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Canine Leishmaniasis: An Overview of the Current Status and Strategies for Control Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a vector-borne disease caused by Leishmania infantum and is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies primarily between animals and secondarily to humans. The course of infection may be different from one individual dog to another, ranging from spontaneous cure to acute evolution that leads to death, if proper management and therapy are not adopted. A parasitological cure (...) is rarely achieved and clinical recurrences in CanL are frequent. Vaccination associated with the use of topical insecticides is undoubtedly the most effective form of prevention and control of the disease. In order to integrate the most important scientific knowledge of the literature in one objective publication, this review proposes a short overview of the main points of CanL.
Neighbourhood level real-time forecasting of dengue cases in tropical urban Singapore. Dengue, a vector-borneinfectious disease caused by the dengue virus, has spread through tropical and subtropical regions of the world. All four serotypes of dengue viruses are endemic in the equatorial city state of Singapore, and frequent localised outbreaks occur, sometimes leading to national epidemics. Vector control remains the primary and most effective measure for dengue control and prevention
Space-Time Clusters and Co-Occurrence of Chikungunya and Dengue Fever in Colombia from 2015 to 2016. Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) infect over one billion people and are responsible for over one million deaths each year, globally. Chikungunya (CHIK) and Dengue Fever (DENF) are emerging VBDs due to overpopulation, increases in urbanization, climate change, and other factors. Colombia has recently experienced severe outbreaks of CHIK AND DENF. Both viruses are transmitted by the Aedes mosquitoes (...) and are preventable with a variety of surveillance and vector control measures (e.g. insecticides, reduction of open containers, etc.). Spatiotemporal statistics can facilitate the surveillance of VBD outbreaks by informing public health officials where to allocate resources to mitigate future outbreaks. We utilize the univariate Kulldorff space-time scan statistic (STSS) to identify and compare statistically significant space-time clusters of CHIK and DENF in Colombia during the outbreaks of 2015 and 2016. We
Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka. Leishmaniasis, a vectorborne tropical/subtropical disease caused by the protozoan Leishmania is transmitted to humans by sandfly vectors Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. The principal form found in Sri Lanka is cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and is caused by Leishmania donovani. A rising trend in disease prevalence has been observed recently in Sri Lanka and the island is in fact the newest endemic focus in South (...) Asia. Determining the prevalence of smear positivity among clinically suspected CL patients, identifying risk factors and specific clinical presentations of CL in order to implement preventive and early treatment strategies were the objectives of this study.A sample of 509 clinically suspected cases of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology from all across Sri Lanka between 2005 and 2015 was selected consecutively. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic visualization of the Leishmania
, national and/or local level and drive efforts to acquire full recommendation of SR products for inclusion in disease control programs. Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment : 15730 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Triple (Participant, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Other Official Title: Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector-borne Diseases (...) to Brief Summary: Dengue viruses are the most medically important arthropod-borne pathogens worldwide, with transmission occurring in most tropical and sub-tropical regions. An estimated 390 million infections occur yearly. Although, there are considerable ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine, vector control remains the only option for reducing dengue virus (DENV) transmission and disease burden. The recent emergence of Aedes-borne Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya viruses (CHIKV) highlight need for novel
vaccine research and development. Four categories of communicableinfectious diseases threaten military personnel: (1) diseases that spread easily in densely populated areas (respiratory and dysenteric diseases); (2) vector-borne diseases (disease carried by mosquitoes and other insects); (3) sexually transmitted diseases (hepatitis, HIV, and gonorrhea); and (4) diseases associated with biological warfare. For each category, the US military has supported research that has provided the basis for many (...) of the vaccines available today. Although preventive measures and the development of drugs have provided some relief from the burden of malaria, dengue, and HIV, the US military continues to fund research and development of prophylactic vaccines that will contribute to force health protection and global health. In the past few years, newly recognized infections with Zika, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome viruses have pushed the US military to fund research and fast track
