How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

301 results for

Prevention of Waterborne Illness


Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

81. Sterilization Equipment and Requirements for Endoscopy Equipment: A Review of the Clinical Evidence and Guidelines

; almost one million gastroscopies and colonoscopies were performed in Canada in 2002, and this number has likely increased since then given the aging population and increased screening for colorectal cancer. 1 Endoscopies are useful tools for the diagnosis and treatment of illness. 2 Given that endoscopes are reusable items exposed to bodily fluids, potentially transmitting pathogens, it is vital that the equipment used to perform endoscopies is appropriately reprocessed to prevent exposure (...) the 2011 guidelines from the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy and the guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which used the same system. 2,3,7,10-12 Appendix 4 reports the methods used for grading recommendations provided in the guidelines. Years of publication The years of publication ranged from 2006 to 2011. 2-4,7-13 Summary of Critical Appraisal Results of critical appraisal are provided in Appendix 5. Many CPGs noted the lack of rigorous prospective evidence

2012 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

82. Purification of household water using a novel mixture reduces diarrhoeal disease in Matlab, Bangladesh. (Abstract)

Purification of household water using a novel mixture reduces diarrhoeal disease in Matlab, Bangladesh. In Bangladesh, one of the main causes of waterborne diseases is related to the use of contaminated surface water. This pilot study was conducted to determine the acceptability and effectiveness of a recently developed surface water purifying mixture to prevent diarrhoeal diseases in a rural community in Bangladesh. The mixture, using a combination of alum potash, bleaching powder and lime (...) , is added to 15 l of surface water and mixed; the water becomes suitable for drinking after 30 min. A total of 420 households from 15 villages were provided with the mixture and were taught how to use it. Episodes of diarrhoeal disease from study families were determined from hospital records of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) in Matlab and were compared with diarrhoea episodes among 1613 control families who were not provided with the mixture. A total

2011 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

83. Biosensing System for Concentration Quantification of Magnetically Labeled E. coli in Water Samples Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biosensing System for Concentration Quantification of Magnetically Labeled E. coli in Water Samples Bacterial contamination of water sources (e.g., lakes, rivers and springs) from waterborne bacteria is a crucial water safety issue and its prevention is of the utmost significance since it threatens the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock, and human populations and can lead to serious illness and even death. Rapid and multiplexed measurement of such waterborne pathogens is vital

2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

84. Water Sources Quality in Urban Slum Settlement along the Contaminated River Basin in Indonesia: Application of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Full Text available with Trip Pro

and disposed human waste directly to the river. Improvement in point-of-use water treatment and storage is essential to prevent risk of waterborne diseases, and tap water should be more accessible and affordable in urban slum areas. The integrated monitoring system to control the quality of refill bottled water production is one of the many essential issues to be prioritized. (...) Water Sources Quality in Urban Slum Settlement along the Contaminated River Basin in Indonesia: Application of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Fecal contamination in water sources is still found globally, especially in urban slum areas of mid-low income countries. Fecal contamination as an indicator of low levels of hygiene and sanitation practices as well as poor management of drinking water supply might increase the risk of waterborne diseases in developing countries like Indonesia

2018 Journal of environmental and public health

85. Typhoid fever outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Case control and ecological study Full Text available with Trip Pro

of disease acquisition (risk ratio = 6.20, 95%CI 3.39-11.35) than residents of areas not supplied by this mains network. In the case control study, typhoid was found to be associated with ever using tap water from the municipal supply (OR = 4.29, 95% CI 2.20-8.38). Visible urine or faeces in the latrine was also associated with increased risk of typhoid and having chosen a water source because it is protected was negatively associated. Knowledge that washing hands can prevent typhoid fever, and stated (...) of potentially waterborne disease need an integrated response that includes epidemiology and environmental microbiology during early stages of the outbreak.

