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Prevention of Waterborne Illness


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21. Physical activity: walking and cycling

- motorised transport an easier option.) National actions to support walking and cycling, such as fiscal measures and other policy interventions to alter the balance between active and motorised travel in terms of cost and convenience. Measures to reduce the risk of unintentional injuries from walking and cycling. (See NICE's guidance on strategies to prevent unintentional injuries among under-15s.) Who is this guidance for? The guidance is for commissioners, managers and practitioners involved (...) of the scale of changes needed to encourage the population to change its behaviour. Ensure programmes take account of recommendations on developing local and regional programmes (recommendations 13–18) in NICE's guidance on preventing cardiovascular disease, in particular those relating to the need for long-term action. Ensure programmes take account of the geography of the surrounding area (for instance, connections with neighbouring local authority areas), as well as local factors such as major road

2012 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

22. Malaria prophylaxis

standby medication is available as part of the Public Health England publication . Advise travelling companions to read the leaflet as well in case the person becomes ill and need assistance in following advice. Basis for recommendation Basis for recommendation The recommendations on standby emergency medication are based on the clinical guidelines Guidelines for malaria prevention in travellers from the UK 2017 [ ] and expert opinion in review articles [ ; ]. . Prescribing information Prescribing (...) Malaria prophylaxis Malaria prophylaxis - NICE CKS Share Malaria prophylaxis: Summary Malaria is a life-threatening illness caused by infection of red blood cells by Plasmodium parasites. Transmission of malaria to humans occurs through the bite of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Species of Plasmodium known to cause malaria in humans include: P. falciparum — found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas. It is responsible for the majority of malaria deaths. P. vivax — the most common

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

23. Measures to Mitigate Risk of Contaminated Hauled Water: A Focused Practice Question

introduce potential avenues for contamination of the water, which may lead to waterborne illness in consumers. In accordance with the Drinking Water Protocol under the Ontario Public Health Standards, boards of health are required to inspect water hauling vehicles transporting drinking water annually using the Drinking Water Haulage Guidance Document (2008) 1 . Currently, there are no requirements under the Health Protection and Promotion Act regulating the operation of water haulage vehicles. Although (...) Description of Included Articles 5 8 Synthesis of Findings 7 9 Limitations and Gaps 10 10 Relevance to Practice 10 References 11 Appendices 13 Appendix A: Search Strategy 14 Appendix B: Literature Search Flowchart 16 Appendix C: Critical Appraisal of Environmental Health Procedures (Protocols) 17 Appendix D: Data Extraction Tables 19 1 Key Messages Key mitigation measures to prevent contaminated hauled water include: 1. Ensuring the use of an approved water source 2. Ensuring the design of the hauling

2015 Peel Health Library

24. Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. and his World Mercury Project: Antivaccine, NOT “fiercely pro-vaccine”

exist, long enough to assure him that complications of vaccination that have never been demonstrated for any vaccine (autism, neurodevelopment disorders, autoimmune diseases, diabetes, other chronic diseases) do not occur. From a scientific, ethical, and financial standpoint, what RFK Jr. is advocating is an intentionally unreasonable standard. Basically, : Here are the facts: One in every 2 American children (54%) are chronically ill One in every 6 American children (15%) has a developmental (...) rare and serious adverse events following immunization. The VSD uses electronic health data from each participating site. This includes information on vaccines: the kind of vaccine given to each patient, date of vaccination, and other vaccinations given on the same day. The VSD also uses information on medical illnesses that have been diagnosed at doctors’ offices, urgent care visits, emergency department visits, and hospital stays. The VSD conducts vaccine safety studies based on questions

2017 Respectful Insolence

25. Health Risk of Escherichia coli Exposure in Fresh Water Beaches

The primary outcome examined in the included articles was GI illness, because it has been extensively studied and has formed the basis of the EPA and Health Canada’s recreational water quality guidelines. Studies by the EPA and previous epidemiological studies have shown that criteria based on protecting the public from GI illness via fecal indicator bacteria will prevent most types of recreational waterborne illnesses (9). Compared with other adverse health effects that can be caused by fecal matter (...) %, respectively). 2 1 Background Peel region has four public fresh water beach sites (one spring-fed; three on Lake Ontario). The Ontario Public Health Standards (OPHS) under the Health Protection and Promotion Act mandates health units to monitor public beaches to prevent and reduce water-borne illness and injury related to recreational water use (1). Under the OPHS, the Beach Management Protocol outlines the requirement to conduct routine water sampling to assess water quality conditions at public beaches

