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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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161. Snail-borne parasitic diseases: an update on global epidemiological distribution, transmission interruption and control methods (PubMed)

, their clinical manifestations and disease distributions, as well as snail control methods.Snails have four roles in the life cycles of the parasites they host: as an intermediate host infected by the first-stage larvae, as the only intermediate host infected by miracidia, as the first intermediate host that ingests the parasite eggs are ingested, and as the first intermediate host penetrated by miracidia with or without the second intermediate host being an aquatic animal. Snail-borne parasitic diseases (...) Snail-borne parasitic diseases: an update on global epidemiological distribution, transmission interruption and control methods Snail-borne parasitic diseases, such as angiostrongyliasis, clonorchiasis, fascioliasis, fasciolopsiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis and schistosomiasis, pose risks to human health and cause major socioeconomic problems in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. In this review we summarize the core roles of snails in the life cycles of the parasites they host

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2018 Infectious diseases of poverty

162. Hidden dangers-prevalence of blood borne pathogens, hepatitis B, C, HIV and syphilis, among blood donors in Sierra Leone in 2016: opportunities for improvement: a retrospective, cross-sectional study (PubMed)

Hidden dangers-prevalence of blood borne pathogens, hepatitis B, C, HIV and syphilis, among blood donors in Sierra Leone in 2016: opportunities for improvement: a retrospective, cross-sectional study Transmissible blood-borne infections are a serious threat to blood transfusion safety in West African countries; and yet blood remains a key therapeutic product in the clinical management of patients. Sierra Leone screens blood donors for blood-borne infections but has not implemented prevention (...) prevalence of hepatitis B, C and HIV than volunteers.A high prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, particularly hepatitis B, was revealed in Sierra Leone blood donors. The study suggests the country should implement the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B and push to recruit more volunteer, non-remunerated blood donors.

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2018 The Pan African medical journal

163. DETECTION OF WATER-BORNE PARASITES IN DRINKING WATER OF BAGHDAD, IRAQ (PubMed)

-Neelson. Wet mount slide method was applied to detect cysts of free-living amoeba Acanthomoeba, Naegleria. The number of cysts in July and August were higher than other months for Drinking Project and the water tanks for all regions.These results emphasize the importance screening of the water to prevent possible of the spread of parasitic protozoan and that the cracks occurrence in drinking water pipes between the stations and houses led to contamination of water with the infective stage of parasites (...) DETECTION OF WATER-BORNE PARASITES IN DRINKING WATER OF BAGHDAD, IRAQ Within the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of water-borne disease outbreaks and emergence of newly recognized waterborne parasites. Several factors which contribute to the spread of these diseases include: water, heavy rains and agricultural residues which transfer the parasites to water surface from the soil. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parasites in the river and drinking

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2018 African journal of infectious diseases

164. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens from Ticks Collected from Cattle and Wild Animals in Tanzania in 2012 (PubMed)

. Ticks of the genera Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were infected with 1 or 2 pathogens. Collectively, this study provides important information regarding differences in pathogen status among various regions, hosts, and tick species in Tanzania. Results in this study will affect the programs to prevent tick-borne diseases (TBD) of humans and livestock in Tanzania. (...) tested, Rickettsiaceae, Piroplasmidae, and Anaplasmataceae, were detected in ticks from the 2 regions. Rickettsiaceae represented the major tick-borne pathogens of the 2 regions. Ticks from animals in Maswa were associated with a higher pathogen detection rate compared to that in ticks from Iringa. In addition, a higher pathogen detection rate was observed in ticks infesting cattle than in ticks infesting wild animals. All examined ticks of the genus Amblyomma were infected with diverse pathogens

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2018 The Korean journal of parasitology

165. Tick‐borne relapsing fever as a potential veterinary medical problem (PubMed)

Tick‐borne relapsing fever as a potential veterinary medical problem Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) caused by the bacteria Borrelia, is poorly documented in veterinary medicine. Given the widespread presence of the soft tick vectors - Ornithodoros and the recently discovered hard tick vectors, as well as their close association with animal hosts, it is highly likely that infection occurs, but is rarely reported to be of veterinary importance. Sporadic reports of canine infection, some (...) being fatal through to probable cause of abortion in horses have been published. Some of these pathogens exist in regions where there are limited diagnostic facilities, hence, they are likely to be missed and their impact on productivity may be unquantified. Here we review available literatures on cases of TBRF in domestic and wild animals in order to show their potential veterinary medical impact. Future efforts using field and laboratory surveys are needed to determine pathogenesis, vector

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2018 Veterinary Medicine and Science

