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Prevention of Waterborne Illness

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21. Waterborne viral infections and their prevention Full Text available with Trip Pro

Waterborne viral infections and their prevention Unless special measures are taken, community water supplies are likely to contain enteric viruses which may lead to sporadic cases, or even epidemics, of such diseases as infectious hepatitis or poliomyelitis. After a general discussion of waterborne viral infections, in which it is pointed out that subclinical infections may considerably outnumber clinical cases, the author proposes a method for the concentration and detection of enteric viruses

1968 Bulletin of the World Health Organization

22. Diarrhoea - prevention and advice for travellers

advice should be sought if antibiotic prophylaxis or 'stand-by' treatment is being considered. Advice should be given about managing travellers' diarrhoea while travelling: Most episodes are short-lived and self-limiting, lasting a few days. The person could consider purchasing sachets of oral rehydration salt before travelling. During an episode of diarrhoea, it is important to prevent dehydration — particularly for young children, pregnant women, elderly people, and those with pre-existing illness (...) update. Prescribing information updated with information regarding azithromycin interacting with colchicine. September 2017 — minor update. SPC update on quinolones to align all CKS topics prescribing advice. Prostatitis – chronic, Gonorrhoea, Pyelonephritis, Diarrhoea – prevention and advice for travellers, Dyspepsia – unidentified cause, Dyspepsia – proven functional, Dyspepsia – proven peptic ulcer, Diverticular disease, Gastroenteritis and Scrotal pain swellings. March 2013 — reviewed

2019 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

23. ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats

ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats TECHNICAL DOCUMENT www.ecdc.europa.eu ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats Handbook and manual ECDC TECHNICAL DOCUMENT ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats Handbook and manual ii This handbook results from a project commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control to the Centre for Infectious Disease Control at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health (...) for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats, as well as all experts who generously contributed to ECDC workshops on this topic. Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. ECDC tool for the prioritisation of infectious disease threats – Handbook and manual. Stockholm: ECDC; 2017. Stockholm, August 2017 ISBN 978-92-9498-079-3 doi: 10.2900/723567 Catalogue number TQ-01-17-810-EN-N Cover photo: Duncan C via Flickr, image licensed under a Creative Commons attribution 2.0 generic

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

24. Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats: A literature review

Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats: A literature review TECHNICAL REPORT Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats A literature review www.ecdc.europa.eu ECDC TECHNICAL REPORT Best practices in ranking emerging infectious disease threats A literature review ii This report was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), coordinated by Jonathan Suk, and produced by Bazian Ltd, London. Declarations of interest were (...) received from the contractor in accordance with ECDC’s Independence Policy and no conflict was identified. In accordance with the Staff Regulations for Officials and Conditions of Employment of Other Servants of the European Union and the ECDC Independence Policy, ECDC staff members shall not, in the performance of their duties, deal with a matter in which, directly or indirectly, they have any personal interest such as to impair their independence. Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease

2017 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Literature Reviews

25. Comparison of different solar reactors for household disinfection of drinking water in developing countries: evaluation of their efficacy in relation to the waterborne enteropathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. (Abstract)

Comparison of different solar reactors for household disinfection of drinking water in developing countries: evaluation of their efficacy in relation to the waterborne enteropathogen Cryptosporidium parvum. Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a type of treatment that can significantly improve the microbiological quality of drinking water at household level and therefore prevent waterborne diseases in developing countries. Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate protozoan parasite responsible (...) for the diarrhoeal disease cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. Recently, this parasite has been selected by the WHO as a reference pathogen for protozoan parasites in the evaluation of household water treatment options. In this study, the field efficacy of different static solar reactors [1.5 l transparent plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles as well as 2.5 l borosilicate glass and 25 l methacrylate reactors fitted with compound parabolic concentrators (CPC)] for solar disinfection of turbid

2012 Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

26. Handbook on implementing syndromic surveillance in migrant reception/detention centres and other refugee settings

presented below (Table 1, Annex 2) are designed to be consistent with epidemic-prone diseases, severe conditions or death. However, the intrinsic flexibility of the syndromic surveillance approach [54] allows countries to expand the scope of the syndromes according to national requirements, including non-communicable diseases, nutritional status, mental health and heat-related illnesses. Case definition It is important to stress that syndrome definitions can be designed to be more or less sensitive (...) Handbook on implementing syndromic surveillance in migrant reception/detention centres and other refugee settings TECHNICAL DOCUMENT Handbook on implementing syndromic surveillance in migrant reception/detention centres and other refugee settings www.ecdc.europa.eu ECDC TECHNICAL DOCUMENT Handbook on implementing syndromic surveillance in migrant reception/detention centres and other refugee settings ii This report was commissioned by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC

2016 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Technical Guidance

27. Effectiveness of Point-of-use Water Treatment Technologies to Prevent Stunting Among Children in South Africa

) to a permanent, engineered system that stores the water within the property The household currently uses a ceramic filter or other commercial water treatment technology (including a permanent, engineered system that treats the water through filtration and/or chlorination) The household has plans to move outside the community in the next 6 months The youngest child under 3 years of age is seriously ill (has a severe disease requiring prolonged hospitalization or a severe or chronic condition diagnosed (...) : Layout table for MeSH terms Diarrhea Malnutrition Intestinal Diseases Child Nutrition Disorders Diarrhea, Infantile Dysentery Infection Sprue, Tropical Signs and Symptoms, Digestive Signs and Symptoms Nutrition Disorders Gastrointestinal Diseases Digestive System Diseases Gastroenteritis Malabsorption Syndromes Metabolic Diseases

2017 Clinical Trials

28. Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India Full Text available with Trip Pro

, especially for Cryptosporidium, may account for a significant portion of child diarrhea morbidity in settings were tubewells are used for drinking water and should be more systematically monitored. Preventing diarrheal disease burdens in Puri District and similar settings will benefit from ensuring water is microbiologically safe for consumption and consistent and effective household water treatment is practiced. (...) Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India In many low-income settings, despite improvements in sanitation and hygiene, groundwater sources used for drinking may be contaminated with enteric pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which remain important causes of childhood morbidity. In this study, we examined the contribution of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia found in groundwater

2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

29. Risk Factors and Surveillance Systems for Foodborne Illness Outbreaks in Canada

Protocol (BC FIORP) – Guide to Multi-Agency Response in British Columbia (55); Surveillance Forms – Enteric, Food & Waterborne (56) iPHIS MB Part 4, Disease Control – The Public Health Act, CCSM, c P210. (42) Enteric Illness Protocol (57) iPHIS* NB New Brunswick Regulation 2009-136 -Public Health Act, SNB 1998, P-22.4. (29) NL Communicable Diseases Act, RSNL 1990, C-26. (43) Newfoundland and Labrador Disease Control Manual (58) iPHIS NS Reporting of Notifiable Diseases and Conditions Regulations, NS (...) are also able to publish their outbreak summaries here. 78 Gaps in the Literature and Surveillance Systems Assessment of risk factors in relation to consumers remains the least studied in the farm-to-fork continuum. A considerable amount of food preparation and handling occurs in the domestic environment; therefore, research regarding the risk of unsafe food-handling practices is an essential element towards prevention of foodborne disease. Foodborne illness is vastly underreported in Canada, a trend

2014 National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health

30. Recurrence of Guinea Worm Disease in Chad after a 10-Year Absence: Risk Factors for Human Cases Identified in 2010-2011. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Recurrence of Guinea Worm Disease in Chad after a 10-Year Absence: Risk Factors for Human Cases Identified in 2010-2011. A decade after reporting its last case of Guinea worm disease (GWD), a waterborne parasitic disease targeted for eradication, Chad reported 20 confirmed human cases from 17 villages-10 cases in 2010 and 10 cases in 2011. In 2012, the first GWD dog infections were diagnosed. We conducted a case-control study during April-May 2012 to identify human transmission risk factors (...) not be assessed in this case-control study due to their near-universal consumption. GWD's evolving nature in Chad underscores the continued need for interventions to prevent both waterborne and potential foodborne transmission until the true mechanism is established.

2017 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

31. Healthcare-Associated Outbreaks Associated with a Water Reservoir and Infection Prevention Strategies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

mycobacteria, although fungi and viruses were occasionally described. These pathogens caused a variety of infections, including bacteremia and invasive and disseminated diseases, particularly among immunocompromised hosts and critically ill adults as well as neonates. Waterborne outbreaks occurred in healthcare settings with emergence of new reported reservoirs, including electronic faucets (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella), decorative water wall fountains (Legionella), and heater-cooler devices used (...) in cardiac surgery (Mycobacterium chimaera). Advanced molecular techniques are useful for achieving a better understanding of reservoirs and transmission pathways of waterborne pathogens. Developing prevention strategies based on water reservoirs provides a practical approach for healthcare personnel.© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

2016 Clinical Infectious Diseases

32. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to contaminated food, we then applied proportions of infections that were estimated to be foodborne from a global expert elicitation. Waterborne transmission of disease was not included. We estimate that 29% (95% UI 23-36%) of cases caused by diseases in our study, or 582 million (95% UI 401-922 million), were transmitted by contaminated food, resulting in 25.2 million (95% UI 17.5-37.0 million) DALYs. Norovirus was the leading cause of foodborne illness causing 125 million (95% UI 70-251 million) cases (...) World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases.We synthesized data on the number of foodborne illnesses, sequelae, deaths

2015 PLoS medicine

33. Candida auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease

your email address: Enter Email Address Submit Button Candida auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease Posted on August 16, 2017 by CDC's Safe Healthcare Blog A strain of Candida auris cultured at the CDC laboratories. C. auris is a yeast that can cause serious infections. Content provided by CDC’s Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Antimicrobial resistance isn’t just a challenge with bacteria. , too. In its 2013 Report, CDC called attention to severe and resistant (...) auris: An Emerging Global Fungal Disease” Comments listed below are posted by individuals not associated with CDC, unless otherwise stated. These comments do not represent the official views of CDC, and CDC does not guarantee that any information posted by individuals on this site is correct, and disclaims any liability for any loss or damage resulting from reliance on any such information. . Thanks for sharing it I’ve been ill for nearly two years and I am sure C. auris is involved, yet I cannot