2015 Peel Health Library

26. The Africa Regional Data Cube: Harnessing Satellites for SDG Progress

hundreds of people and displacing hundreds of thousands. Cholera, a waterborne illness, is now reportedly spreading in areas such as the Dadaab refugee camp in the north of the country. Climate change, environment, infrastructure, sustainable cities – these are just a few of the many, interconnected issues that we, as a global community, are tackling through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). But the global goals will be achieved through national and local action. At the (GPSDD) , hosted (...) people. The Kenyan government can use the ARDC to monitor land degradation over time as a preventative measure, and eventually develop stronger early warning systems for flooding. The ARDC is an illustration of what is possible when we leverage partnerships, data, and innovation to power progress toward the SDGs. It was developed by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) in partnership with the Group on Earth Observations, Amazon Web Services, Office of the Deputy President – Kenya

2018 United Nations Foundation blog

27. Biosensing System for Concentration Quantification of Magnetically Labeled E. coli in Water Samples (PubMed)

Biosensing System for Concentration Quantification of Magnetically Labeled E. coli in Water Samples Bacterial contamination of water sources (e.g., lakes, rivers and springs) from waterborne bacteria is a crucial water safety issue and its prevention is of the utmost significance since it threatens the health and well-being of wildlife, livestock, and human populations and can lead to serious illness and even death. Rapid and multiplexed measurement of such waterborne pathogens is vital

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2018 Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)

28. Help Your Patients Make Safer Food Choices

address: Enter Email Address Submit Button Help Your Patients Make Safer Food Choices Posted on September 26, 2018 by CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog Dr. Robert Tauxe, MD, MPH Robert Tauxe, MD, MPH, Director of the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Every year, an estimated 1 in 6 Americans (or 48 million people) get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die of foodborne diseases. Salmonella and Campylobacter, two of the many types of bacteria that are commonly transmitted (...) through food, can cause antibiotic-resistant infections. As physicians, we can help patients protect themselves against foodborne illness by talking with them about their risk. Although anyone can get a foodborne disease, some groups have a higher risk for illness or severe disease. These groups are: Children under age 5 Pregnant women Adults 65 and older Immunocompromised patients Talk with your high-risk patients or their caregivers about the risks of certain foods and how to avoid foodborne illness

2018 CDC Safe Healthcare blog

29. Sterilization Equipment and Requirements for Endoscopy Equipment: A Review of the Clinical Evidence and Guidelines

; almost one million gastroscopies and colonoscopies were performed in Canada in 2002, and this number has likely increased since then given the aging population and increased screening for colorectal cancer. 1 Endoscopies are useful tools for the diagnosis and treatment of illness. 2 Given that endoscopes are reusable items exposed to bodily fluids, potentially transmitting pathogens, it is vital that the equipment used to perform endoscopies is appropriately reprocessed to prevent exposure (...) to drying. 2,3,8,10,12,13 British and European guidelines do not recommend rinsing with alcohol because of little evidence suggesting that alcohol prevents the proliferation of waterborne bacteria, and the potential that proteins could be anchored to the endoscope channel because of alcohol’s fixative properties, but the guidelines state that this is a theoretical risk, and there is no clinical evidence to suggest this is the case. 4,11 LIMITATIONS No clinical studies were available to evaluate

2012 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

30. Guidance on adolescent sexual health

, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. For sexual health to be attained and maintained, the sexual rights of all persons must be respected, protected and fulfilled (7). Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) and Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) services aim to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs (...) % or 1 in 1,538 Receptive oral with ejaculation 0 - 0.0004% or 4 in 1,000,000 5.2 Routes of HIV transmission • Blood products that are not screened for HIV • Mother to child transmission – is preventable in women when aware of their status and receiving HAART • Shared needles for intravenous drug use • Oral sex - less risky than anal or vaginal sex but not risk-free – condoms or dental dams can be used. 10 • Unprotected sex carries a greater risk with anal rather than vaginal sex per exposure. Anal

