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Prevention of Waterborne Illness

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141. Colorectal Cancer Screening

for inclusion in the analysis. All patients provided one stool sample taken within a week before colonoscopy preparation, which was collected according to instructions in a container that was kept refrigerated or frozen until rendered to the clinic on the day of colonoscopy, and the patients agreed to complete a standard questionnaire regarding the use of analgesics and low-dose aspirin (for prevention of cardiovascular disease). Stool samples were thawed within a median of 4 days after arrival (...) worldwide [ ] and the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States.[ ] It is estimated that there will be 145,600 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2019 and 51,020 deaths due to this disease. From 2006 to 2015, CRC incidence declined by 3.7% per year among adults aged 55 years and older. However, from 2006 to 2015, in adults younger than 55 years, CRC incidence rates have been increasing by 1.8% per year. From 2007 to 2016, mortality from CRC declined by 2.7% per year among adults

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

142. Andrew Wakefield claims “natural Herd Immunity” is better than anything vaccines can do, never mind all that suffering

that getting sick is morbidity! Seriously, if you get sick with measles, even if you recover (as the vast majority do), you have suffered significant morbidity, and if there’s a vaccine suffering that morbidity is potentially preventable! Basically, Wakefield redefines morbidity as only permanent sequelae to make this deeply dishonest argument. I could much more reasonably define morbidity as being ill with vaccine-preventable disease (because that is morbidity, albeit temporary) and point out that, since (...) of student guest posts for my class on infectious causes of chronic disease. First one this year is by Dana Lowry. Humans have a long history of illness and death from infectious diseases. It wasn’t until the 1790s that we had a solution. Edward Jenner… If you want to know the single most important class of public health interventions with respect to infectious diseases in the 20th century it wasn't vaccines but provision of clean water and food supplies. But vaccines may be next. With major waterborne

2016 Respectful Insolence

143. Catching up with the Authors: Aurélie Jeandron and Ayse Ercumen on Clean Water Supply in the DRC and India

Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Post navigation in Uncategorized Source: AddThis Sharing Buttons above Last October PLOS Medicine published two research articles from separate groups investigating the association between continuous clean water supply and waterborne diseases. found that interruptions to the piped water supply to Ulvira, a town in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were followed (...) . It is expected to significantly improve the town’s access to drinking water by 2018 and thereby potentially reduce cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases incidence. One goal of the project was to improve the reliability of the tap water supply by building a hydro-electric generator to prevent the frequent power cuts that prevent treated water being pumped through the system. Further engineering plans, however, determined that the geological setting was inappropriate to build a small dam at an affordable cost

2016 PLOS Blogs Network

144. Assessing the contributions of an academic health department for a school of public health in New York State (Full text)

and Biostatistics, and is currently the Associate Director for Food Safety, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. Morse Dale D Millicent Eidson is a Research Scientist with the NYSDOH Office of Public Health Practice and an Associate Professor in the UA-SPH Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, both in Albany, New York. Eva Pradhan is a Research (...) Scientist with the NYSDOH Cancer Registry in Albany. Dale Morse was the former Assistant Commissioner of Science at the NYSDOH and former Chair and Professor in the UA-SPH Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and is currently the Associate Director for Food Safety, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. eng Journal Article United States

2014 Public Health Reports PubMed abstract

145. Toxoplasmosis (Diagnosis)

lesions in children with toxoplasmosis who were not treated during the first year of life. Am J Ophthalmol . 2008 Sep. 146(3):375-384. . . Holland GN. Ocular toxoplasmosis: a global reassessment. Part II: disease manifestations and management. Am J Ophthalmol . 2004 Jan. 137(1):1-17. . Jones JL, Dubey JP. Foodborne toxoplasmosis. Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Sep. 55(6):845-51. . Jones JL, Dubey JP. Waterborne toxoplasmosis--recent developments. Exp Parasitol . 2010 Jan. 124(1):10-25. . Jabs DA, Green WR (...) , Copyright © 1994-2019 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Close encoded search term (Ocular Toxoplasmosis) and Ocular Toxoplasmosis What to Read Next on Medscape Related Conditions and Diseases Medscape Consult News & Perspective Tools Most Popular Articles According to Infectious Disease Physicians Recommended 2002 2044905-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 229969-overview Diseases & Conditions Diseases & Conditions 2002 1208706-overview

