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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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141. Engineering antibody-like inhibitors to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection. (PubMed)

Engineering antibody-like inhibitors to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection. Here we discuss recently developed HIV-1 entry inhibitors that can target multiple epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), with an emphasis on eCD4-Ig. Some of these inhibitors are more potent and broader than any single antibody characterized to date. We also discuss the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors as a platform for long-term expression of these inhibitors.Much of the exterior (...) of HIV-1 Env can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Recent studies combine the variable regions or Fabs from different bNAbs, often with the receptor-mimetic components, to create broad, potent, and hard-to-escape inhibitors. rAAV vectors can express these inhibitors for years in vivo, highlighting their ability to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection.By targeting multiple epitopes on Env, bispecific and antibody-like inhibitors can be broader and more potent than bNAbs

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2017 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

142. Strategy and technology to prevent hospital-acquired infections: Lessons from SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa (PubMed)

Strategy and technology to prevent hospital-acquired infections: Lessons from SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are serious problems for healthcare systems, especially in developing countries where public health infrastructure and technology for infection preventions remain undeveloped. Here, we characterized how strategy and technology could be mobilized to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control in hospitals during (...) the outbreaks of Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Asia and West Africa. Published literature on the hospital-borne outbreaks of SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa was comprehensively reviewed. The results showed that healthcare systems and hospital management in affected healthcare facilities had poor strategies and inadequate technologies and human resources for the prevention and control of HAIs, which led to increased morbidity

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2017 Military Medical Research

143. Social-ecological factors and preventive actions decrease the risk of dengue infection at the household-level: Results from a prospective dengue surveillance study in Machala, Ecuador (PubMed)

Social-ecological factors and preventive actions decrease the risk of dengue infection at the household-level: Results from a prospective dengue surveillance study in Machala, Ecuador In Ecuador, dengue virus (DENV) infections transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito are among the greatest public health concerns in urban coastal communities. Community- and household-level vector control is the principal means of controlling disease outbreaks. This study aimed to assess the impact of knowledge (...) inside the home (p<0.05). In bivariate analyses (but not multivariate modeling), DENV infections were positively associated with HOHs who were male, employed, and of younger age than households without infections (p<0.05). DENV infections were not associated with knowledge, attitude, or reported barriers to prevention activities.Specific actions that can be considered to decrease the risk of DENV infections in the household include targeting vector control in highly shaded properties, fumigating

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2017 PLoS neglected tropical diseases

144. T-Lymphocytes for Prevention or Treatment of Viral Infections Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

T-Lymphocytes for Prevention or Treatment of Viral Infections Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation T-Lymphocytes for Prevention or Treatment of Viral Infections Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved (...) studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. T-Lymphocytes for Prevention or Treatment of Viral Infections Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (NATS) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov

2017 Clinical Trials

145. Product review on the monoclonal antibody palivizumab for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection (PubMed)

hemisphere. Most severe infections (RSV accounts for 50 to 80% of all cause bronchiolitis) affect infants younger than 6 months of age and high-risk infants including those born preterm with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and those with hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease up to an age of 24 months. Palivizumab, a highly potent RSV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Mab), has been licensed in 1998 for prophylactic use to prevent RSV associated hospitalizations in high-risk infants (...) Product review on the monoclonal antibody palivizumab for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) accounts for about 20% of all respiratory infections in children below the age of 5 y. It is associated with up to 63% of all acute respiratory infections and up to 81% of all viral lower respiratory tract infections causing hospitalization in infants and young children. RSV leads to seasonal epidemics between November and April in the northern

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2017 Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics

146. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection (PubMed)

Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed (...) vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques

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2017 Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology

147. Modeling Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters: Importance of STAT2 in Preventing Disease and Effective Treatment with Favipiravir (PubMed)

