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Prevention of Waterborne Illness

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61. Approaches to promote handwashing and sanitation behaviour change in low? and middle?income countries: a mixed method systematic review Full Text available with Trip Pro

, CONDITION OR ISSUE Diarrhoeal diseases are the second highest cause of death in low income countries and the fifth highest cause of death in the world (WHO, 2011). In an update of the Global Burden of Disease study it was shown that unsafe water, sanitation and handwashing caused nearly 5% of DALYs (Disability‐Adjusted Life Years) for males and females in poor communities (GBD Risk Factor Collaborators, 2015). Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) interventions consist of (1) water supply (water quantity (...) Citations: Linked article: . Give access Share full text access Please review our and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. Shareable Link Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Copy URL Share a link Share on What are the main findings of this review? Community‐based approaches which include a sanitation component can increase handwashing with soap

2017 Campbell Collaboration

62. Public health emergency preparedness: Core competencies for EU Member States

Public health emergency preparedness: Core competencies for EU Member States TECHNICAL REPORT www.ecdc.europa.eu Public health emergency preparedness Core competencies for EU Member StatesECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Public health emergency preparedness Core competencies for EU Member States ii This report was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), coordinated by Judit Takács, and produced under contract No. 6389. Authors Michael A. Stoto, Elena Savoia (...) , Christopher Nelson, Rachael Piltch-Loeb, Stefano Guicciardi, Judit Takács, Carmen Varela Santos, and Massimo Ciotti Acknowledgements ECDC would like to acknowledge the valuable contribution of all participants who took part in various stages of the consultation process as detailed in the Appendix. Also acknowledged are the valuable contributions by Andrea Würz (ECDC) and the experts in the ECDC Country Preparedness Support Section. Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

63. ASGE guideline for infection control during GI endoscopy

of an instrument dedicated for patients with vCJD or one that is approaching the end of its life and that can be destroyed after use. Given the absence of any further reported cases of vCJD in the United States, no changes to general reprocessing guidelines are warranted at this time. Use of endoscopes in animal models There is a paucity of data regarding risk of transmission of infection via endoscopes used in animal models. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recom- mends that “when medical (...) societies have gone further and recommended that health care personnel should have documented immunity or be immunized against a number of other vaccine-preventable diseases. Such vacci- nations include annual in?uenza immunizations, measles/ mumps/rubella, varicella (if the individual has not had chickenpox in the past), tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis, and meningococcus. 123,124 Additionally, a majority of states haveimmunizationlawsforhealthcareworkerswithwhich institutions must comply. Last

2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

64. Communicating Risk in Public Health Emergencies. A WHO Guideline for Emergency Risk Communication (ERC) policy and practice

and needs so that the advice they provide is relevant, trusted and acceptable. WHO has manuals, training modules and other forms of guidance related to emergency and risk communication which are based on expert opinion or lessons drawn from major environmental disasters or disease outbreaks, such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2003, and the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009, rather than on systematic analyses of the evidence. Recent public health emergencies, such as the Ebola (...) virus disease outbreak in West Africa (2014–2015), the emergence of the Zika virus syndrome in 2015–2016 and multi-country yellow fever outbreaks in Africa in 2016, have highlighted major challenges and gaps in how risk is communicated during epidemics and other health emergencies. The challenges include the rapid transformation in communications technology, including the near-universal penetration of mobile telephones, the wide- spread use and increasingly powerful influence of digital media which

2018 World Health Organisation Guidelines

65. Multispecialty Guideline on Reprocessing Flexible GI Endoscopes

of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The bene?cial role of GI endoscopy for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of many digestive diseases and canceriswellestablished.Likemanysophisticatedmedical devices, the endoscope is a complex, reusable instrument that requires meticulous cleaning and reprocessing in strictaccordancewithmanufacturerandprofessionalor- ganization guidance before being used on subsequent patients.Todate,publishedepisodesofpathogentransmis- sion related to GI (...) , and the evolution of various enhanced reprocessing approaches for duodenoscopes. SPAULDING CLASSIFICATION FOR MEDICAL DEVICES AND LEVEL OF DISINFECTION The classi?cation system ?rst proposed by Dr E. H. Spaulding divides medical devices into categories based on the risk of infection involved with their use. 13 This classi?cation system is widely accepted and is used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), epidemiologists, microbiologists