2014 eMedicine.com

146. Mycobacterium Marinum (Diagnosis)

MJ. Nodular lymphangitis: a distinctive but often unrecognized syndrome. Ann Intern Med . 1993 Jun 1. 118(11):883-8. . Lewis FM, Marsh BJ, von Reyn CF. Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis . 2003 Aug 1. 37(3):390-7. . Nguyen C. Images in clinical medicine. Mycobacterium marinum. N Engl J Med . 2004 Feb 26. 350(9):e8. . Petrini B. Mycobacterium marinum: ubiquitous agent of waterborne (...) region. New Microbiol . 2005 Jan. 28(1):89-92. . Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, et al. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 2007 Feb 15. 175(4):367-416. . Harth M, Ralph ED, Faraawi R. Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium marinum. J Rheumatol . 1994 May. 21(5):957-60. . Hartmark-Hill JR, Kanodia AK, Frey KA. 53-year-old man with a swollen finger. Mayo Clin Proc . 2008 Feb. 83(2):217-20

2014 eMedicine.com

147. Leptospirosis (Diagnosis)

polycarbonate filter. (This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control/Rob Weyant) Signs and symptoms Leptospirosis ranges in severity from a mild illness suggesting a viral infection to a multisystemic syndrome with unique features. It is characterized by sudden onset of the following: Fever (38-40°C) Rigors Headache, retro-orbital pain, photophobia Muscle pain localized to the calf and lumbar areas Conjunctival suffusion Dry cough (...) and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ . 2000. 78(9):1136-47. . . National Research Council. Advancing the Science of Climate Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000. JAMA . 2001 Feb 14. 285(6):728-30. . CDC. Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among

2014 eMedicine.com

148. Listeria Monocytogenes (Diagnosis)

, and diarrhea may resemble a gastrointestinal illness. [ ] The microorganism has gained recognition because of its association with epidemic . In 1997, an outbreak of noninvasive gastroenteritis occurred in 2 schools in northern Italy, involving more than 1500 children and adults. [ ] Bacteremia and are more serious manifestations of disease that can affect individuals at high risk. Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Next: Pathophysiology L (...) Essentials . 7th ed. Royal Oak, MI: Physicians Press; 2008. Armstrong D, Cohen J, eds. Listeria Monocytogenes. Infectious Diseases . London, UK: Mosby; 1999. 8.15.1-8.15.20. Berenguer J, Solera J, Diaz MD, Moreno S, Lopez-Herce JA, Bouza E. Listeriosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Rev Infect Dis . 1991 Jan-Feb. 13(1):115-9. . Blatt SP, Zajac RA. Treatment of Listeria bacteremia with vancomycin. Rev Infect Dis . 1991 Jan-Feb. 13(1):181-2. . Broome CV. Listeriosis: Can we prevent

2014 eMedicine.com

149. Leptospirosis (Overview)

polycarbonate filter. (This image is in the public domain and thus free of any copyright restrictions. Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control/Rob Weyant) Signs and symptoms Leptospirosis ranges in severity from a mild illness suggesting a viral infection to a multisystemic syndrome with unique features. It is characterized by sudden onset of the following: Fever (38-40°C) Rigors Headache, retro-orbital pain, photophobia Muscle pain localized to the calf and lumbar areas Conjunctival suffusion Dry cough (...) and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ . 2000. 78(9):1136-47. . . National Research Council. Advancing the Science of Climate Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000. JAMA . 2001 Feb 14. 285(6):728-30. . CDC. Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among

2014 eMedicine.com

150. Cyclospora (Overview)

, CDC Warns. Medscape Medical News. Available at . August 7, 2017; Accessed: August 8, 2017. Shlim DR, Cohen MT, Eaton M, Rajah R, Long EG, Ungar BL. An alga-like organism associated with an outbreak of prolonged diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg . 1991 Sep. 45(3):383-9. . Ortega YR, Sterling CR, Gilman RH, Cama VA, Díaz F. Cyclospora species--a new protozoan pathogen of humans. N Engl J Med . 1993 May 6. 328(18):1308-12. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update (...) at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona. Sci Total Environ . 2014 Jun 15. 484:129-36. . Hall RL, Jones JL, Hurd S, Smith G, Mahon BE, Herwaldt BL. Population-based active surveillance for Cyclospora infection--United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 1997-2009. Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 54 Suppl 5:S411-7. . Baldursson S, Karanis P. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010. Water Res . 2011 Dec 15. 45(20):6603-14