166. Understanding Tick-borne Diseases

Study Description Go to Brief Summary: Ticks are the major arthropod vectors transmitting pathogenic agents to humans and domestic animals in Europe, and currently, the incidence of tick-borne disease is rising. The most common European human tick-borne disease is Lyme borreliosis, with an estimated 90 000 new cases every year (compared to 300 000 new cases in the United States annually). This disease is initially clinically diagnosed by the presence of migrating erythema following a tick bite (...) public and health professional knowledge about tick disease risk. The battle against tick-borne diseases is based on relatively simple prevention measures, and their effectiveness is immeasurably improved when citizens are more informed and involved.Therefore, a multidisciplinary project, bringing together veterinarians, doctors, scientists, and consultant sociologists has been designed to create a global "One Health" approach to tick-borne diseases. Specific scientific project objectives are to (1

2018 Clinical Trials

167. Evaluating polymicrobial immune responses in patients suffering from tick-borne diseases (PubMed)

Control and Prevention two-tier Lyme disease (LD) diagnosis guidelines and Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. All patient categories were tested for their immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) responses against 20 microbes associated with TBD. Our findings recognize that microbial infections in patients suffering from TBDs do not follow the one microbe, one disease Germ Theory as 65% of the TBD patients produce immune responses to various microbes (...) Evaluating polymicrobial immune responses in patients suffering from tick-borne diseases There is insufficient evidence to support screening of various tick-borne diseases (TBD) related microbes alongside Borrelia in patients suffering from TBD. To evaluate the involvement of multiple microbial immune responses in patients experiencing TBD we utilized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Four hundred and thirty-two human serum samples organized into seven categories followed Centers for Disease

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2018 Scientific reports

168. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of tick-borne pathogens in wild Korean water deer and farmed elk in Gyeongbuk and Gangwon Provinces of Korea (PubMed)

Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of tick-borne pathogens in wild Korean water deer and farmed elk in Gyeongbuk and Gangwon Provinces of Korea The purpose of this study was to assess tick-borne pathogenic infections in 42 wild Korean water deer (KWD) and 26 farmed elk in the Gyeongbuk and Gangwon Provinces of Korea. Among the 42 wild KWD tested, the eighteen (42.9%) and five (11.9%) samples tested positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and A. bovis, respectively, by PCR and DNA (...) sequencing. All positive samples were only from wild KWD. All samples were negative for other tick-borne pathogens tested. Detected 16S rRNA sequences of A. phagocytophilum and A. bovis showed 98.6-99.8% and 94.4-100% identity to those of sequences in GenBank, respectively. Because few studies have examined tick-borne pathogens in wild animals, appropriate control programs and studies are needed to prevent pathogen transmission.

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2018 The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science

169. Tick-borne zoonoses in the Order Rickettsiales and Legionellales in Iran: A systematic review (PubMed)

Tick-borne zoonoses in the Order Rickettsiales and Legionellales in Iran: A systematic review Tick-borne zoonoses in the Order Rickettsiales and Legionellales cause infections that often manifest as undifferentiated fevers that are not easy to distinguish from other causes of acute febrile illnesses clinically. This is partly attributed to difficulty in laboratory confirmation since convalescent sera, specific diagnostic reagents, and the required expertise may not be readily available (...) . As a result, a number of tick-borne zoonoses are underappreciated resulting in unnecessary morbidity, mortality and huge economic loses. In Iran, a significant proportion of human infectious diseases are tick-borne, with anecdotal evidence suggesting that tick-borne zoonoses are widespread but underreported in the country. Epidemiological review is therefore necessary to aid in the effective control and prevention of tick-borne zonooses in Iran. The aim of this review is to provide an in-depth

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2018 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

170. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis strain ST410 harboring plasmid-borne bla<sub>OXA-72</sub> gene in Taiwan. (PubMed)

Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis strain ST410 harboring plasmid-borne blaOXA-72 gene in Taiwan. 29680524 2018 08 22 1469-0691 24 9 2018 Sep Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis strain ST410 harbouring plasmid-borne bla OXA-72 gene in Taiwan. 1023-1024 S1198-743X(18)30347-1 (...) Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan City, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address: drche0523@cgmh.org.tw. Sun J-R JR Division of Clinical Pathology, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China; Institute of Preventive Medicine, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China. Electronic address: tsghsun@gmail.com. eng Letter 2018 04 19 England Clin Microbiol

2018 Clinical Microbiology and Infection

171. Factors associated with HIV infection among children born to mothers on the prevention of mother to child transmission programme at Chitungwiza Hospital, Zimbabwe, 2008. (PubMed)

