used to seek out the proper treatment for their illness elsewhere. Afterwards the visitor to the temple bathed, offered prayers and sacrifice, and received other forms of treatment like medication, dietary restrictions, and an exercise

2012 Wikipedia

157. Blastocystosis

and animal studies. Immune modulation : Blastocystis has been shown to provoke cells from the human colon to produce inflammatory and . plays a role in rheumatoid arthritis. Protease secretion : Blastocystis secretes a that breaks up antibodies produced and secreted into the lumen. These antibodies, known as , make up the of human by preventing the growth of harmful microorganisms in the body and by neutralizing secreted by these microorganisms. By breaking up the antibodies, it allows the persistence (...) present: Some physicians consider Blastocystis infection to be a cause of illness only when large numbers are found in stool samples. Researchers have questioned this approach, noting that it is not used with any other protozoal infections, such as Giardia or Entamoeba histolytica . Some researchers have reported no correlation between number of organisms present in stool samples and the level of symptoms. A study using polymerase chain reaction testing of stool samples suggested that symptomatic

2012 Wikipedia

158. Campylobacteriosis

, frequently bloody, bowel movements per day) or , , , and as high as 40 °C (104 °F). In most people, the illness lasts for 2–10 days. It is classified as invasive/inflammatory diarrhea, also described as bloody diarrhea or dysentery. There are other diseases showing similar symptoms. For instance, abdominal pain and tenderness may be very localized, mimicking . Furthermore, is closely related to and causes . Complications [ ] Complications include , and . Such complications generally occur in young (...) a . The severity and persistence of infection in patients with AIDS and indicates that both cell-mediated and humoral immunity are important in preventing and terminating infection. Cause [ ] Main article: Campylobacter bacteria are the number-one cause of food-related in the United States. This scanning electron microscope image shows the characteristic spiral, or corkscrew, shape of cells and related structures. Campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter bacteria (curved or spiral, motile, non–spore

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2012 Wikipedia

159. Dental amalgam controversy

crumbled away. He removed all the fillings with an explorer in three minutes; and concluded poor workmanship alone could have explained the patient's symptoms. was a German chemist who reported becoming very ill in the 1920s and traced his illness to his amalgam fillings and resulting mercury intoxication. He described his recovery after the fillings were removed and believed that amalgam fillings would come to be seen as a, "sin against humanity." Stock had also previously been exposed to toxic levels (...) of increasing exposure. One gum-chewer had 24.8 μg HgU. Studies have shown that the amount of mercury released during normal chewing is extremely low. It concluded that there was not enough evidence to support or refute many of the other claims such as increased risk of , but stated that the broad and nonspecific illness attributed to dental amalgam is not supported by the data. Mutter in Germany, however, concludes that "removal of dental amalgam leads to permanent improvement of various chronic complaints

2012 Wikipedia

160. Norovirus

norovirus strains do not appear to affect the proportion of gastroenteritis attributable to norovirus. Norovirus is a common cause of epidemics of gastroenteritis on . The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through its Vessel Sanitation Program record and investigate outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness—mostly caused by norovirus—on cruise ships with both a U.S. and foreign itinerary; there were 12 in 2015, and 10 from 1 January to 9 May 2016. An outbreak may affect over 25% of passengers (...) -borne infections ...". Ciba Found. Symp . 128 : 108–25. . Parashar U, Quiroz ES, Mounts AW, Monroe SS, Fankhauser RL, Ando T, Noel JS, Bulens SN, Beard SR, Li JF, Bresee JS, Glass RI (2001). . Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports—Recommendations and Reports . 50 (RR-9): 1–18. . . . January 11, 2012 . Retrieved January 20, 2012 . . BBC News. January 12, 2012 . Retrieved January 20, 2012 . External links [ ] Norovirus infections : Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Food Illness Fact Sheet

2012 Wikipedia

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