2017 American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

66. Building health systems resilience to climate change

to extreme heat, injuries and mortality due to extreme weather events, vector- and waterborne diseases due to changes in the ecosystem, respiratory diseases due to increased emissions, and mental health and nutritional issues. Health-care facilities are also vulnerable to climate change and extreme weather events. A well-prepared and responsive health system is crucial for preventing and minimizing the health risks posed by climate change. Member States have recognized these risks and have initiated

2017 WHO

67. Identifying and Addressing the Public Health Risks of Splash Parks

of an illness or outbreak associated with splash parks, related to both user behavior and the design and operation of the park. Users of splash parks tend to be young and/or diapered children, which increases the risk of a fecal accident occurring. 8,18 Younger users may also engage in other non- hygienic behaviours, such as exposing buttocks to spray features or drinking water directly from spray nozzles, which can increase the risk of disease transmission. 2,8,14,20 In addition to human users, unsecured (...) Ministry of Health).1.Kebabjian RS. Interactive water fountains: the potential for disaster. J Environ Health. 2003;66(1):29. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/pubmed/12879577. 2.Nett RJ, Tobin R , Sheehan A, Huang W-T, Baughman A, Carter K. Nonhy- gienic behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among interactive splash park visitors. J Environ Health. 2010;73(4):8. Available from: https://www.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21133310. 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Model Aquatic Health

2017 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

68. Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Infectious Diarrhea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Professor of Pediatrics and Interim Clinical Division Chief, Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, Marcus Professor of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control, Emory University School of Medicine and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, 2015 Uppergate Drive NE, Rm. 504A, Atlanta, GA 30322. ( ). Search for other works by this author on: Rajal K Mody, MD Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Search for other works (...) of Travelers’ Diarrhea DuPont et al [113] Medical Considerations Before International Travel Freedman et al [207] The Yellow Book CDC Travelers Health CDC Immunocompromised hosts Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents CDC/NIH/HIVMA/IDSA Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children CDC/NIH/HIVMA/IDSA Foodborne and waterborne Surveillance for Foodborne Disease Outbreaks

2017 Infectious Diseases Society of America

69. EU protocol for harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates ? June 2016

EU protocol for harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates ? June 2016 www.ecdc.europa.eu EU protocol for harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates June 2016 TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ECDC TECHNICAL DOCUMENT EU protocol for harmonised monitoring of antimicrobial resistance in human Salmonella and Campylobacter isolates June 2016 ii This report of the European Centre for Disease Prevention (...) and Control (ECDC) was coordinated by Therese Westrell, Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses Programme, ECDC. The content of this report was developed at three expert workshops arranged by ECDC. The report was sent for consultation to the Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses network. Acknowledgements The ECDC Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses Programme would like to thank all of those who contributed to the content of this report, including Galina Asseva, Christopher Barbara, Einar

2016 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

70. Physical activity: walking and cycling

of the scale of changes needed to encourage the population to change its behaviour. Ensure programmes take account of recommendations on developing local and regional programmes (recommendations 13–18) in NICE's guidance on preventing cardiovascular disease, in particular those relating to the need for long-term action. Ensure programmes take account of the geography of the surrounding area (for instance, connections with neighbouring local authority areas), as well as local factors such as major road (...) , changes in rainfall and weather patterns, food and waterborne diseases and changes in distribution of vector-borne diseases. This will all have a significant impact on health in England (and globally). Changes associated with migration, following events such as flood or famine and higher levels of stress from extreme events are also likely to have a negative effect (World Health Organization 2009). Reducing transport-related carbon emissions, by supporting a shift to walking and cycling, will help

2012 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

71. Perceived water insecurity among adults from urban and peri-urban Haiti: A qualitative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Perceived water insecurity among adults from urban and peri-urban Haiti: A qualitative study. Water and sanitation services are fundamental in preventing the spread of waterborne and hygiene-related diseases. However, in developing countries, such as Haiti, access to clean water continues to pose major challenges despite efforts to improve quality and reduce distance. With Léogâne being the epicenter of the earthquake in Haiti in 2010, there were dozens of interventions aimed to improve access (...) in pregnancy. Relevant narratives among the two communes included water acquisition, use of water, and bathing practices, among several others. Through understanding the local Haitian perspective and practices that surround water insecurity, we can better tailor public health interventions to improve access to water, female hygiene practices, and ultimately lower and prevent disease transmission.

