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Prevention of Waterborne Illness

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41. Legionnaires Disease (Treatment)

conditions, the amoeba can metamorphose into a cystic stage, enabling it, and its symbiotic resident, to withstand the environmental stress. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Barry S Fields. Legionella species infect human macrophages and monocytes; intracellular replication of the bacterium is observed within these cells in the alveoli. The intracellular infections of protozoa and macrophages have many similarities. Activated T cells produce lymphokines (...) , 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

42. Legionnaires Disease (Follow-up)

conditions, the amoeba can metamorphose into a cystic stage, enabling it, and its symbiotic resident, to withstand the environmental stress. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Barry S Fields. Legionella species infect human macrophages and monocytes; intracellular replication of the bacterium is observed within these cells in the alveoli. The intracellular infections of protozoa and macrophages have many similarities. Activated T cells produce lymphokines (...) , 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

43. Intestinal Protozoal Diseases (Follow-up)

and gloves for patient care, and hands must be washed after contact. A single room is indicated, if possible. Prevention of exposure in persons infected with HIV consists in the following: [ ] Avoid contact with human and animal feces. Request a veterinarian to examine the stools for Cryptosporidium in puppies or kittens younger than 6 months. Avoid exposure to calves and lambs. Avoid drinking water from lakes or rivers. No chemoprophylactic agents are available for any of these diseases. Protozoan (...) 2005. 35:1339-47. . Karanis P, Kourenti C, Smith H. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. J Water Health . Mar 2007. 5:1-38. . Hunter PR, Thompson RC. The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Int j Parasitol . Oct 2005. 35:1181-90. . Fleming CA, Caron D, Gunn JE, Barry MA. A foodborne outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis at a wedding: clinical features and risk factors for illness. Arch Intern Med . 1998 May 25. 158(10

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

44. Kawasaki Disease (Overview)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) guidelines include the following: See for more details. ----- See , a Critical Images slideshow, for more information on the diagnosis and management of KD. Video overview of Kawasaki disease pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Next: Background KD is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood. The disorder has also been called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome and infantile periarteritis nodosa. It was first described in 1967 by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki, who reported 50 cases

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

45. Intestinal Protozoal Diseases (Overview)

intestine and has no evident life cycle in humans. Cysticlike stages are rare and have been found in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in vitro. The mechanisms of how this parasite causes illness have not been elucidated yet. Previous Next: Epidemiology Frequency United States At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have been reported. [ ] North America and Europe accounted for 93% of all reports, and nearly two thirds occurred in the United (...) . Among all intestinal protozoa, those listed in Table 1 have been confirmed to cause GI disease. Others, such as Trichomonas hominis (in infants) and Entamoeba polecki (associated with pigs), have rarely been associated with diarrheal disease and are not discussed in this article. Table 1. Protozoa Associated with Intestinal Illness in Humans Name Mode of Transmission Symptoms Flagellates G lamblia Contaminated water, fecal-oral Nausea, bloating, gas, diarrhea, anorexia Dientamoeba fragilis Fecal

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

46. Intestinal Protozoal Diseases (Treatment)

therapy results in full recovery. Some patients with severe giardiasis may experience disaccharidase deficiency and may require lactose-free diets, but this is a temporary condition that usually does not last more than 2 weeks. Patients with AIDS and severe spore-forming protozoal infections (chronic diarrhea with wasting syndrome) require hypercaloric diets. This is indicated for the protozoal illness in addition to the wasting syndrome associated with the underlying disease. For amebic liver abscess (...) . Next: Surgical Care Only 2 well-recognized conditions in which surgical therapy is necessary for intestinal protozoal diseases are known: necrotizing colitis, caused by E histolytica or B coli, and complicated amebic liver abscess. Indications for surgery in fulminant amebic colitis include the following: Failure to respond to antiamebic drugs following perforation and localized abscess formation Persistence of abdominal distension and tenderness despite effective antiamebic therapy Toxic megacolon

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

47. Kawasaki Disease (Diagnosis)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) guidelines include the following: See for more details. ----- See , a Critical Images slideshow, for more information on the diagnosis and management of KD. Video overview of Kawasaki disease pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Next: Background KD is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood. The disorder has also been called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome and infantile periarteritis nodosa. It was first described in 1967 by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki, who reported 50 cases