2014 eMedicine.com

151. Cryptosporidiosis (Treatment)

with cryptosporidiosis should not use recreational waters for 2 weeks after symptoms resolve. Wearing gloves and handwashing after handling diapers can prevent person-to-person spread in daycare centers and hospitals. Endoscopes and similar instruments should be disinfected between uses. Prompt antiparasitic treatment of infected children decreases oocyst shedding. Individuals with AIDS or another immunosuppressive condition should avoid swimming in communal pools or recreational water. In hospitalized patients (...) diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccine targets for cryptosporidium. Lancet Infect Dis . 2015 Jan. 15 (1):85-94. . Bouzid M, Hunter PR, Chalmers RM, Tyler KM. Cryptosporidium pathogenicity and virulence. Clin Microbiol Rev . 2013 Jan. 26(1):115-34. . . Yoder JS, Beach MJ. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States. Exp Parasitol . 2010 Jan. 124(1):31-9. . Painter JE, Hlavsa MC, Collier SA, Xiao L, Yoder JS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance

2014 eMedicine.com

152. Cyclospora (Treatment)

, CDC Warns. Medscape Medical News. Available at . August 7, 2017; Accessed: August 8, 2017. Shlim DR, Cohen MT, Eaton M, Rajah R, Long EG, Ungar BL. An alga-like organism associated with an outbreak of prolonged diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg . 1991 Sep. 45(3):383-9. . Ortega YR, Sterling CR, Gilman RH, Cama VA, Díaz F. Cyclospora species--a new protozoan pathogen of humans. N Engl J Med . 1993 May 6. 328(18):1308-12. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update (...) at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona. Sci Total Environ . 2014 Jun 15. 484:129-36. . Hall RL, Jones JL, Hurd S, Smith G, Mahon BE, Herwaldt BL. Population-based active surveillance for Cyclospora infection--United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 1997-2009. Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 54 Suppl 5:S411-7. . Baldursson S, Karanis P. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010. Water Res . 2011 Dec 15. 45(20):6603-14

2014 eMedicine.com

153. Mycobacterium Marinum (Treatment)

of Mycobacterium marinum. Scand J Infect Dis . 1993. 25(6):779-82. . Galdiero M, Finamore E, Galdiero E, et al. A case of granulomatous skin lesions caused by Mycobacterium marinum in the Campania region. New Microbiol . 2005 Jan. 28(1):89-92. . Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA, et al. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med . 2007 Feb 15. 175(4):367-416. . Harth M, Ralph ED, Faraawi R. Septic arthritis due (...) Aug. 133(8):947-9. . Johnston JM, Izumi AK. Cutaneous Mycobacterium marinum infection ("swimming pool granuloma"). Clin Dermatol . 1987 Jul-Sep. 5(3):68-75. . Kostman JR, DiNubile MJ. Nodular lymphangitis: a distinctive but often unrecognized syndrome. Ann Intern Med . 1993 Jun 1. 118(11):883-8. . Lewis FM, Marsh BJ, von Reyn CF. Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis . 2003 Aug 1. 37(3):390-7

2014 eMedicine.com

154. Streptococcus Group A Infections (Overview)

. Assigning emm Types and Subtypes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . Accessed: June 5, 2012. McGregor KF, Spratt BG, Kalia A, Bennett A, Bilek N, Beall B, et al. Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pyogenes representing most known emm types and distinctions among subpopulation genetic structures. J Bacteriol . 2004 Jul. 186(13):4285-94. . . Stevens DL. Streptococcal toxic-shock syndrome: spectrum of disease, pathogenesis, and new concepts in treatment. Emerg Infect Dis (...) by bacterial toxins and enzymes (eg, lipase, hyaluronidase, collagenase, streptokinase), interactions among organisms (synergistic infections), local tissue factors (eg, decreased blood and oxygen supply), and general host factors (eg, immunocompromised state, chronic illness, surgery). As the infection spreads deep along the fascial planes, vascular occlusion, tissue ischemia, and necrosis occur. [ ] Although GAS is often isolated in cases of necrotizing fasciitis, this disease state is frequently

2014 eMedicine.com

155. Cryptosporidiosis (Overview)

, Xiao L, Yoder JS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance -- United States, 2011-2012. MMWR Suppl . 2015 May 1. 64 (3):1-14. . Chalmers RM, Smith R, Elwin K, Clifton-Hadley FA, Giles M. Epidemiology of anthroponotic and zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2004-2006. Epidemiol Infect . 2011 May. 139(5):700-12. . Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major (...) -infected people after the waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee. N Engl J Med . 1996 Jan 4. 334(1):19-23. . Chalmers RM, Campbell BM, Crouch N, Charlett A, Davies AP. Comparison of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of seven Cryptosporidium assays used in the UK. J Med Microbiol . 2011 Nov. 60:1598-604. . Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Cryptosporidiosis. Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long Ss, eds. Red Book . 30th ed. Elk Grove Village, Ill