2011 The Children's HIV Association

31. In this era of increased globalization, infectious diseases show no boundaries

. After flooding subsides and stagnant water blankets affected regions, mosquitos take advantage of new breeding grounds and proliferate. These mosquitos can transmit illnesses such as West Nile, dengue, malaria, and Zika. Immediate serious consequences of such infections include paralysis and severe debilitating bone pain. Pregnant women who are infected may give birth to children with devastating developmental delays as a result of microcephaly, where the brains of newborns are smaller than normal (...) and future natural disasters in the U.S. have the potential for similar disease outbreaks. Prior to 2010, cholera was not seen in Haiti for over a century. As sewage built up in the water supply from the assault on Haiti’s infrastructure, the presence of one foreign UN peacekeeper with cholera caused an estimated 700,000 people to fall ill with the disease in short order. “The disease struck with explosive force. Within two days of the first cases, a hospital 60 miles away was admitting a new cholera

2017 KevinMD blog

32. Bridges and roads are also important to your health

are not the only situations where fractures in infrastructure impact health. In Uganda – a country with a high prevalence of preventable and treatable illnesses, such as respiratory infections – the is a matter of life and death. While effective, low-cost treatments exist, the leading causes of childhood mortality include pneumonia, malaria and diarrheal diseases. As in the U.S., rural children in Uganda are at a greater risk of death than those living in cities. In fact, children living in the rural northeast (...) region of Karamoja the rate of children living in the capital region of Kampala. The health literacy of parents is one factor; access to health facilities is another. Improving infrastructure, improving health New research from the University at Buffalo reveals something more striking about the : Many preventable deaths are occurring simply because local clinics and kiosks ran out of supplies. “In some districts,” according to Biplab Bhattacharya, a Ph.D. student on the team, “only 50 percent

2017 KevinMD blog

33. Parasitologist for the People

see rapid spread of infectious disease. When there is famine, those affected have a compromised immune system, allowing them to contract illnesses easier. For these reasons it is vital that public health staff from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is on the scene. While we cannot always control the causes and breadth of these emergencies, we can minimize the negative public health impact. CDC experts have served those most affected by emergencies for many years. CDC promotes (...) , a vital public health issue. Our world’s water crises necessitate experts who can address waterborne diseases and sanitation issues that threaten the public’s health. Even though the hours are long and exhausting, Alaine is happy to answer the call to action, “In the US we have the knowledge and tools to protect ourselves and our families from many diseases. However, outside the US, obstacles to health and quality of life are often related to challenges in accessing safe drinking water

2017 CDC Our Global Voices

34. Candida auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease

your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button Candida auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease Posted on August 16, 2017 by CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog A strain of Candida auris cultured at the CDC laboratories. C. auris is a yeast that can cause serious infections. Content provided by CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Antimicrobial resistance isn’t just a challenge with bacteria. , too. In its 2013 Report, CDC called attention to severe and resistant (...) . auris across healthcare settings. Prevent: CDC’s infection control guidance can help providers prevent spread of C. auris . Innovate: Diagnostic labs can use CDC’s C. auris samples to calibrate, or standardize, their diagnostic tests so they can accurately identify and characterize this emerging threat. C. auris has affected hospitalized patients in more than a dozen countries on five continents since 2009. It was first detected in the United States in 2016. Healthcare workers, patients, and family

2017 CDC Safe Healthcare blog

35. The Consequences of Contaminated Water

, enter your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button The Consequences of Contaminated Water Posted on March 21, 2017 by Adrienne Lefevre, MPH, CHES Thank you to CDC’s Rick Gelting, Tom Handzel and Eric Mintz for their assistance in writing this story. March 22 is World Water Day. CDC highlights the need for all people to have access to safe water, and to prevent sickness and death from waterborne diseases such as cholera World Water Day We all remember when a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck (...) for all people to have access to safe water, and to prevent sickness and death from waterborne diseases such as cholera. Dr. Brinel, formerly part of the Field Epidemiology Training Program, learns how to collect stool samples to test them for cholera in October 2016 in Haiti (Photo courtesy of Coralie Giese) Cholera persists in Haiti primarily because many people lack access to clean water and proper sanitation. CDC continues to work with partners to improve access to safe water, such as increasing

