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Prevention of Waterborne Illness


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41. Family Practice Notebook Updates 2017

prevents bowel atrophy (surgery, derm, endo, dm) Assess patients for systemic illness, , Assess for (probe to bone test, ESR, XRay changes) of diabetes may typically be managed outpatient (urology, ) Frequently misdiagnosed as Examination is unreliable may be only presenting symptom (cv, cad) Immediate angiography for refractory with , acute , hemodynamic instability, sustained VT/VF (id, fever, ) and have been recommended to replace Criteria in the diagnosis of (derm, acne) Topical and oral in acne (...) not miss in the adolescent with vague hip or Delayed diagnosis risks longterm including and premature hip degeneration (id, immunize, prevent) is safe, effective and prevents serious illness and refusal puts entire communities at risk For every 1000 cases, 50 will develop , 1 will develop and 2 will die Congenital ( ) affected 20,000 U.S. newborns in 1964-5, prior to Rubella (with risk) occurs in up to 10% of males with (psych, sleep) Non-pharmacologic measures are preferred ( is very effective

2018 FP Notebook

42. The Africa Regional Data Cube: Harnessing Satellites for SDG Progress

hundreds of people and displacing hundreds of thousands. Cholera, a waterborne illness, is now reportedly spreading in areas such as the Dadaab refugee camp in the north of the country. Climate change, environment, infrastructure, sustainable cities – these are just a few of the many, interconnected issues that we, as a global community, are tackling through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). But the global goals will be achieved through national and local action. At the (GPSDD) , hosted (...) people. The Kenyan government can use the ARDC to monitor land degradation over time as a preventative measure, and eventually develop stronger early warning systems for flooding. The ARDC is an illustration of what is possible when we leverage partnerships, data, and innovation to power progress toward the SDGs. It was developed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in partnership with the Group on Earth Observations, Amazon Web Services, Office of the Deputy President – Kenya

2018 United Nations Foundation blog

43. Help Your Patients Make Safer Food Choices

address: Enter Email Address Submit Button Help Your Patients Make Safer Food Choices Posted on September 26, 2018 by CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog Dr. Robert Tauxe, MD, MPH Robert Tauxe, MD, MPH, Director of the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Every year, an estimated 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases. Salmonella and Campylobacter, two of the many types of bacteria that are commonly transmitted (...) through food, can cause antibiotic-resistant infections. As physicians, we can help patients protect themselves against foodborne illness by talking with them about their risk. Although anyone can get a foodborne disease, some groups have a higher risk for illness or severe disease. These groups are: Children under age 5 Pregnant women Adults 65 and older Immunocompromised patients Talk with your high-risk patients or their caregivers about the risks of certain foods and how to avoid foodborne illness

2018 CDC Safe Healthcare blog

44. Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. and his World Mercury Project: Antivaccine, NOT “fiercely pro-vaccine”

exist, long enough to assure him that complications of vaccination that have never been demonstrated for any vaccine (autism, neurodevelopment disorders, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, other chronic diseases) do not occur. From a scientific, ethical, and financial standpoint, what RFK Jr. is advocating is an intentionally unreasonable standard. Basically, : Here are the facts: One in every 2 American children (54%) are chronically ill One in every 6 American children (15%) has a developmental (...) rare and serious adverse events following immunization. The VSD uses electronic health data from each participating site. This includes information on vaccines: the kind of vaccine given to each patient, date of vaccination, and other vaccinations given on the same day. The VSD also uses information on medical illnesses that have been diagnosed at doctors’ offices, urgent care visits, emergency department visits, and hospital stays. The VSD conducts vaccine safety studies based on questions

