How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

175 results for

Prevention of Waterborne Illness

by
...
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

61. Cryptosporidiosis (Diagnosis)

in about 4% of stools sent for parasitologic examination. Seroprevalence studies using antibody assays suggest that 25-35% of the population in industrialized countries (including the United States) have had cryptosporidiosis at some time in their life. Cryptosporidium species also cause waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. In 1993, more than 400,000 cases of diarrheal illness due to Cryptosporidium infection were reported in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. [ ] Waterborne outbreaks continue to be common worldwide (...) , Xiao L, Yoder JS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance -- United States, 2011-2012. MMWR Suppl . 2015 May 1. 64 (3):1-14. . Chalmers RM, Smith R, Elwin K, Clifton-Hadley FA, Giles M. Epidemiology of anthroponotic and zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2004-2006. Epidemiol Infect . 2011 May. 139(5):700-12. . Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major

2014 eMedicine.com

62. Cyclospora (Diagnosis)

, Mexico Canada/United States: raspberries, blackberries, mesclun, basil‡; Germany: lettuce imported from Southern France/Southern Italy; Mexico: watercress Waterborne outbreaks United States (Chicago), Nepal 14 cases of cyclosporiasis; tap water in medical dormitory, suspected source was contaminated water storage tank; 12 of 14 developed cyclosporiasis * Community-based studies † Highest in spring and early summer ‡ Fresh produce. Raspberries from Guatemala; blackberries from Guatemala (...) in several countries. [ ] It has also been isolated from wastewater in Tunisia and in Arizona. [ , ] In endemic countries, soil contact is an important risk factor for children younger than 2 years. Oocysts can survive in water for 2 months at 39.2°F (4°C) and for 7 days at 98.6°F (37°C). Heating them at 140°F (60°C) for 60 minutes prevents sporulation. Freezing them at -0.4°F (-18°C) prevents sporulation. Desiccation for 15 minutes ruptures the oocyst wall. They are resistant to chlorine disinfection

2014 eMedicine.com

63. Listeria Monocytogenes (Diagnosis)

> Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Updated: Dec 18, 2018 Author: Karen B Weinstein, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Overview Background Listeria monocytogenes, which causes listeriosis, is an important pathogen in pregnant patients, neonates, elderly individuals, and immunocompromised individuals, although it is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. Patients (...) , and diarrhea may resemble a gastrointestinal illness. [ ] The microorganism has gained recognition because of its association with epidemic . In 1997, an outbreak of noninvasive gastroenteritis occurred in 2 schools in northern Italy, involving more than 1500 children and adults. [ ] Bacteremia and are more serious manifestations of disease that can affect individuals at high risk. Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Next: Pathophysiology L

2014 eMedicine.com

64. Leptospirosis (Diagnosis)

the last trimester of pregnancy and have had high-risk exposure should present promptly for treatment to prevent in utero infection. Newborns of ill mothers can also be treated. Leptospires may be shed in breastmilk for an unknown duration. Travelers and participants in "adventure racing" or other freshwater sports who may be hiking and may otherwise be exposed to fresh water, soil, mud, and vegetation are at higher risk, especially those older than 60 years or those who are immunosuppressed (...) and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ . 2000. 78(9):1136-47. . . National Research Council. Advancing the Science of Climate Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000. JAMA . 2001 Feb 14. 285(6):728-30. . CDC. Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among

2014 eMedicine.com

65. Campylobacter Infections (Diagnosis)

Updated: Aug 24, 2018 Author: Mahmud H Javid, MBBS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Campylobacter Infections Overview Background Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic illnesses. In industrialized regions, enteric Campylobacter infections produce an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome. Campylobacter jejuni (see image below (...) for H pylori . Next: Pathophysiology The known routes of Campylobacter transmission include fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, unpasteurized raw milk and poultry ingestion, and waterborne (ie, through contaminated water supplies). Exposure to sick pets, especially puppies, has also been associated with Campylobacter outbreaks. Transmission of Campylobacter organisms to humans usually occurs via infected animals and their food products. Most human infections result from the consumption