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

48. Legionnaires Disease (Diagnosis)

conditions, the amoeba can metamorphose into a cystic stage, enabling it, and its symbiotic resident, to withstand the environmental stress. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Barry S Fields. Legionella species infect human macrophages and monocytes; intracellular replication of the bacterium is observed within these cells in the alveoli. The intracellular infections of protozoa and macrophages have many similarities. Activated T cells produce lymphokines (...) , 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

49. Pediatrics, Kawasaki Disease (Diagnosis)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) guidelines include the following: See for more details. ----- See , a Critical Images slideshow, for more information on the diagnosis and management of KD. Video overview of Kawasaki disease pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Next: Background KD is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood. The disorder has also been called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome and infantile periarteritis nodosa. It was first described in 1967 by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki, who reported 50 cases

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

50. Intestinal Protozoal Diseases (Diagnosis)

intestine and has no evident life cycle in humans. Cysticlike stages are rare and have been found in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and in vitro. The mechanisms of how this parasite causes illness have not been elucidated yet. Previous Next: Epidemiology Frequency United States At least 325 water-associated outbreaks of parasitic protozoan disease have been reported. [ ] North America and Europe accounted for 93% of all reports, and nearly two thirds occurred in the United (...) . Among all intestinal protozoa, those listed in Table 1 have been confirmed to cause GI disease. Others, such as Trichomonas hominis (in infants) and Entamoeba polecki (associated with pigs), have rarely been associated with diarrheal disease and are not discussed in this article. Table 1. Protozoa Associated with Intestinal Illness in Humans Name Mode of Transmission Symptoms Flagellates G lamblia Contaminated water, fecal-oral Nausea, bloating, gas, diarrhea, anorexia Dientamoeba fragilis Fecal

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

51. Legionnaires Disease (Overview)

conditions, the amoeba can metamorphose into a cystic stage, enabling it, and its symbiotic resident, to withstand the environmental stress. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Barry S Fields. Legionella species infect human macrophages and monocytes; intracellular replication of the bacterium is observed within these cells in the alveoli. The intracellular infections of protozoa and macrophages have many similarities. Activated T cells produce lymphokines (...) , 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

52. Pediatrics, Kawasaki Disease (Overview)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) guidelines include the following: See for more details. ----- See , a Critical Images slideshow, for more information on the diagnosis and management of KD. Video overview of Kawasaki disease pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Next: Background KD is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood. The disorder has also been called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome and infantile periarteritis nodosa. It was first described in 1967 by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki, who reported 50 cases

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

53. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence. A waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia gastroenteritis led to a high prevalance of long-lasting fatigue and abdominal symptoms. The aim was to describe the clinical characteristics, disability and employmentloss in a case series of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) after the infection.Patients who reported persistent fatigue, lowered functional capacity (...) and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for CFS. Fatigue was self-rated by the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Physical and mental health status and functional impairment was measured by the Medical Outcome Severity Scale-short Form-36 (SF-36). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure co-morbid anxiety

2012 BMC Gastroenterology

54. Water, sanitation, hygiene and waste management for COVID-19

about water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) risks and practices. The provision of safe water, sanitation and hygienic conditions is essential for protecting human health during all infectious disease outbreaks, including of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Ensuring evidenced-based and consistently applied WASH and waste management practices in communities, homes, schools, marketplaces, and health- care facilities will help prevent human-to-human transmission of, the virus that causes COVID-19 (...) and organizations involved in providing water and sanitation services such as treatment plant operators, sanitation workers and plumbers as well as those promoting hand hygiene in the community should be designated as providing essential services and be allowed to continue their work during movement restrictions and have access to PPE and hand hygiene facilities to protect their health. 1. Hand hygiene general recommendations Hand hygiene has been shown to prevent respiratory illness. 37 Handwashing

2020 WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic

55. Options for national testing and surveillance for hepatitis E virus in the EU/EEA

, Parsonage Turner syndrome or Guillain-Barré syndrome. HEV infection can also cause other extrahepatic manifestations, renal and haematological disorders. Risk factors for symptomatic or complicated infection include male sex, older age and pre-existing liver disease [17]. Persistent chronic HEV infection has been reported particularly among those who are immunosuppressed or who have pre-existing liver disease [14]. Chronic HEV infection may rapidly lead to cirrhosis and is characterised by a prolonged (...) Options for national testing and surveillance for hepatitis E virus in the EU/EEA TECHNICAL REPORT Options for national testing and surveillance for hepatitis E virus in the EU/EEA Operational guidance www.ecdc.europa.euECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Options for national testing and surveillance for hepatitis E virus in the EU/EEA Operational guidance ii This report was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), coordinated by Cornelia Adlhoch and produced by Cornelia