2017 Respectful Insolence

45. Does Food Handler Training Improve Food Safety?

themselves as not working in the food service industry. 1.2 Literature Review A conceptual model (see Appendix A) was designed with Peel public health inspectors to show what interventions (food safety training, inspections, etc) the health department can use to prevent food-borne illness within the context of the entire food safety system. Research Question The question that was used to guide this literature review was: Does food handler training improve food safety? A Critical Appraisal (...) . No control. Duplicate. Reviewed by Mann 17 Mitchell, RE 2007 Preventing food-borne illness in food service establishments: Broadening the framework for intervention and research on safe food handling behaviours. Theoretical article 18 Noble, S. 2009 Frequency and Type of Food Safety Infractions in Food Establishments with and without Certified Food Handlers Weak methodological quality. Problems with selection bias (convenience sample), not enough information on populations or training. No description

2011 Peel Health Library

46. In this era of increased globalization, infectious diseases show no boundaries

. After flooding subsides and stagnant water blankets affected regions, mosquitos take advantage of new breeding grounds and proliferate. These mosquitos can transmit illnesses such as West Nile, dengue, malaria, and Zika. Immediate serious consequences of such infections include paralysis and severe debilitating bone pain. Pregnant women who are infected may give birth to children with devastating developmental delays as a result of microcephaly, where the brains of newborns are smaller than normal (...) and future natural disasters in the U.S. have the potential for similar disease outbreaks. Prior to 2010, cholera was not seen in Haiti for over a century. As sewage built up in the water supply from the assault on Haiti’s infrastructure, the presence of one foreign UN peacekeeper with cholera caused an estimated 700,000 people to fall ill with the disease in short order. “The disease struck with explosive force. Within two days of the first cases, a hospital 60 miles away was admitting a new cholera

2017 KevinMD blog

47. Bridges and roads are also important to your health

are not the only situations where fractures in infrastructure impact health. In Uganda – a country with a high prevalence of preventable and treatable illnesses, such as respiratory infections – the is a matter of life and death. While effective, low-cost treatments exist, the leading causes of childhood mortality include pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases. As in the U.S., rural children in Uganda are at a greater risk of death than those living in cities. In fact, children living in the rural northeast (...) region of Karamoja the rate of children living in the capital region of Kampala. The health literacy of parents is one factor; access to health facilities is another. Improving infrastructure, improving health New research from the University at Buffalo reveals something more striking about the : Many preventable deaths are occurring simply because local clinics and kiosks ran out of supplies. “In some districts,” according to Biplab Bhattacharya, a Ph.D. student on the team, “only 50 percent

2017 KevinMD blog

48. Candida auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease

your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button Candida auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease Posted on August 16, 2017 by CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog A strain of Candida auris cultured at the CDC laboratories. C. auris is a yeast that can cause serious infections. Content provided by CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Antimicrobial resistance isn’t just a challenge with bacteria. , too. In its 2013 Report, CDC called attention to severe and resistant (...) . auris across healthcare settings. Prevent: CDC’s infection control guidance can help providers prevent spread of C. auris . Innovate: Diagnostic labs can use CDC’s C. auris samples to calibrate, or standardize, their diagnostic tests so they can accurately identify and characterize this emerging threat. C. auris has affected hospitalized patients in more than a dozen countries on five continents since 2009. It was first detected in the United States in 2016. Healthcare workers, patients, and family

2017 CDC Safe Healthcare blog

49. Parasitologist for the People

see rapid spread of infectious disease. When there is famine, those affected have a compromised immune system, allowing them to contract illnesses easier. For these reasons it is vital that public health staff from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is on the scene. While we cannot always control the causes and breadth of these emergencies, we can minimize the negative public health impact. CDC experts have served those most affected by emergencies for many years. CDC promotes (...) , a vital public health issue. Our world’s water crises necessitate experts who can address waterborne diseases and sanitation issues that threaten the public’s health. Even though the hours are long and exhausting, Alaine is happy to answer the call to action, “In the US we have the knowledge and tools to protect ourselves and our families from many diseases. However, outside the US, obstacles to health and quality of life are often related to challenges in accessing safe drinking water