2014 eMedicine.com

66. Giardiasis (Diagnosis)

common in children than in adults. [ , ] G intestinalis can cause asymptomatic colonization or acute or chronic diarrheal illness. The organism has been found in as many as 80% of raw water supplies from lakes, streams, and ponds and in as many as 15% of filtered water samples. [ , ] It is a common cause of chronic diarrhea and growth retardation in children in developing countries. Giardiasis usually represents a zoonosis with cross-infectivity between animals and humans. Giardia intestinalis has (...) of genes implicated in the apoptotic cascade and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Panaro et al demonstrated that Giardia trophozoites induce cell apoptosis by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, down-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and up-regulation of the proapoptotic Bax. These findings suggest a possible role for caspase-dependent apoptosis in the pathogenesis of giardiasis. [ ] Giardia can also prevent the formation of nitric oxide, a compound

2014 eMedicine.com

67. Adenoviruses (Treatment)

reservoirs and fomites includes proper disinfection of tonometry and ophthalmologic instruments according to local infection control and manufacturer guidelines. Proper use and monitoring of open, multiple-use ophthalmic solutions (and timely discarding of these) according to local infection control and manufacturer guidelines is essential. Chlorination of swimming pools Adequate chlorination of swimming pools may prevent waterborne outbreaks. Adenovirus is relatively hardy and survives long periods (...) intensive care unit. J Pediatr . 2005 Apr. 146(4):523-7. . Kajon AE, Moseley JM, Metzgar D, Huong HS, Wadleigh A, Ryan MA. Molecular epidemiology of adenovirus type 4 infections in US military recruits in the postvaccination era (1997-2003). J Infect Dis . 2007 Jul 1. 196(1):67-75. . Russell KL, Hawksworth AW, Ryan MA et al. Vaccine-preventable adenoviral respiratory illness in US military recruits,1999-2004. Vaccine . April 2006. 15:2835-42. . Wirsing von König CH, Rott H, Bogaerts H, Schmitt HJ

2014 eMedicine.com

68. Cryptosporidiosis (Treatment)

, suppresses diarrhea in chronic cryptosporidiosis. Previous Next: Fluid and electrolyte loss Replacement of fluids and electrolytes is the critically important first step in the management of cryptosporidiosis, particularly in patients with large diarrheal losses. Fluids should include sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and glucose. Oral rehydration is the preferred mode, but severely ill patients may require parenteral fluids. Biliary involvement Biliary involvement in cryptosporidiosis requires specific (...) interventions. Acalculous cholecystitis should be treated with cholecystectomy. Patients with sclerosing cholangitis can usually be treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), although sphincterotomy may result in temporary relief. In selected cases, recurrence may be prevented by placing a stent. Previous Next: Prevention of Cryptosporidiosis Water purification is the most important public health measure in the prevention of cryptosporidiosis. [ , ] Because chlorination has little

2014 eMedicine.com

69. Pneumonia, Community-Acquired (Treatment)

, the clinical signs and symptoms of CAP are not sufficiently specific to reliably differentiate the exact etiologic agent. [ ] Therefore, additional testing remains necessary to identify the pathogen and to optimize therapy in CAP. Workup Standard diagnostic studies for CAP include the following: Chest radiography Sputum Gram stain and/or culture Blood cultures Other laboratory tests Depending on the perceived severity of illness and suspected etiology, additional workup may be warranted, including (...) of respiratory specimens, blood, and pleural fluid; PCR of respiratory samples; or antigen tests should be used to target therapy whenever possible. Inpatient CAP therapy usually consists of intravenous antibiotics followed by transition to an oral course of therapy. [ , , , ] Patients who are severely ill or who are unable to tolerate or absorb oral medications may require a longer duration of parenteral therapy before switching to an oral antibiotic. [ ] Mild to moderately ill patients with CAP may

2014 eMedicine.com

70. Giardiasis (Overview)

in children than in adults. [ , ] G intestinalis can cause asymptomatic colonization or acute or chronic diarrheal illness. The organism has been found in as many as 80% of raw water supplies from lakes, streams, and ponds and in as many as 15% of filtered water samples. [ , ] It is a common cause of chronic diarrhea and growth retardation in children in developing countries. Giardiasis usually represents a zoonosis with cross-infectivity between animals and humans. Giardia intestinalis has been isolated (...) of genes implicated in the apoptotic cascade and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Panaro et al demonstrated that Giardia trophozoites induce cell apoptosis by activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, down-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, and up-regulation of the proapoptotic Bax. These findings suggest a possible role for caspase-dependent apoptosis in the pathogenesis of giardiasis. [ ] Giardia can also prevent the formation of nitric oxide, a compound