Modeling Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus Infection in Golden Syrian Hamsters: Importance of STAT2 in Preventing Disease and Effective Treatment with Favipiravir Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease endemic in parts of Asia. The etiologic agent, SFTS virus (SFTSV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) has caused significant morbidity and mortality in China, South Korea, and Japan, with key features of disease being intense fever (...) , thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Case fatality rates are estimated to be in the 30% range, and no antivirals or vaccines are approved for use for treatment and prevention of SFTS. There is evidence that in human cells, SFTSV sequesters STAT proteins in replication complexes, thereby inhibiting type I interferon signaling. Here, we demonstrate that hamsters devoid of functional STAT2 are highly susceptible to as few as 10 PFU of SFTSV, with animals generally succumbing within 5 to 6 days after subcutaneous

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2017 Journal of virology

148. Preventive and therapeutic challenges in combating Zika virus infection: are we getting any closer? (PubMed)

Preventive and therapeutic challenges in combating Zika virus infection: are we getting any closer? The neuroteratogenic nature of Zika Virus (ZIKV) infection has converted what would have been a tropical disease into a global threat. Zika is transmitted vertically via infected placental cells especially in the first and second trimesters. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), ZIKV can infect and induce apoptosis of neural progenitor cells subsequently causing microcephaly as well (...) as other neuronal complications in infants. Its ability to infect multiple cell types (placental, dermal, and neural) and increased environmental stability as compared to other flaviviruses (FVs) has broadened the transmission routes for ZIKV infection from vector-mediated to transmitted via body fluids. To further complicate the matters, it is genetically similar (about 40%) with the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV), so much so that it can almost be called a fifth DENV serotype. This homology

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2017 Journal of neurovirology

149. Cost-effectiveness analysis of prophylactic lamivudine use in preventing vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus infection.

Cost-effectiveness analysis of prophylactic lamivudine use in preventing vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus infection. As neonates born to mothers with positive hepatitis B e antigen may not be completely protected by hepatitis B vaccination, prophylactic lamivudine use in mothers with high viraemia has been proposed. However, the overall effectiveness and the balance between cost and benefit for such a prophylactic strategy have rarely been addressed.Using a review of recent literature (...) was performed to calculate costs, acute infections averted, and QALYs gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted and a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve drawn. All these analyses were from the societal perspective. Costs ($US) were valued in year 2008 prices.Supplemental lamivudine use gained an additional 0.0024 QALYs and averted 0.23 acute infections per birth compared with the routine active-passive immunization without lamivudine. The cost-effectiveness analysis suggested

2017 PharmacoEconomics

150. Prevention of fetal infection in heifers challenged with bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1a by vaccination with a type 1c or type 1a vaccine. (PubMed)

and type 1a BVD viruses significantly reduced fetal infection following challenge with a New Zealand type 1a BVD virus. Prevention of fetal infection by vaccination may not be 100%, and the risk of persistently infected calves being born to some vaccinated cattle should be acknowledged and managed as part of a BVD control programme. (...) Prevention of fetal infection in heifers challenged with bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1a by vaccination with a type 1c or type 1a vaccine. To evaluate a vaccine containing type 1c bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus for prevention of fetal infection in pregnant heifers when challenged with New Zealand BVD virus type 1a 6 months after vaccination, compared to unvaccinated heifers and heifers vaccinated with a vaccine containing type 1a BVD virus.Fifty five crossbred Friesian heifers, free

2017 New Zealand veterinary journal Controlled trial quality: uncertain

151. Efficacy of umbilical cord cleansing with a single application of 4% chlorhexidine for the prevention of newborn infections in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PubMed)

Efficacy of umbilical cord cleansing with a single application of 4% chlorhexidine for the prevention of newborn infections in Uganda: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial Yearly, nearly all the estimated worldwide 2.7 million neonatal deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Infections, including those affecting the umbilical cord (omphalitis), are a significant factor in approximately a third of these deaths. In fact, the odds of all-cause mortality are 46% higher among (...) care among Ugandan babies born in health facilities, on the risk of omphalitis and severe neonatal illness.The CHX study is a facility-based, individually randomized controlled trial that will be conducted among 4760 newborns in Uganda. The primary outcomes are severe illness and omphalitis during the neonatal period. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat.This study will provide novel evidence, from a Sub-Saharan African setting, of the effect of umbilical cord cleansing with a single application