2017 CDC Our Global Voices

50. The Consequences of Contaminated Water

, enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button The Consequences of Contaminated Water Posted on March 21, 2017 by Adrienne Lefevre, MPH, CHES Thank you to CDC’s Rick Gelting, Tom Handzel and Eric Mintz for their assistance in writing this story. March 22 is World Water Day. CDC highlights the need for all people to have access to safe water, and to prevent sickness and death from waterborne diseases such as cholera World Water Day We all remember when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck (...) for all people to have access to safe water, and to prevent sickness and death from waterborne diseases such as cholera. Dr. Brinel, formerly part of the Field Epidemiology Training Program, learns how to collect stool samples to test them for cholera in October 2016 in Haiti (Photo courtesy of Coralie Giese) Cholera persists in Haiti primarily because many people lack access to clean water and proper sanitation. CDC continues to work with partners to improve access to safe water, such as increasing

2017 CDC Our Global Voices

51. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to contaminated food, we then applied proportions of infections that were estimated to be foodborne from a global expert elicitation. Waterborne transmission of disease was not included. We estimate that 29% (95% UI 23-36%) of cases caused by diseases in our study, or 582 million (95% UI 401-922 million), were transmitted by contaminated food, resulting in 25.2 million (95% UI 17.5-37.0 million) DALYs. Norovirus was the leading cause of foodborne illness causing 125 million (95% UI 70-251 million) cases (...) World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases.We synthesized data on the number of foodborne illnesses, sequelae, deaths

2015 PLoS medicine

52. Andrew Wakefield claims “natural Herd Immunity” is better than anything vaccines can do, never mind all that suffering

that getting sick is morbidity! Seriously, if you get sick with measles, even if you recover (as the vast majority do), you have suffered significant morbidity, and if there’s a vaccine suffering that morbidity is potentially preventable! Basically, Wakefield redefines morbidity as only permanent sequelae to make this deeply dishonest argument. I could much more reasonably define morbidity as being ill with vaccine-preventable disease (because that is morbidity, albeit temporary) and point out that, since (...) of student guest posts for my class on infectious causes of chronic disease. First one this year is by Dana Lowry. Humans have a long history of illness and death from infectious diseases. It wasn’t until the 1790s that we had a solution. Edward Jenner… If you want to know the single most important class of public health interventions with respect to infectious diseases in the 20th century it wasn't vaccines but provision of clean water and food supplies. But vaccines may be next. With major waterborne

2016 Respectful Insolence

53. Catching up with the Authors: Aurélie Jeandron and Ayse Ercumen on Clean Water Supply in the DRC and India

Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Post navigation in Uncategorized Source: AddThis Sharing Buttons above Last October PLOS Medicine published two research articles from separate groups investigating the association between continuous clean water supply and waterborne diseases. found that interruptions to the piped water supply to Ulvira, a town in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were followed (...) . It is expected to significantly improve the town’s access to drinking water by 2018 and thereby potentially reduce cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases incidence. One goal of the project was to improve the reliability of the tap water supply by building a hydro-electric generator to prevent the frequent power cuts that prevent treated water being pumped through the system. Further engineering plans, however, determined that the geological setting was inappropriate to build a small dam at an affordable cost

2016 PLOS Blogs Network

54. Kawasaki Disease (Overview)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) immunity. Epidemiologic data suggest, however, that person-to-person transmission of the disease is unlikely. Some authors have proposed a controversial association of KD with recent carpet shampooing, flooding, the use of a humidifier in the room of a child with an antecedent respiratory illness, [ ] and locations near bodies of water. [ ] These data have led to a waterborne vector hypothesis. The overall clinical presentation of patients with KD is similar to that of patients with a viral


55. Legionnaires Disease (Overview)

, 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause (...) is a small, aerobic, waterborne, gram-negative, unencapsulated bacillus that is nonmotile, catalase-positive, and weakly oxidase-positive. It is a fastidious organism and does not grow anaerobically or on standard media. Buffered charcoal yeast extract (CYE) agar is the primary medium used for isolation of the bacterium. (See Workup.) The Legionellaceae family consists of more than 42 species, constituting 64 serogroups. L pneumophila is the most common species, causing up to 90% of the cases