2014 eMedicine.com

156. Campylobacter Infections (Overview)

Updated: Aug 24, 2018 Author: Mahmud H Javid, MBBS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Campylobacter Infections Overview Background Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic illnesses. In industrialized regions, enteric Campylobacter infections produce an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome. Campylobacter jejuni (see image below (...) in intestinal secretions. The severity and persistence of C jejuni infections in individuals with AIDS and indicates that both cell-mediated and humoral immunity are important in preventing and terminating infection. The oral cavity contains numerous Campylobacter species, such as Campylobacter concisus, that have been associated with a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease. [ , ] Previous Next: Epidemiology Frequency United States An estimated 2 million cases of Campylobacter enteritis occur annually

2014 eMedicine.com

157. Cholera (Treatment)

are inadequate. WHO recommends improvements in water supply and sanitation as the most sustainable approach for protecting against cholera and other waterborne epidemic diarrheal diseases. However, such an approach is unrealistic for the many impoverished populations most affected by cholera. Outbreaks can be mitigated and case-fatality rates can be reduced by means of several other measures, many of which are suitable for community participation. Human behaviors related to personal hygiene and food (...) . [ ] Previous References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera. Available at . Accessed: July 7, 2011. CDC. 150th anniversary of John Snow and the pump handle. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at . Accessed: March 29, 2006. Kenneth Todar. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology. Available at . Accessed: April 12, 2010. Sack D, Cadoz M. Cholera vaccines. Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA. Vaccines . Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company; 1999. 639-649. Steinberg EB, Greene KD, Bopp CA

2014 eMedicine.com

158. Acanthamoeba (Treatment)

: Surgical Care Acanthamoeba keratitis: The abnormal epithelium is débrided. Penetrating keratoplasty/corneal transplantation may be necessary in cases that do not respond to medical therapy. [ , ] Previous Next: Consultations See the list below: Keratitis Infectious diseases specialist Ophthalmologist Granulomatous amebic encephalitis and disseminated disease Infectious diseases specialist Neurologist Previous Next: Prevention Acanthamoeba keratitis may be prevented by scrupulous and appropriate use (...) for ocular infections by free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus. Surv Ophthalmol . 2017 Mar - Apr. 62 (2):203-218. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigational drug available directly from CDC for the treatment of infections with free-living amebae. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep . 2013 Aug 23. 62 (33):666. . Gupta D, Panda GS, Bakhshi S. Successful treatment of acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis during induction therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer

2014 eMedicine.com

159. Adenoviruses (Treatment)

or nephrologist, as appropriate. Immunosuppressed patients may present with various adenoviral syndromes, ranging from afebrile hemorrhagic cystitis to fulminant disseminated disease (followed by shock and death). Consultation with an infectious disease specialist is helpful in this setting. Previous Next: Prevention After a 12-year hiatus, the FDA approved a live oral vaccine against adenovirus types 4 and 7 in 2011. It is indicated for use only by the US Department of Defense for military recruits entering (...) after lung transplantation, cidofovir has been used successfully. [ ] The management and prevention of severe adenovirus-related disease in hematologic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is of particular importance and continues to evolve. There are as yet no evidence-based guidelines for or against specific antiviral therapies in this setting. Reduction of immunosuppression is not always feasible during the first 100 days post-transplantation, during which the risk is highest. The increasing use

2014 eMedicine.com

160. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Treatment)

-Blackfan anemia Osteopetrosis Inborn errors of metabolism Autoimmune disorders *Uncommon in children; common reasons for transplantation in adults Previous Next: Prognosis Transplantation-related mortality and morbidity rates have considerably decreased because of improved conditioning regimens, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, supportive care, and prevention and treatment of serious infections. Currently, overall and event-free survival rates are based on the individual's disease pathology (...) to treat the following conditions: Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma Acute myeloid leukemia Neuroblastoma Germ cell tumors Autoimmune disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], systemic sclerosis) Amyloidosis Allogeneic HSCT is used to treat the following disorders: Acute myeloid leukemia Acute lymphoblastic leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Myeloproliferative disorders Myelodysplastic syndromes Multiple myeloma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma

2014 eMedicine.com

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