Factors associated with HIV infection among children born to mothers on the prevention of mother to child transmission programme at Chitungwiza Hospital, Zimbabwe, 2008. Zimbabwe is one of the five countries worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic with HIV infection contributing increasingly to childhood morbidity and mortality. Among the children born to HIV positive mothers participating in the PMTCT programme, 25% tested positive to HIV. We investigated factors associated with HIV infection (...) among children born to mothers on the PMTCT programme.A 1:1 unmatched case-control study was conducted at Chitungwiza Hospital, Zimbabwe, 2008. A case was defined as a child who tested HIV positive, born to a mother who had been on PMTCT programme. A control was a HIV negative child born to a mother who had been on PMTCT programme. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics, risk factors associated with HIV infection and immunization status.A

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2013 BMC Public Health

172. Infection Control for Haemodialysis Units

Infection Control for Haemodialysis Units ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Infectious diseases in haemodialysis units November-2018 Page 1 of 63 INFECTION CONTROL FOR HAEMODIALYSIS UNITS Components I. Prevention of blood-borne virus transmission in haemodialysis units Date written: November 2017 Author: Dr Nicole Gilroy, Dr Muh Geot Wong II. Screening for multidrug-resistant organisms in haemodialysis patients Date (...) the broader health service environment, patients receiving facility-based haemodialysis are a particular group with potentially increased vulnerability to invasive infections due to a relatively immune- compromised state associated with: end-stage kidney disease, the need for ongoing vascular access, and prolonged exposure to health services and other patients. The prevention of blood-borne virus infections and colonisation with multidrug-resistant organisms in haemodialysis patients has long been

2019 KHA-CARI Guidelines

173. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union

Kingdom), and its members: Judith Bruchfeld (Sweden); Josie Garrett (United Kingdom); Walter Haas (Germany); Einar Heldal (Norway); Rein Houben (United Kingdom); Philip LoBue (USA); Mike Mandelbaum (United Kingdom); Alberto Matteelli (Italy); Giovanni Battista Migliori (Italy); Ivan Solovic (Slovakia); and Martina Vašáková (Czech Republic). Suggested citation: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union. Stockholm (...) : ECDC; 2018. Stockholm, October 2018 PDF Print ISBN 978-92-9498-266-7 978-92-9498-272-8 DOI 10.2900/971917 10.2900/451255 Catalogue number TQ-03-18-287-EN-N TQ-03-18-287-EN-C © European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2018 Reproduction is authorised, provided the source is acknowledged SCIENTIFIC ADVICE Programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in the European Union iii Contents Abbreviations iv Glossary v Executive summary 1 1. Introduction 2 1.1 TB elimination

2019 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

174. Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing

Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting) – reducing antibiotic prescribing Management of self-limiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care bpac nz guidelines www.bpac.org.nz/guidelines November 20152 RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS (SELF-LIMITING) – REDUCING ANTIBIOTIC PRESCRIBING WWW.BPAC.ORG.NZ/GUIDELINES This is a bpac nz contextualisation of NICE Clinical Guideline 69 © NICE 2008 (...) 2 Contents Introduction 3 Patient-centred care 5 1. Guidance 6 The clinical effectiveness of antibiotic management strategies for self-limiting respiratory tract infections (RTIs) 7 Identifying those patients with RTIs who are likely to be at risk of developing complications 8 2. Notes on the scope of the guidance 9 3. Implementation 9 4. Other versions of this guideline 9 4.1 Full NICE guideline (UK) 9 5. Updating the guideline 9 Appendix A: The Guideline Review and Contextualisation Group

2019 Best Practice Advocacy Centre New Zealand

175. Corticosteroids for preventing neonatal respiratory morbidity after elective caesarean section at term. (PubMed)

Corticosteroids for preventing neonatal respiratory morbidity after elective caesarean section at term. Infants born at term by elective caesarean section are more likely to develop respiratory morbidity than infants born vaginally. Prophylactic corticosteroids in singleton preterm pregnancies accelerate lung maturation and reduce the incidence of respiratory complications.The objective of this review was to assess the effect of prophylactic corticosteroid administration before elective (...) in the need for mechanical ventilation (RR 0.67; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.68; 3 studies; 3441 participants; very-low quality), perinatal death (RR 0.67; 95% CI 0.11 to 4.10; 4 studies; 3893 participants) or neonatal sepsis (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.06 to 15.95; 2 studies; 2214 participants) .There were no reported events of neonatal respiratory complications (other than RDS and tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN)), chronic lung disease, duration of mechanical ventilation or maternal postpartum infection, therefore results