identified that assessed the impacts of climate change on health in the country. Most papers covered effects of heat on health or on infectious diseases (20/34; 59%). We found that extreme weather events are the most noticeable effects to date, especially droughts in the Western Cape, but rises in vector-borne diseases are gaining prominence. Climate aberration is also linked in myriad ways with outbreaks of food and waterborne diseases, and possibly with the recent Listeria epidemic. The potential (...) impacts of climate change on mental health may compound the multiple social stressors that already beset the populace. Climate change heightens the pre-existing vulnerabilities of women, fishing communities, rural subsistence farmers and those living in informal settlements. Further gender disparities, eco-migration and social disruptions may undermine the prevention-but also treatment-of HIV. Our findings suggest that focused research and effective use of surveillance data are required to monitor
intervention has a low impact but is long-lasting, and quarantining infected territories, if applied strictly, is effective in preventing large epidemics. We present a novel approach in analysing chikungunya outbreaks globally using a single environmentally-driven mathematical model. Our study represents a significant step towards developing a globally applicable Ae. albopictus-borne chikungunya transmission model, and introduces a guideline for extending such models to other vector-borne diseases. (...) A large-scale stochastic spatiotemporal model for Aedes albopictus-borne chikungunya epidemiology. Chikungunya is a viral disease transmitted to humans primarily via the bites of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The virus caused a major epidemic in the Indian Ocean in 2004, affecting millions of inhabitants, while cases have also been observed in Europe since 2007. We developed a stochastic spatiotemporal model of Aedes albopictus-borne chikungunya transmission based on our recently developed
, DC: The National Academies Press, 2011:219-263. . Published 2011. Accessed August 20, 2013. 3. Githeko AK, Lindsay SW, Confalonieri UE, Patz JA. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(9):1136-1147. 4. Greer A, Ng V, Fisman D. Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead. CMAJ. 2008;178(6):715-722. 5. Brownstein JS, Holford TR, Fish D. Effect of climate change on Lyme disease risk in North America. Ecohealth (...) , in . The cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) are only a sliver of the actual incidence of these infections. In a recent press release, the CDC announced preliminary estimates from 3 studies indicating that around 300,000 Americans are diagnosed with Lyme disease each year . This estimate is about 10 times greater than the number of annual reported cases. In response to this finding, the chief of epidemiology and surveillance for CDC’s Lyme disease program [1
to the unfolding crisis, the international medical community should urgently escalate their response by delivering human expertise, skills, and medical supplies to support the local staff and enhance their capacity. A lack of inpatient bed facilities and specialized tertiary level of care, has led to a situation where the healthcare provisions are not adequate to meet the demands of refugees. (1) The monsoon seasons brings even further challenges with vectorborne and communicable disease. Increasing (...) the health literacy of the refugees about NCDs and communicable diseases, early screening and mental healthcare are gravely needed. Further research and data collection is needed to quantify the healthcare needs and to coordinate the response. (6) Our experience demonstrated that private not-for- profit organizations can collaborate with local partners and make an impact in this continuing crisis. To prevent a catastrophe, governmental organizations need to provide for the immediate and long term needs
that will disproportionately affect our more vulnerable populations. Infectious disease outbreaks, particularly vector-borne ones . Wild swings in weather patterns, including large-scale flooding and droughts, will more likely occur. Smog and particulate air pollution, both of which lead to [3, 4]. Agriculture production may be greatly impacted in certain regions of the world, . Some of these effects are obvious, while others may surprise the reader. NYU nephrologist David Goldfarb has spoken of a possible link (...) between climate change and the rising incidence and prevalence of yet another disorder—kidney stones. Kidney stones, also known as nephrolithiasis, are linked to a number of factors including diet, infection, and hereditary conditions like cystinuria. However, the link between climate change and nephrolithiasis has also been studied, and a literature review turns up a number of articles that touch on this question. An intriguing report by Brikowski et al. in the  describes a “kidney stone belt
Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005;159(11):1022-5. 33. Croft DR, Sotir MJ, Williams CJ, Kazmierczak JJ, Wegner MV, Rausch D, et al. Occupational risks during a monkeypox outbreak, Wisconsin, 2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(8):1150-7. 34. Smith KE, Anderson F, Medus C, Leano F, Adams J. Outbreaks of salmonellosis at elementary schools associated with dissection of owl pellets. VectorBorne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5(2):133-6. 35. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Three outbreaks of salmonellosis associated (...) E, Capua I. Serologic evidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection in dogs, Italy. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2010. Available from: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/12/pdfs/10-0514.pdf. 43. Behravesh CB, Ferraro A, Deasy M, 3rd, Dato V, Moll M, Sandt C, et al. Human Salmonella infections linked to contaminated dry dog and cat food, 2006-2008. Pediatrics. 2010;126(3):477-83. 44. Finley R, Reid-Smith R, Ribble C, Popa M