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases


DETECTION OF WATER-BORNE PARASITES IN DRINKING WATER OF BAGHDAD, IRAQ Within the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of water-borne disease outbreaks and emergence of newly recognized waterborne parasites. Several factors which contribute to the spread of these diseases include: water, heavy rains and agricultural residues which transfer the parasites to water surface from the soil. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parasites in the river and drinking (...) -Neelson. Wet mount slide method was applied to detect cysts of free-living amoeba Acanthomoeba, Naegleria. The number of cysts in July and August were higher than other months for Drinking Project and the water tanks for all regions.These results emphasize the importance screening of the water to prevent possible of the spread of parasitic protozoan and that the cracks occurrence in drinking water pipes between the stations and houses led to contamination of water with the infective stage of parasites

2018 African journal of infectious diseases

87. Persistent Contamination of Heater-Cooler Units for Extracorporal Circulation Cured by Chlorhexidine-Alcohol in Water Tanks. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Persistent Contamination of Heater-Cooler Units for Extracorporal Circulation Cured by Chlorhexidine-Alcohol in Water Tanks. Recently, surgical site infections due to non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been linked to heater-cooler unit contamination. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and manufacturers now recommend the use of hydrogen peroxide in filtered water to fill heater-cooler unit tanks. After implementation of these measures in our hospital, heater-cooler units (...) became heavily contaminated by opportunistic waterborne pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. No NTM were detected but fast-growing resistant bacteria could impair their detection. The efficiency of hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine-alcohol was compared in situ. Chlorhexidine-alcohol treatment stopped waterborne pathogen contamination and NTM were not cultured whereas their detection efficiency was probably improved.Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection

2018 Journal of Hospital Infection

88. Toxoplasmosis - Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Toxoplasmosis - Awareness and knowledge among medical doctors in Nigeria. Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic parasite causing high disease burden worldwide. A One Health approach is needed to understand, prevent, and control toxoplasmosis, while knowledge gaps in the One Health aspects have been identified among medical professionals in earlier studies. As a One Health collaboration between veterinary and medical fields, we surveyed the knowledge on toxoplasmosis among medical doctors in Nigeria (...) was significantly higher among those who reported having seen a case of clinical toxoplasmosis than in those who did not. While 62% of the medical doctors participating in our study knew that cats can shed T. gondii in their feces, 36% incorrectly suggested that humans could do that too. That T. gondii infection can be meatborne was known by 69%, but that it can be also waterborne only by 28% of the medical doctors participating in our study. Most of the medical doctors, 78%, knew that clinical toxoplasmosis

2017 PLoS ONE

89. Factors Mediating Environmental Biofilm Formation by Legionella pneumophila Full Text available with Trip Pro

Factors Mediating Environmental Biofilm Formation by Legionella pneumophila Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition (...) . In the microbial consortium-containing L. pneumophila among other organisms, several factors either positively or negatively regulate the presence and persistence of L. pneumophila in this bacterial community. Biofilm-forming L. pneumophila is of a major importance to public health and have impact on the medical and industrial sectors. Indeed, prevention and removal protocols of L. pneumophila as well as diagnosis and hospitalization of patients infected with this bacteria cost governments billions of dollars

2018 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

90. Protozoan Parasites in Drinking Water: A System Approach for Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries Full Text available with Trip Pro

outbreaks and they are less sensitive than most of the bacteria and viruses to conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment methods. There are various institutions of control and prevention of water-related diseases caused by protozoa in developed countries. Unfortunately, the developing regions do not have comparable systems. Consequently, the institutional and systems approach to WASH is necessary in these countries. (...) Protozoan Parasites in Drinking Water: A System Approach for Improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries Improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are significant in preventing diarrhea morbidity and mortality caused by protozoa in low- and middle-income countries. Due to the intimate and complex relationships between the different WASH components, it is often necessary to improve not just one but all of these components to have sustainable results. The objective

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

91. Impacts of Climate Change on Health and Wellbeing in South Africa Full Text available with Trip Pro

identified that assessed the impacts of climate change on health in the country. Most papers covered effects of heat on health or on infectious diseases (20/34; 59%). We found that extreme weather events are the most noticeable effects to date, especially droughts in the Western Cape, but rises in vector-borne diseases are gaining prominence. Climate aberration is also linked in myriad ways with outbreaks of food and waterborne diseases, and possibly with the recent Listeria epidemic. The potential (...) Impacts of Climate Change on Health and Wellbeing in South Africa Given its associated burden of disease, climate change in South Africa could be reframed as predominately a health issue, one necessitating an urgent health-sector response. The growing impact of climate change has major implications for South Africa, especially for the numerous vulnerable groups in the country. We systematically reviewed the literature by searching PubMed and Web of Science. Of the 820 papers screened, 34 were