2017 CDC Safe Healthcare blog

34. In this era of increased globalization, infectious diseases show no boundaries

. In these moments, I recognize, selfishly, the absolute necessity of federally funding global health research and interventions. The diseases that thrive and spread in disaster settings are often the same diseases that thrive in underserved, under-resourced, and conflict-ridden countries globally. The U.S. grossly underfunds infectious disease research, including the development of vaccines, treatments, and eradication efforts for these conditions because they are rarely seen in the U.S. However, with climate (...) and future natural disasters in the U.S. have the potential for similar disease outbreaks. Prior to 2010, cholera was not seen in Haiti for over a century. As sewage built up in the water supply from the assault on Haiti’s infrastructure, the presence of one foreign UN peacekeeper with cholera caused an estimated 700,000 people to fall ill with the disease in short order. “The disease struck with explosive force. Within two days of the first cases, a hospital 60 miles away was admitting a new cholera

2017 KevinMD blog

35. What are the most important infectious diseases among those ≥65 years: a comprehensive analysis on notifiable diseases, Norway, 1993-2011. Full Text available with Trip Pro

year olds (NRR = 0.73). The NRR of each of the invasive bacterial diseases and antibiotic-resistant infections were above 1.5 (i.e. more common in ≥65), while the NRR of each food- and waterborne disease, blood-borne disease/STI and (non-invasive) vaccine preventable disease was below 1.Based on our results, we emphasise the importance of focusing public health efforts for those ≥65 years on preventing invasive bacterial infections. This can be achieved by increasing pneumococcal and influenza (...) What are the most important infectious diseases among those ≥65 years: a comprehensive analysis on notifiable diseases, Norway, 1993-2011. As the population ages, the burden on the healthcare system might increase and require changed public health priorities. As infections are often more severe at older age, we rank notifiable infectious diseases (ID) and describe trends of ID among the general population aged ≥65 years in Norway in order to inform public health priorities for the aging

2014 BMC Infectious Diseases

36. THE UNSOLVED PROBLEMS OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE UNSOLVED PROBLEMS OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE An inventory of the present status of the disease entities with which the modern sanitarian and clinician have to deal tempers the facile optimism of the unthinking. Whereas the infections transmitted by insects, the waterborn diseases, and certain diseases for which we possess methods of specific immunization have been well conquered, we are still unable to control the high mortality from degenerative diseases of the heart, bloodvessels and kidneys

1921 American journal of public health (New York, N.Y. : 1912)

37. Kawasaki Disease (Diagnosis)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) guidelines include the following: See for more details. ----- See , a Critical Images slideshow, for more information on the diagnosis and management of KD. Video overview of Kawasaki disease pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Next: Background KD is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood. The disorder has also been called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome and infantile periarteritis nodosa. It was first described in 1967 by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki, who reported 50 cases

2014 eMedicine.com

38. Legionnaires Disease (Diagnosis)

conditions, the amoeba can metamorphose into a cystic stage, enabling it, and its symbiotic resident, to withstand the environmental stress. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Barry S Fields. Legionella species infect human macrophages and monocytes; intracellular replication of the bacterium is observed within these cells in the alveoli. The intracellular infections of protozoa and macrophages have many similarities. Activated T cells produce lymphokines (...) , 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause

2014 eMedicine.com

39. Legionnaires Disease (Overview)

conditions, the amoeba can metamorphose into a cystic stage, enabling it, and its symbiotic resident, to withstand the environmental stress. Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Dr. Barry S Fields. Legionella species infect human macrophages and monocytes; intracellular replication of the bacterium is observed within these cells in the alveoli. The intracellular infections of protozoa and macrophages have many similarities. Activated T cells produce lymphokines (...) , 2018 Author: Burke A Cunha, MD; Chief Editor: Michael Stuart Bronze, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Legionnaires Disease Overview Background Legionnaires disease (LD) is the pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. LD also refers to a more benign, self-limited, acute febrile illness known as Pontiac fever, which has been linked serologically to L pneumophila, although it presents without pneumonia. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.) L pneumophila is an important cause

2014 eMedicine.com

40. Kawasaki Disease (Overview)

, and pyuria. The American Heart Association (AHA) suggests an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete KD in the most recent guideline. [ ] Echocardiography is the study of choice to evaluate for CAAs. Serial echocardiograms should be obtained as follows: At the time of KD diagnosis 1-2 weeks after the onset of the illness 5-6 weeks after the onset of the illness See and for more details. Management The principal goal of treatment is to prevent coronary artery disease. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG (...) guidelines include the following: See for more details. ----- See , a Critical Images slideshow, for more information on the diagnosis and management of KD. Video overview of Kawasaki disease pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment. Next: Background KD is an acute febrile vasculitic syndrome of early childhood. The disorder has also been called mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome and infantile periarteritis nodosa. It was first described in 1967 by Dr Tomisaku Kawasaki, who reported 50 cases

2014 eMedicine.com

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