2014 eMedicine.com

71. Cryptosporidiosis (Overview)

in about 4% of stools sent for parasitologic examination. Seroprevalence studies using antibody assays suggest that 25-35% of the population in industrialized countries (including the United States) have had cryptosporidiosis at some time in their life. Cryptosporidium species also cause waterborne outbreaks of diarrhea. In 1993, more than 400,000 cases of diarrheal illness due to Cryptosporidium infection were reported in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. [ ] Waterborne outbreaks continue to be common worldwide (...) , Xiao L, Yoder JS, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cryptosporidiosis surveillance -- United States, 2011-2012. MMWR Suppl . 2015 May 1. 64 (3):1-14. . Chalmers RM, Smith R, Elwin K, Clifton-Hadley FA, Giles M. Epidemiology of anthroponotic and zoonotic human cryptosporidiosis in England and Wales, 2004-2006. Epidemiol Infect . 2011 May. 139(5):700-12. . Scallan E, Hoekstra RM, Angulo FJ, Tauxe RV, Widdowson MA, Roy SL, et al. Foodborne illness acquired in the United States--major

2014 eMedicine.com

72. Streptococcus Group A Infections (Overview)

(SPEs) to function as superantigens. Scarlet fever When a fine, diffuse, erythematous rash is present in the setting of acute streptococcal pharyngitis, the illness is called scarlet fever. The rash of scarlet fever is caused by the pyrogenic exotoxins (ie, SPE A, B, C, and F). The rash highly depends on toxin expression; preexisting humoral immunity to the specific SPE toxin prevents the clinical manifestations of scarlet fever. Scarlet fever has apparently become less common and less virulent than (...) by bacterial toxins and enzymes (eg, lipase, hyaluronidase, collagenase, streptokinase), interactions among organisms (synergistic infections), local tissue factors (eg, decreased blood and oxygen supply), and general host factors (eg, immunocompromised state, chronic illness, surgery). As the infection spreads deep along the fascial planes, vascular occlusion, tissue ischemia, and necrosis occur. [ ] Although GAS is often isolated in cases of necrotizing fasciitis, this disease state is frequently

2014 eMedicine.com

73. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Overview)

undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Among the most important have been in selecting hematopoietic stem cell donors and the tissue source, optimizing transplantation conditioning, reducing the morbidity and mortality from transplantation conditioning, and preventing and treating graft versus host disease. [ ] Patient education For patient education information, see the . Previous Next: Indications for HSCT Interpretation of the results of trials is always complicated by the problem of patient (...) -Blackfan anemia Osteopetrosis Inborn errors of metabolism Autoimmune disorders *Uncommon in children; common reasons for transplantation in adults Previous Next: Prognosis Transplantation-related mortality and morbidity rates have considerably decreased because of improved conditioning regimens, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, supportive care, and prevention and treatment of serious infections. Currently, overall and event-free survival rates are based on the individual's disease pathology

2014 eMedicine.com

74. Listeria Monocytogenes (Overview)

Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Updated: Dec 18, 2018 Author: Karen B Weinstein, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Overview Background Listeria monocytogenes, which causes listeriosis, is an important pathogen in pregnant patients, neonates, elderly individuals, and immunocompromised individuals, although it is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. Patients with cancer (...) resemble a gastrointestinal illness. [ ] The microorganism has gained recognition because of its association with epidemic . In 1997, an outbreak of noninvasive gastroenteritis occurred in 2 schools in northern Italy, involving more than 1500 children and adults. [ ] Bacteremia and are more serious manifestations of disease that can affect individuals at high risk. Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Next: Pathophysiology L monocytogenes

2014 eMedicine.com

75. Leptospirosis (Overview)

the last trimester of pregnancy and have had high-risk exposure should present promptly for treatment to prevent in utero infection. Newborns of ill mothers can also be treated. Leptospires may be shed in breastmilk for an unknown duration. Travelers and participants in "adventure racing" or other freshwater sports who may be hiking and may otherwise be exposed to fresh water, soil, mud, and vegetation are at higher risk, especially those older than 60 years or those who are immunosuppressed (...) and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ . 2000. 78(9):1136-47. . . National Research Council. Advancing the Science of Climate Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000. JAMA . 2001 Feb 14. 285(6):728-30. . CDC. Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among