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

56. Management of Endoscopes, Endoscope Reprocessing, and Storage Areas during the COVID-19 Pandemic

special handling of endoscopes for known COVID-19 cases? Recommendation: ? There is no evidence that any special handling of endoscopes used in known COVID-19 positive patients is required at this time.2 Question: Are there any changes to the process needed to prevent transmission from staff to patients via handling of fully reprocessed endoscopes post high-level disinfection? Recommendations: ? No changes are recommended to existing processes. ? Fully dry endoscopes to prevent outbreaks of waterborne (...) in the elimination of residual endoscope working channel fluid after reprocessing (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2019;89(1):124-32 e2. 6. EPA Disinfectants for Use Against SARS-CoV-2. https://www.epa.gov/pesticide-registration/list- n-disinfectants-use-against-sars-cov-2. Accessed March 30, 2020. 7. CDC Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp

2020 American College of Gastroenterology

57. Transmission of Respiratory Infection via Showers, Annotated Bibliography

disease (Table 1). More women than men reported hand washing always or most of the time for all indications surveyed and reported that handwashing can prevent colds, flu, and gastroenteritis. More underclassmen than upperclassmen reported hand washing prior to preparing food and eating, but no significant differences were noted between science and humanities majors. Most students (56%) felt that their personal hygiene was the same as others', and only 5% felt theirs was worse. Microbiologic data were (...) be attributed to dissolved mineral aerosols remaining after evaporation of micron-sized satellite droplets produced by the showerhead or from splashing of larger shower water droplets on surfaces. Duplicate continuous particle monitors measured particle size distributions in a ventilated residential bathroom under various showering conditions, using a full-size CEP Annotated Bibliography: Transmission of viral diseases in showers 10 mannequin in the shower to simulate splashing effects during showering

2020 Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Penn Medicine

58. Preparing HIV-infected children and adolescents for travel

126 Vienna units per ml (VIEU/ml) (25). The vaccine course consists of 3 doses, the first on day 0, the second 1-3 months after the first, and the third 5-12 months after the second. An accelerated course is possible. To achieve immunity before the beginning of the seasonal tick activity, which is in spring, the first and second dose should preferably be given in the winter months. 17 Prevention of non-vaccine preventable diseases Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are viral illnesses spread by Aedes (...) Vaccines for travel 10 Influenza 10 Hepatitis A 10 Hepatitis B 11 Typhoid 11 Rabies 12 Yellow fever (YF) 13 Japanese encephalitis (JE) 14 Cholera 15 Meningococcal ACWY vaccine 15 Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) 16 Prevention of non-vaccine preventable diseases 17 Dengue 17 Zika 17 Chikungunya 17 Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) 17 References 19 2 Summary Introduction to the guideline These guidelines do not replace a pre-travel consultation with a professional trained in travel medicine. They do cover

2018 The Children's HIV Association

59. Endoscope Disinfection

is transmitted from one endoscope on multiple occasions, despite reprocessing. This epidemiology is best explained by a biofilm on the endoscope that protects bacteria from cleaning and disinfection and acts as a reservoir for the transmission of infection. 5.1 Biofilm In the 1999 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report of an outbreak of a carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa following bronchoscopy, it was considered that biofilm formation in difficult-to-clean narrow endoscopy (...) for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reprocessing guidelines Essential elements of a reprocessing program for flexible endoscopes — recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (2017) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Core infection prevention and control practices for safe healthcare delivery in all settings — recommendations of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HIPAC) (2017): Chinese Society of Digestive Endoscopy

2019 World Gastroenterology Organisation

60. Viral gastroenteritis

Viral gastroenteritis Viral gastroenteritis - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Viral gastroenteritis Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: December 2017 Summary Typically a self-limiting condition lasting <14 days. Frequent symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea, which may be accompanied by fever, abdominal pain, and anorexia. The most common cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide (...) and is responsible for 80% of the gastroenteritis cases in the US. Person-to-person transmission is responsible for infection in most sporadic cases. Foodborne and waterborne epidemic outbreaks have the potential to involve large numbers of people. Mostly caused by norovirus. Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in young children. It also causes symptomatic infection in older people and in immunocompromised adults. Diagnosis is usually made clinically. Although not routinely necessary

2017 BMJ Best Practice

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