2017 CDC Our Global Voices

36. Catching up with the Authors: Aurélie Jeandron and Ayse Ercumen on Clean Water Supply in the DRC and India

Sciences Earth & Environmental Sciences Multi-disciplinary Sciences Medicine & Health Research Analysis & Scientific Policy Post navigation in Uncategorized Source: AddThis Sharing Buttons above Last October PLOS Medicine published two research articles from separate groups investigating the association between continuous clean water supply and waterborne diseases. found that interruptions to the piped water supply to Ulvira, a town in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were followed (...) . It is expected to significantly improve the town’s access to drinking water by 2018 and thereby potentially reduce cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases incidence. One goal of the project was to improve the reliability of the tap water supply by building a hydro-electric generator to prevent the frequent power cuts that prevent treated water being pumped through the system. Further engineering plans, however, determined that the geological setting was inappropriate to build a small dam at an affordable cost

2016 PLOS Blogs Network

37. Andrew Wakefield claims “natural Herd Immunity” is better than anything vaccines can do, never mind all that suffering

that getting sick is morbidity! Seriously, if you get sick with measles, even if you recover (as the vast majority do), you have suffered significant morbidity, and if there’s a vaccine suffering that morbidity is potentially preventable! Basically, Wakefield redefines morbidity as only permanent sequelae to make this deeply dishonest argument. I could much more reasonably define morbidity as being ill with vaccine-preventable disease (because that is morbidity, albeit temporary) and point out that, since (...) of student guest posts for my class on infectious causes of chronic disease. First one this year is by Dana Lowry. Humans have a long history of illness and death from infectious diseases. It wasn’t until the 1790s that we had a solution. Edward Jenner… If you want to know the single most important class of public health interventions with respect to infectious diseases in the 20th century it wasn't vaccines but provision of clean water and food supplies. But vaccines may be next. With major waterborne

2016 Respectful Insolence

38. Simultaneous Molecular Detection of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora from Raw Vegetables in Korea (PubMed)

Simultaneous Molecular Detection of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora from Raw Vegetables in Korea Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are well-known coccidian protozoa that can cause waterborne and foodborne diarrheal illnesses. There have been a few reports regarding contamination in different vegetables with Cryptosporidium, but no data are available regarding the sources of Cyclospora infections in Korea. In the present study, we collected 6 kinds of vegetables (perilla leaves, winter-grown (...) for the first time in Korea. This suggests that screening should be employed to prevent these protozoal infections in Korea.

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2017 The Korean journal of parasitology

39. Treating cholera in severely malnourished children in the Horn of Africa and Yemen (PubMed) Narra Rupa R Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. eng CC999999 Intramural CDC HHS United States Letter 2017 10 05 England Lancet 2985213R 0140-6736 0 Anti-Bacterial Agents AIM IM Anti-Bacterial Agents administration & dosage Child Child, Preschool Cholera diagnosis epidemiology therapy Combined Modality Therapy Comorbidity Developing Countries (...) Treating cholera in severely malnourished children in the Horn of Africa and Yemen 28988791 2018 09 28 2018 12 07 1474-547X 390 10106 2017 Oct 28 Lancet (London, England) Lancet Treating cholera in severely malnourished children in the Horn of Africa and Yemen. 1945-1946 S0140-6736(17)32601-6 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32601-6 Ververs Mija M Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. Electronic address: mververs

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2017 Lancet (London, England)

40. Review of Guidelines for Shock Chlorination in Private Wells

microorganisms include pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. A wide variety of pathogens have been identified in groundwater in the United States. 10 In Canada, research suggests that rural Canadians may be subject to increased health risks due to the use of untreated well water: previous work found that not only were indicator bacteria (total coliforms and Escherichia coli) prevalent among wells surveyed, but their presence was significantly associated with gastrointestinal illness in rural families (...) ) particularly in agricultural contexts. 4,5 Weather also plays a role in water well contamination. Previous work on water-borne disease outbreaks in small drinking water systems in Canada showed that illness attributable to well contamination was more likely to occur after heavy rain or spring thaw. 15,16 What is shock chlorination and what are its limitations? Shock chlorination involves introducing sodium or calcium hypochlorite at the wellhead, and then allowing this treated water to run through

2013 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

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