2018 Cochrane

176. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) combined with pyrethroids in insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria in Africa. (PubMed)

Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) combined with pyrethroids in insecticide-treated nets to prevent malaria in Africa. Public health strategies that target mosquito vectors, particularly pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), have been largely responsible for the substantial reduction in the number of people in Africa developing malaria. The spread of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes threatens these impacts. One way to control insecticide-resistant populations is by using (...) to LLINs improves their efficacy.1. Evaluate whether adding PBO to pyrethroid LLINs increases the epidemiological and entomological effectiveness of the nets.2. Compare the effects of pyrethroid-PBO nets currently in commercial development or on the market with their non-PBO equivalent in relation to:a. malaria infection (prevalence or incidence);b. entomological outcomes.We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (CIDG) Specialized Register; CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CAB

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2018 Cochrane

177. Pet-Borne Infection

Pet-Borne Infection Pet-Borne Infection Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pet-Borne Infection Pet-Borne Infection Aka (...) : Pet-Borne Infection , Pet-Borne Parasitic Zoonoses , Pet Borne Disease , Pet Borne Zoonoses , Zoonoses From Related Chapters II. Transmission: Skin Contact with contaminated soil or water (or skin-to-skin contact) ( from dog or cat feces exposure) (fish tanks) ( , esp. microsporum canis) III. Transmission: Fecal-oral route - ingestion of contaminated soil or feces ( from dogs) (Cat litter) (Cats and dogs) sis (Cats and dogs) (Cats and dogs) (Cats, dogs, chickens and reptiles) (Dogs, rodents

2016 FP Notebook

178. Reshaping the vector control strategy for malaria elimination in Ethiopia in the context of current evidence and new tools: opportunities and challenges. (PubMed)

Reshaping the vector control strategy for malaria elimination in Ethiopia in the context of current evidence and new tools: opportunities and challenges. The core vector control measures, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), reduce the risk of malaria infection by targeting indoor biting mosquitoes. These two interventions are found to be effective in malaria control, but not sufficient to eliminate malaria. The main challenges with LLINs and IRS (...) are insecticide resistance, misuse of the interventions, host behaviour, such as staying out-door during early night or sleeping outdoor without using protective measures, and vector behaviour including feeding on bovine blood, outdoor biting and outdoor resting. Therefore, for complete interruption of malaria transmission in a defined area there is a need to consider a variety of interventions that can help prevent out-door as well as indoor malaria transmission. In Ethiopia, to achieve the malaria

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2018 Malaria journal

179. Incorporation of NS1 and prM/M are important to confer effective protection of adenovirus-vectored Zika virus vaccine carrying E protein (PubMed)

neutralizing antibody response to ZIKV than Ad2-E, suggesting prM/M is important for the folding of immunogenic E. Most intriguingly, Ad2-prME-NS1 elicited the best viral inhibition when the immune sera were added to ZIKV-infected cells. In ZIKV-challenged neonatal mice born to maternally immunized dams, Ad2-prME-NS1 conferred the best protection in preventing weight loss, neurological disorders, and viral replication. Ad2-prME also conferred significant protection but was less effective than Ad2-prME-NS1 (...) Incorporation of NS1 and prM/M are important to confer effective protection of adenovirus-vectored Zika virus vaccine carrying E protein Current design of Zika virus (ZIKV) vaccine mainly considered envelope (E) as the major target antigen. Non-structural protein NS1 was seldom considered. Herein, we generated three adenovirus-vectored vaccines carrying E (Ad2-E), or premembrane/membrane (prM/M) with E (Ad2-prME), or NS1 in addition to prM/M with E (Ad2-prME-NS1). Ad2-prME induced higher

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2018 NPJ Vaccines

180. Immunization by Replication-Competent Controlled Herpesvirus Vectors (PubMed)

Immunization by Replication-Competent Controlled Herpesvirus Vectors Replication-competent controlled virus vectors were derived from the virulent herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) wild-type strain 17syn+ by placing one or two replication-essential genes under the stringent control of a gene switch that is coactivated by heat and an antiprogestin. Upon activation of the gene switch, the vectors replicate in infected cells with an efficacy that approaches that of the wild-type virus from which (...) in mice of efficient but limited replication of a replication-competent controlled herpesvirus vector resulted in a greatly enhanced immune response to the virus or an expressed heterologous antigen. This finding supports the above-mentioned hypothesis and suggests that the vectors may be promising novel agents worth exploring for the prevention/mitigation of infectious diseases for which efficient vaccination is lacking, in particular in immunocompromised patients.Copyright © 2018 Bloom et al.

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2018 Journal of virology

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