2018 International journal of environmental research and public health

92. Framework for conducting reviews of tuberculosis programmes

of the national tuberculosis programme and to be made available to the reviewers 33 Annex 3 Terms of reference for the TB epidemiological and impact analysis component of a national programme review 36 Annex 4 Checklists for assessing selected areas of tuberculosis activities during a review of a national programme 42 Annex 5 Selected references 442 Abbreviations AFB acid-fast bacilli AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ART antiretroviral treatment BMU Basic Medical Unit CPT co-trimoxazole preventive (...) of tuberculosis programmes 3 Foreword The review of a formal national tuberculosis (TB) programme (or the efforts that countries make to control the disease regardless of the existence of a formal “programme”) is an important exercise to evaluate the implementation and impact of TB prevention, care and control. It should be jointly undertaken by the government together with the relevant national and international partners that are involved in TB efforts. A TB programme review assesses the performance

2014 World Health Organisation Guidelines

93. Globalization and disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

: airborne, waterborne, bloodborne, by direct contact, and through ( or other creatures that carry germs from one species to another). As humans began traveling over seas and across lands which were previously isolated, research suggests that diseases have been spread by all five transmission modes. Contents Travel patterns and globalization [ ] The generally refers to the period between the 15th and 17th centuries. During this time, technological advances in and navigation made it easier for nations (...) , increasing the concentration of and in certain places, which led to the emergence of new diseases as some jumped in mutation from animals to humans. During this time ' and ' treatment of disease was often focused on and , and healing the entire and , rather than focusing on a few symptoms like . Early medicine often included the use of and . Based on archeological evidence, some prehistoric practitioners in both Europe and South America used , making a hole in the skull to release illness. Severe

2012 Wikipedia

94. Foodborne illness

(CCFH): Guideline for the application of general principles of food hygiene for the control of viruses in food See also [ ] References [ ] This article incorporates from websites or documents of the . " " at ^ . US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from on March 3, 2011 . Retrieved 3 July 2016 . For foodborne illness caused by chemicals, see . . Food Standards Agency, United Kingdom. February 2011. Archived from the original on April 16, 2014 . Retrieved 14 August 2016 . CS1 maint (...) Foodborne illness Foodborne illness - Wikipedia Foodborne illness From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Terms (HACCP) (HARPC) Critical factors Bacterial pathogens spp Viral pathogens Parasitic pathogens Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning ) is any resulting from the spoilage of , , , or that contaminate food, as well as such as and various species of for at least 10 minutes. Symptoms vary depending on the cause, and are described below

2012 Wikipedia

95. Understanding microbial indicators for drinking water assessment

for recreational waters prevent gastrointestinal illness? A systematic review and meta- analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2003;111(8):1102-9. 16. Rivera SC, Hazen TC, Toranzos GA. Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Feb;54(2):513-7. 17. Hunter PR. Drinking water and diarrhoeal disease due to Eschericha coli. J Water Health. 2003;1(2):65-72. 18. Hrudey SE. Safe drinking water policy for Canada--turning hindsight into foresight. Commentary (...) of choice to indicate occurrence of recent faecal contamination in drinking water systems. 4,5,8,15 One exception is in tropical climates where E.coli may be present and multiply in waters not directly subject to faecal pollution. 16 Only some strains of E.coli bacteria are capable of causing disease 8,17,18 and only under certain conditions (e.g., E.coli O157:H7). When a water sample is tested for the presence of the indicator E.coli, results refer to mainly non-pathogenic strains of E.coli