56. Leptospirosis (Overview)

the last trimester of pregnancy and have had high-risk exposure should present promptly for treatment to prevent in utero infection. Newborns of ill mothers can also be treated. Leptospires may be shed in breastmilk for an unknown duration. Travelers and participants in "adventure racing" or other freshwater sports who may be hiking and may otherwise be exposed to fresh water, soil, mud, and vegetation are at higher risk, especially those older than 60 years or those who are immunosuppressed (...) and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ . 2000. 78(9):1136-47. . . National Research Council. Advancing the Science of Climate Change . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2010. CDC. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000. JAMA . 2001 Feb 14. 285(6):728-30. . CDC. Update: leptospirosis and unexplained acute febrile illness among


57. Campylobacter Infections (Overview)

Updated: Aug 24, 2018 Author: Mahmud H Javid, MBBS; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Campylobacter Infections Overview Background Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic illnesses. In industrialized regions, enteric Campylobacter infections produce an inflammatory, sometimes bloody, diarrhea or dysentery syndrome. Campylobacter jejuni (see image below (...) for H pylori . Next: Pathophysiology The known routes of Campylobacter transmission include fecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, unpasteurized raw milk and poultry ingestion, and waterborne (ie, through contaminated water supplies). Exposure to sick pets, especially puppies, has also been associated with Campylobacter outbreaks. Transmission of Campylobacter organisms to humans usually occurs via infected animals and their food products. Most human infections result from the consumption


58. Listeria Monocytogenes (Overview)

Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Updated: Dec 18, 2018 Author: Karen B Weinstein, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Listeria Monocytogenes Infection (Listeriosis) Overview Background Listeria monocytogenes, which causes listeriosis, is an important pathogen in pregnant patients, neonates, elderly individuals, and immunocompromised individuals, although it is an uncommon cause of illness in the general population. Patients with cancer (...) resemble a gastrointestinal illness. [ ] The microorganism has gained recognition because of its association with epidemic . In 1997, an outbreak of noninvasive gastroenteritis occurred in 2 schools in northern Italy, involving more than 1500 children and adults. [ ] Bacteremia and are more serious manifestations of disease that can affect individuals at high risk. Unless recognized and treated, Listeria infections can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Next: Pathophysiology L monocytogenes


59. Streptococcus Group A Infections (Overview)

(SPEs) to function as superantigens. Scarlet fever When a fine, diffuse, erythematous rash is present in the setting of acute streptococcal pharyngitis, the illness is called scarlet fever. The rash of scarlet fever is caused by the pyrogenic exotoxins (ie, SPE A, B, C, and F). The rash highly depends on toxin expression; preexisting humoral immunity to the specific SPE toxin prevents the clinical manifestations of scarlet fever. Scarlet fever has apparently become less common and less virulent than (...) by bacterial toxins and enzymes (eg, lipase, hyaluronidase, collagenase, streptokinase), interactions among organisms (synergistic infections), local tissue factors (eg, decreased blood and oxygen supply), and general host factors (eg, immunocompromised state, chronic illness, surgery). As the infection spreads deep along the fascial planes, vascular occlusion, tissue ischemia, and necrosis occur. [ ] Although GAS is often isolated in cases of necrotizing fasciitis, this disease state is frequently


60. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (Overview)

undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Among the most important have been in selecting hematopoietic stem cell donors and the tissue source, optimizing transplantation conditioning, reducing the morbidity and mortality from transplantation conditioning, and preventing and treating graft versus host disease. [ ] Patient education For patient education information, see the . Previous Next: Indications for HSCT Interpretation of the results of trials is always complicated by the problem of patient (...) -Blackfan anemia Osteopetrosis Inborn errors of metabolism Autoimmune disorders *Uncommon in children; common reasons for transplantation in adults Previous Next: Prognosis Transplantation-related mortality and morbidity rates have considerably decreased because of improved conditioning regimens, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, supportive care, and prevention and treatment of serious infections. Currently, overall and event-free survival rates are based on the individual's disease pathology


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