2014 eMedicine.com

76. Legionnaires Disease (Overview)

, 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause (...) is a small, aerobic, waterborne, gram-negative, unencapsulated bacillus that is nonmotile, catalase-positive, and weakly oxidase-positive. It is a fastidious organism and does not grow anaerobically or on standard media. Buffered charcoal yeast extract (CYE) agar is the primary medium used for isolation of the bacterium. (See Workup.) The Legionellaceae family consists of more than 42 species, constituting 64 serogroups. L pneumophila is the most common species, causing up to 90% of the cases

2014 eMedicine.com

77. Kawasaki Disease (Overview)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) immunity. Epidemiologic data suggest, however, that person-to-person transmission of the disease is unlikely. Some authors have proposed a controversial association of KD with recent carpet shampooing, flooding, the use of a humidifier in the room of a child with an antecedent respiratory illness, [ ] and locations near bodies of water. [ ] These data have led to a waterborne vector hypothesis. The overall clinical presentation of patients with KD is similar to that of patients with a viral

2014 eMedicine.com

78. Pneumonia, Community-Acquired (Overview)

, the clinical signs and symptoms of CAP are not sufficiently specific to reliably differentiate the exact etiologic agent. [ ] Therefore, additional testing remains necessary to identify the pathogen and to optimize therapy in CAP. Workup Standard diagnostic studies for CAP include the following: Chest radiography Sputum Gram stain and/or culture Blood cultures Other laboratory tests Depending on the perceived severity of illness and suspected etiology, additional workup may be warranted, including (...) of respiratory specimens, blood, and pleural fluid; PCR of respiratory samples; or antigen tests should be used to target therapy whenever possible. Inpatient CAP therapy usually consists of intravenous antibiotics followed by transition to an oral course of therapy. [ , , , ] Patients who are severely ill or who are unable to tolerate or absorb oral medications may require a longer duration of parenteral therapy before switching to an oral antibiotic. [ ] Mild to moderately ill patients with CAP may

2014 eMedicine.com

79. Cyclospora (Overview)

, Mexico Canada/United States: raspberries, blackberries, mesclun, basil‡; Germany: lettuce imported from Southern France/Southern Italy; Mexico: watercress Waterborne outbreaks United States (Chicago), Nepal 14 cases of cyclosporiasis; tap water in medical dormitory, suspected source was contaminated water storage tank; 12 of 14 developed cyclosporiasis * Community-based studies † Highest in spring and early summer ‡ Fresh produce. Raspberries from Guatemala; blackberries from Guatemala (...) in several countries. [ ] It has also been isolated from wastewater in Tunisia and in Arizona. [ , ] In endemic countries, soil contact is an important risk factor for children younger than 2 years. Oocysts can survive in water for 2 months at 39.2°F (4°C) and for 7 days at 98.6°F (37°C). Heating them at 140°F (60°C) for 60 minutes prevents sporulation. Freezing them at -0.4°F (-18°C) prevents sporulation. Desiccation for 15 minutes ruptures the oocyst wall. They are resistant to chlorine disinfection

2014 eMedicine.com

80. Cyclospora (Treatment)

, CDC Warns. Medscape Medical News. Available at . August 7, 2017; Accessed: August 8, 2017. Shlim DR, Cohen MT, Eaton M, Rajah R, Long EG, Ungar BL. An alga-like organism associated with an outbreak of prolonged diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg . 1991 Sep. 45(3):383-9. . Ortega YR, Sterling CR, Gilman RH, Cama VA, Díaz F. Cyclospora species--a new protozoan pathogen of humans. N Engl J Med . 1993 May 6. 328(18):1308-12. . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update (...) at wastewater treatment plants in Arizona. Sci Total Environ . 2014 Jun 15. 484:129-36. . Hall RL, Jones JL, Hurd S, Smith G, Mahon BE, Herwaldt BL. Population-based active surveillance for Cyclospora infection--United States, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 1997-2009. Clin Infect Dis . 2012 Jun. 54 Suppl 5:S411-7. . Baldursson S, Karanis P. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks - an update 2004-2010. Water Res . 2011 Dec 15. 45(20):6603-14

2014 eMedicine.com

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>