2019 PLoS ONE

72. Malaria prophylaxis

line of defence against vector-borne diseases is effective bite prevention. Chemoprophylaxis (if appropriate for the area to be visited) taking into account contra-indications and co-morbid conditions. Provision of emergency standby treatment — this is not required for most travellers but should be considered if taking chemoprophylaxis and visiting remote areas not within 24 hours of medical facilities Chemoprophylaxis and measures to prevent mosquito bites do not eliminate the risk of contracting (...) . knowlesi — a malaria parasite of monkeys in South-East Asia which can cause severe and sometimes fatal illness in humans. Assessment of a person intending to travel to a malaria endemic area involves: Taking a thorough history to identify travel itinerary, factors that may put the person at high risk of developing severe/fatal malaria (such as pregnancy, extremes of age and immunosuppression), past medical history (including psychiatric and seizure conditions) and drug and vaccine history. Checking

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

73. Expert opinion on whole genome sequencing for public health surveillance

Enterobacteriaceae ECDC European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control EFSA European Food Safety Authority ENA European Nucleotide Archive EQA External Quality Assessment ERLTB-Net European Network of Reference Laboratories for Tuberculosis EU/EEA European Union/European Economic Area Euro-GASP European Gonococcal Antimicrobial Susceptibility Programme EuSCAPE European Survey of Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae FWD Food- and waterborne diseases IBD-LabNet Invasive Bacterial Disease Laboratory (...) Mar;47(3):242-9. 40. Hill DM, Lucidarme J, Gray SJ, Newbold LS, Ure R, Brehony C, et al. Genomic epidemiology of age- associated meningococcal lineages in national surveillance: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Dec;15(12):1420-8. 41. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Expert Opinion on the introduction of next-generation typing methods for food- and waterborne diseases in the EU and EEA. Stockholm: ECDC; 2015. 42. European Food Safety Authority EPoBH

2016 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Expert Opinion

74. Multisociety guideline on reprocessing flexible gastrointestinal endoscopes

of the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). The bene?cial role of GI endoscopy for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of many digestive diseases and canceriswellestablished.Likemanysophisticatedmedical devices, the endoscope is a complex, reusable instrument that requires meticulous cleaning and reprocessing in strictaccordancewithmanufacturerandprofessionalor- ganization guidance before being used on subsequent patients.Todate,publishedepisodesofpathogentransmis- sion related to GI (...) approaches for duodenoscopes. SPAULDING CLASSIFICATION FOR MEDICAL DEVICES AND LEVEL OF DISINFECTION The classi?cation system ?rst proposed by Dr E. H. Spaulding divides medical devices into categories based on the risk of infection involved with their use. 13 This classi?cation system is widely accepted and is used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), epidemiologists, microbiologists, and professional medical organizations to help

2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

75. Measures to Mitigate Risk of Contaminated Hauled Water: A Focused Practice Question

introduce potential avenues for contamination of the water, which may lead to waterborne illness in consumers. In accordance with the Drinking Water Protocol under the Ontario Public Health Standards, boards of health are required to inspect water hauling vehicles transporting drinking water annually using the Drinking Water Haulage Guidance Document (2008) 1 . Currently, there are no requirements under the Health Protection and Promotion Act regulating the operation of water haulage vehicles. Although (...) and the bacteriological quality 2-5 of the water were recommended by most procedures/standards. ? A couple of procedures/standards recommended regular inspections of tanks/equipment to ensure they are in good repair and sanitary condition 2,5 . ? Most also recommended that some form of documentation be kept on water hauling activity and maintenance 2,4,5,10 . 10 9 Limitations and Gaps ? Lack of peer-reviewed research on mitigation measures to prevent contamination of hauled water. Procedures/standards included