2013 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

96. Review of Guidelines for Shock Chlorination in Private Wells

) particularly in agricultural contexts. 4,5 Weather also plays a role in water well contamination. Previous work on water-borne disease outbreaks in small drinking water systems in Canada showed that illness attributable to well contamination was more likely to occur after heavy rain or spring thaw. 15,16 What is shock chlorination and what are its limitations? Shock chlorination involves introducing sodium or calcium hypochlorite at the wellhead, and then allowing this treated water to run through (...) . 90(3):172-5. 12. Strauss B, King W, Ley A, Hoey JR. A prospective study of rural drinking water quality and acute gastrointestinal illness. BMC Public Health. 2001;1:8. =57004&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract 13. Uhlmann S, Galanis E, Takaro T, Mak S, Gustafson L, Embree G, et al. Where's the pump? Associating sporadic enteric disease with drinking water using a geographic information system

2013 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

97. Got diarrhea? The latest trend in fashionable nonsense is “raw water”

of the world potable water is not a given—nowhere near it. Waterborne disease is still , with waterborne diarrheal diseases responsible for 2 million deaths each year, with the majority occurring in children under 5. As for those advocates claiming that raw water is more “natural” and “alive,” I like to point out that Giardia, amoebic dysentery, cholera, salmonella and shigella, E. coli , and a whole host of other waterborne diseases that used to regularly cause outbreaks that would kill humans in large (...) of many forms of pseudoscience based on the fallacy of an appeal to nature (i.e., that if it’s “natural” it must be better, safer, and healthier, and that many of humanity’s health most intractable health issues are due to the products of modernity, such as industry and pesky public health measures that protect against disease, such as vaccines, pure water, and pasteurization), but it’s also yet another variety of a common form of nonsense that I like to refer to as water woo. Over the years, I’ve

2018 Respectful Insolence

98. 5 Communication Lessons Learned from Hurricane Maria

email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button 5 Communication Lessons Learned from Hurricane Maria Posted on June 4, 2018 by Ashley Andujar, MHSA, Health Communication Specialist, Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases When Category 4 Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico, CDC assembled a team of experienced communicators who were flexible, bilingual, and culturally sensitive (...) make adjustments. Learn more CDC : (CERC) CDC : Public Health Matters : Public Health Matters: Public Health Matters : Posted on June 4, 2018 by Ashley Andujar, MHSA, Health Communication Specialist, Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Categories , , , , , Tags , , , , One comment on “5 Communication Lessons Learned from Hurricane Maria” Comments listed below are posted by individuals not associated with CDC, unless otherwise stated

2018 CDC Public Health Matters

99. Moving the Dial on Preparedness: CDC’s 2018 National Snapshot

managers, health communicators, and scientists with expertise in waterborne and vector-borne diseases continue to work together to monitor and address public health threats in the aftermath of the storms. Learn more about in the hurricane response. The Opioid Epidemic From 2000 – 2015, drug overdoses killed more than half a million people in the U.S. Six out of 10 of these deaths involved an opioid. CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control and the PHEP Program work together to support (...) communities responding to the opioid epidemic. State health departments are using PHEP funds to identify communities hardest hit by the epidemic and to support the distribution of naloxone, a medical treatment to prevent death from opioid overdose. Learn more about to fight the opioid epidemic. State and Local Readiness Between 2017 and 2019, CDC and Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program recipients will conduct nearly 500 medical countermeasure nationwide. Nearly 60% of the U.S. population

2018 CDC Public Health Matters

100. Home Modifications in Aboriginal Housing

care must be taken to make sure the home environment is easily navigable for people with this condition, with even and slip resistant surfaces, and good quality lighting. Blindness and ocular impairments Apart from the influence of metabolic disorders, visual impairment can be caused by a lack of intervention in infective diseases of the eye. Australia is the only developed country where trachoma is endemic, persisting mainly in rural and remote Aboriginal communities. Trachoma is a major cause (...) environments and health in Aboriginal communities 7 The home environment, home modifications, and wellbeing 8 The home environment, home modifications, and specific health conditions 10 Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases 10 Diseases of the circulatory system 12 Otitis media and glue ear 13 Blindness and ocular impairments 14 Infestation and infection 15 Machado Joseph Disease 15 Cognitive impairments 16 General considerations in designing effective home environments for Aboriginal clients 18

2012 Home Modification Information Clearinghouse

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>