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2017 Trials Controlled trial quality: uncertain

152. Urinary tract infection (lower): antimicrobial prescribing

in the incidence of pyelonephritis, febrile UTIs, patient-reported adverse events, or serious drug-related adverse effects (low to moderate quality evidence). Cr Cranberry products anberry products Two RCTs (Wing et al. 2008 and Wing et al. 2015) assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of cranberry products for preventing asymptomatic bacteriuria in healthy pregnant women. Wing et al. (2008) found that cranberry juice was not effective in preventing episodes of Urinary tract infection (lower (...) Urinary tract infection (lower): antimicrobial prescribing Urinary tr Urinary tract infection (lower): act infection (lower): antimicrobial prescribing antimicrobial prescribing NICE guideline Published: 31 October 2018 nice.org.uk/guidance/ng109 © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and-conditions#notice-of- rights).Y Y our responsibility our responsibility The recommendations in this guideline represent the view of NICE, arrived at after

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

153. Sharps injuries: exposure to blood borne viruses

Sharps injuries: exposure to blood borne viruses Sharps injuries: exposure to blood borne viruses | Great Ormond Street Hospital Google Tag Manager Navigation Search Search You are here Sharps injuries: exposure to blood borne viruses Sharps injuries: exposure to blood borne viruses (227.95 KB) b) Report to line manager The manager should ensure risk assessment occurs by: During normal working hours: send staff member to the Occupational Health Department (OHD). Outside normal working hours (...) : contact on-call Microbiologist/Infectious Disease (ID) doctor for advice. If an exposure to a BBV has occurred, the Health Care Worker's (HCW) manager must contact the Health and Safety Advisor/Assistant immediately on extension 7885/6 or 07771 333601. c) Risk assessment Inform patient and parents/carers of incident and supply ‘ . To enable a risk assessment, full details of patient must be obtained including any known risk factors for blood borne viruses in the patient or the parents. If recently

2015 Publication 1593

154. Preventing and Managing Infectious Diseases Among People who Inject Drugs in Ontario

APPROACH FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM 17 Citizens’ values and preferences related to the three approach elements 17 Element 1 – Strengthen efforts to prevent infectious diseases among those who inject drugs 19 Element 2 – Enhance the infection-management capacity of community points of contacts for people who inject drugs 23 Element 3 – Strengthen patient-centred care in specialty/acute-care settings 28 Additional equity-related observations about the three approach elements 31 IMPLEMENTATION (...) who inject drugs o This element could include efforts to prevent or help people to stop injecting drugs, efforts to reduce the risk of infection (e.g., needle-exchange programs, safe consumption/injection sites, and opioid analgesic therapy) and enhancing education efforts for people who inject drugs (e.g., to minimize risk of infectious diseases, identify early symptoms of infectious diseases, and know where to seek treatment when needed). o Generally, the evidence for this element supported

2019 McMaster Health Forum

155. Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection

Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection 1 Introduction 1. Introduction CONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON the use of ANt IRet RoVIRAL DRuGs fo R t ReAt ING AND PReVeNt ING hIV INfe Ct IoN r ECOmm ENDATIONS f Or A p Ub LIC h EALTh A ppr OACh JUNE 2013 GuIDeLINesCONSOLIDATED GUIDELINES ON the use of ANt IRe t Ro VIRAL DRu Gs f o R t Re At ING AND PRe Ve Nt ING h IV INf e Ct Io N r ECOm m ENDATIONS f Or A p Ub LIC h EALTh Ap pr OACh JUNE 2013WHO (...) Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: r ecommendations for a public health approach June 2013. 1.HIV infections – drug therapy. 2.HIV infectionsprevention and control. 3.Anti-r etroviral agents – therapeutic use. 4.Guideline. I.World Health Organization. ISBN 978 92 4 150572 7 (NLM classification: WC 503.2) © World Health Organization 2013 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health