2015 Peel Health Library

76. Health Risk of Escherichia coli Exposure in Fresh Water Beaches

%, respectively). 2 1 Background Peel region has four public fresh water beach sites (one spring-fed; three on Lake Ontario). The Ontario Public Health Standards (OPHS) under the Health Protection and Promotion Act mandates health units to monitor public beaches to prevent and reduce water-borne illness and injury related to recreational water use (1). Under the OPHS, the Beach Management Protocol outlines the requirement to conduct routine water sampling to assess water quality conditions at public beaches (...) The primary outcome examined in the included articles was GI illness, because it has been extensively studied and has formed the basis of the EPA and Health Canada’s recreational water quality guidelines. Studies by the EPA and previous epidemiological studies have shown that criteria based on protecting the public from GI illness via fecal indicator bacteria will prevent most types of recreational waterborne illnesses (9). Compared with other adverse health effects that can be caused by fecal matter

2015 Peel Health Library

77. Resources for flooding and poor water sanitation

and streams mainly in West Africa, although it is also endemic in some countries in the Americas and eastern Mediterranean. It is believed that ivermectin (a microfilaricide) could prevent blindness due to onchocerciasis. This review assesses the effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing visual impairment and visual field loss in onchocercal eye disease. Dengue fever There is insufficient evidence to justify the use of corticosteroids in managing dengue shock syndrome. As corticosteroids can potentially (...) or no corticosteroids for treating dengue shock syndrome. Shigellosis Hepatitis A Immunoglobulins seem effective for preventing hepatitis A in both children and adults. However, the evidence, on which the conclusion is based, is not strong as the included trials appear to have risk of bias and their number is insufficient. Hepatitis A is a common, contagious viral disease in low-income countries. Hepatitis A is transmitted primarily by faecal-oral spread from person to person. Passive immunoprophylaxis

2014 Evidence Aid

78. Why all blood donations should be tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Full Text available with Trip Pro

Why all blood donations should be tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV). Hepatitis E is a liver disease caused by a small RNA virus known as hepatitis E virus (HEV). Four major genotypes infect humans, of which genotype 1 and 2 (HEV-1, HEV-2) are endemic mainly in Asia and responsible for waterborne epidemics. HEV-3 and HEV-4 are widely distributed in pigs and can be transmitted to humans mainly by undercooked meat, and contact with pigs. HEV-3 is the main genotype in industrialised countries (...) with moderate climate conditions and object of this debate.Whereas an HEV-3 infection in healthy humans is mostly asymptomatic, HEV-3 can induce chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in patients with underlying liver diseases. The number of reported cases of HEV-infections in industrialised nations increased significantly in the last years. Since HEV-3 has been transmitted by blood transfusion to other humans, testing of blood donors has been introduced

2019 BMC Infectious Diseases

79. Salmonellosis outbreak with novel <i>Salmonella enterica</i> subspecies <i>enterica</i> serotype (11:z41:e,n,z15) attributable to sesame products in five European countries, 2016 to 2017. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Salmonellosis outbreak with novel Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype (11:z41:e,n,z15) attributable to sesame products in five European countries, 2016 to 2017. In spring 2016, Greece reported an outbreak caused by a previously undescribed Salmonellaenterica subsp. enterica serotype (antigenic formula 11:z41:e,n,z15) via the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses (EPIS-FWD), with epidemiological evidence for sesame (...) products as presumptive vehicle. Subsequently, Germany, Czech Republic, Luxembourg and the United Kingdom (UK) reported infections with this novel serotype via EPIS-FWD. Concerned countries in collaboration with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) adopted a common outbreak case definition. An outbreak case was defined as a laboratory-confirmed notification of the novel Salmonella serotype. Between March 2016 and April 2017, 47 outbreak

2019 Euro Surveillance

80. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

colonoscopy preparation, which was collected according to instructions in a container that was kept refrigerated or frozen until rendered to the clinic on the day of colonoscopy, and the patients agreed to complete a standard questionnaire regarding the use of analgesics and low-dose aspirin (for prevention of cardiovascular disease). Stool samples were thawed within a median of 4 days after arrival at the central laboratory (shipped frozen from the recipient clinics). Fecal occult blood levels were (...) ): ; 2002-. Search term Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®) Health Professional Version PDQ Screening and Prevention Editorial Board . Published online: October 31, 2019. This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about colorectal cancer screening. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care

2017 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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