of bird-borne structural risk allowed predicting WND case occurrence in administrative districts of the EU with a sensitivity of 86% (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), and a specificity of 68% (95% CI: 0.66-0.71). Disentangling structural and conjectural health risks is important for public health managers as risk mitigation procedures differ according to risk type. The results obtained show promise for the prevention of WND in Europe. Combined with analyses of vector-borne structural risk, they should allow (...) , (iii) and the socio-economic context that impacts the exposure of human to infectious bites. We developed a model of bird-borne structural risk of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Europe, and analysed the association between the geographic variations of this risk and the occurrence of WND human cases between 2002 and 2014. A meta-analysis of WNV serosurveys conducted in wild bird populations was performed to elaborate a model of WNV seropositivity in European bird species, considered a proxy
â€œLooking over the Backyard Fenceâ€: Householders and Mosquito Control (1) Background: Vector-borne diseases are a significant public health problem in Western Australia. Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of pathogens and may pose a serious nuisance problem. Prevention efforts in the State are multi-faceted and include physical, chemical, and cultural control methods for restricting mosquito breeding. This is less complex where breeding areas are located within (...) public open spaces. In Australia's developed urban areas, breeding sites are, however, frequently located within private residential landholdings, where the scope of public health officials to act is constrained by law and practicality. Consequently, mosquito prevention in these locations is predominantly the responsibility of the residents. This research addressed a gap, both in understanding the degree to which "backyard" mosquito breeding has the potential to contribute to local mosquito problems
F JF Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. Petersen Jeannine M JM Division of Vector-BorneInfectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Gallegos-Graves La Verne V Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. Hodge David D Chemical and Biological Division, Science and Technology Directorate, Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, USA. Pillai Segaran S Office
There Is a Method to the Madness: Strategies to Study Host Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. and Europe, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and disseminate from the site of tick bites to tissues leading to erythema migrans skin rash, arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Relapsing fever borreliae, carried (...) by ticks and lice, trigger reoccurring fever episodes. Following transmission, spirochetes survive in the blood to induce bacteremia at the early stages of infection, which is thought to promote evasion of the host complement system. The complement system acts as an important innate immune defense mechanism in humans and vertebrates. Upon activation, the cleaved complement components form complexes on the pathogen surface to eventually promote bacteriolysis. The complement system is negatively
Clinico-Epidemiological Patterns of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Attending the Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania donovani is an endemic vector-borne disease in Sri Lanka. Over 2,500 cases have been reported since 2000 and the number of CL cases has dramatically increased annually. Total 57 clinically suspected CL patients attending the dermatology clinic in Anuradhapura Teaching Hospital were recruited from January to June 2015. Slit (...) activities contributed to spread of Leishmania parasites in an endemic pattern. Implementation of vector control programs together with health education with regard to transmission and prevention of CL are necessary to control the spread of this infection.
die. About 1.3 billion people are currently at risk of infection from cholera. Meta-analysis and mathematical modelling have demonstrated that due to global warming the burden of vector-borne diseases like malaria, leishmaniasis, meningococcal meningitis, viral encephalitis, dengue and chikungunya will increase in the coming years in the tropics and beyond.This review offers an overview of the interplay between global warming and the pathogenicity and epidemiology of V. cholerae. Several (...) on phytoplankton growth and chitin remineralization will be discussed alongside the interplay of poor sanitary conditions, overcrowding, improper sewage disposal and global warming in promoting the growth and transmission of this deadly disease.The development of an effective early warning system based on climate data could help to prevent and control future outbreaks. It may become possible to integrate real-time monitoring of oceanic regions, climate variability and epidemiological and demographic population