2013 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

156. Summary: Consolidated guidelines on the use of ARV drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection

Summary: Consolidated guidelines on the use of ARV drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection Consolidated guidelines on the Use of AntiretrovirAl DrUgs for treA ting AnD Preventing hiv infection summary of key features and reCommendations June 2013 gUiDelines hiv/AiDs Programmehiv/AiDs Programme June 2013 Consolidated guidelines on the Use of AntiretrovirAl DrUgs for treA ting AnD Preventing hiv infection summary of key features and reCommendations Consolidated guidelines on the use (...) of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection: summary of key features and recommendations I.World Health Organization WHO/HIV/2013.7 © World Health Organization 2013 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization are available on the WHO web site (www.who.int) or can be purchased from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857). Cover image by: WHO/AndréFrancois/ImageMagica e

2013 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

157. The Rise in Tick-Borne Diseases: Is Climate Change Responsible?

. 2005;2(1):38-46. 6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Life cycle of hard ticks that spread disease. . Updated February 3, 2014. Accessed February 22, 2014. 7. Süss J, Klaus C, Gerstengarbe FW, Werner PC. What makes ticks tick? Climate change, ticks, and tick-borne diseases. J Travel Med. 2008;15(1):39-45. 8. Gray JS, Dautel H, Estrada-Peña A, Kahl O, Lindgren E. Effects of climate change on ticks and tick-borne diseases in Europe. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis. 2009;2009:593232. 9. Gubler (...) DJ, Reiter P, Ebi KL, Yap W, Nasci R, Patz JA. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109 Suppl 2:223-233. 10. Bacon RM, Kugeler KJ, Mead PS; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Surveillance for Lyme disease–United States, 1992-2006. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2008;57(10):1-9. Share: | | Sites We Follow: Useful Links: Questions? Comments? Contact us! © New York University. All rights

2014 Clinical Correlations

158. UK tick-borne Lyme disease cases may be 3 times higher than previous estimates

UK tick-borne Lyme disease cases may be 3 times higher than previous estimates UK tick-borne Lyme disease cases may be 3 times higher than previous estimates | BMJ Open by Based on these figures, new cases might top 8000 in 2019, estimate researchers published in the online journal . Lyme disease is a bacterial (Borrelia) infection passed on through the bite of an infected tick. It has become the most common tick-borne infection in many parts of Europe and the USA. Early signs may include (...) previous estimates have suggested, and if these trends continue, the number of new UK cases could top 8000 in 2019, say the researchers. To stave off infection risk, it is advisable to: avoid dense vegetation, particularly wooded or grassy areas in moist and humid environments; use insect repellent on skin and clothing; tuck trousers into socks; and search the body for ticks after hiking in high risk areas, they write. This study is observational, and the data on which it is based have

2019 BMJ Open Blog

159. Vaccines for preventing tick-borne encephalitis. (PubMed)

Vaccines for preventing tick-borne encephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a disease of the central nervous system caused by a tick-borne viral infection. TBE can lead to severe neurological syndromes such as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis, which can result in death. There is no treatment, and prevention with the vaccine is the only intervention currently available.To evaluate vaccines for preventing TBE in terms of effectiveness and adverse effects.In June (...) (seroconversion). All the vaccines gave seroconversion rates of over 87%. Systemic and local adverse effects were common; none were severe or life threatening.Tick-borne encephalitis vaccines appear to be highly immunogenic, but the relationship between seroconversion and clinical protection has not been established. Although adverse effects were commonly reported, none were serious or life threatening.

2009 Cochrane

160. Trends in liver cancer mortality in the United States: Dual burden among foreign- and US-born persons. (PubMed)

Trends in liver cancer mortality in the United States: Dual burden among foreign- and US-born persons. Since the mid-1980s, the burden of liver cancer in the United States has doubled, with 31,411 new cases and 24,698 deaths occurring in 2014. Foreign-born individuals may be more likely to die of liver cancer than individuals in the general US-born population because of higher rates of hepatitis B infection, a low socioeconomic position, and language barriers that limit the receipt of early (...) cancer detection and effective treatment.To determine whether liver cancer mortality rates were higher among foreign-born individuals versus US-born individuals in the United States, population-based cancer mortality data were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual population estimates were obtained from the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey. Age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios (RRs) for liver cancer

2018 Cancer

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