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Prevention of Vector-borne Infection

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121. Enteral lactoferrin to prevent infection for very preterm infants: the ELFIN RCT. (PubMed)

Enteral lactoferrin to prevent infection for very preterm infants: the ELFIN RCT. Infections acquired in hospital are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants. Several small trials have suggested that supplementing the enteral diet of very preterm infants with lactoferrin, an antimicrobial protein processed from cow's milk, prevents infections and associated complications.To determine whether or not enteral supplementation with bovine lactoferrin (The Tatua (...) Cooperative Dairy Company Ltd, Morrinsville, New Zealand) reduces the risk of late-onset infection (acquired > 72 hours after birth) and other morbidity and mortality in very preterm infants.Randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Randomisation was via a web-based portal and used an algorithm that minimised for recruitment site, weeks of gestation, sex and single versus multiple births.UK neonatal units between May 2014 and September 2017.Infants born at < 32 weeks' gestation and aged < 72

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2018 Health technology assessment (Winchester, England) Controlled trial quality: predicted high

122. Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Tanzania Study Start Date : February 2016 Actual Primary Completion Date : April 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : April 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: resources: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention (...) Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Tanzania - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2014 Clinical Trials

123. Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases

: 0 participants Allocation: Randomized Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Kenya Study Start Date : June 2016 Actual Primary Completion Date : July 2016 Actual Study Completion Date : July 2016 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: resources: Arms (...) Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases Spatial Repellent Products for the Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Kenya - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more

2014 Clinical Trials

124. Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases

Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment Masking: Quadruple (Participant, Care Provider, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Indonesia Actual Study Start Date : May 2015 Actual Primary Completion Date : April 15, 2018 Actual Study Completion Date : April 15, 2018 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: resources: Arms and Interventions Go to Arm (...) Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases Spatial Repellent Products for Control of Vector Borne Diseases - Malaria - Indonesia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Spatial

2014 Clinical Trials

125. Understanding health behaviour changes in response to outbreaks: Findings from a longitudinal study of a large epidemic of mosquito-borne disease. (PubMed)

Understanding health behaviour changes in response to outbreaks: Findings from a longitudinal study of a large epidemic of mosquito-borne disease. Although greater attention has been recently given to the ecological determinants of health behaviours, we still do not know much about the behavioural changes induced by the spread of infectiousdiseases.In this study, we took advantage of a large epidemic of chikungunya, an emerging mosquito-borne disease, in French Guiana to examine the dynamic (...) of protective behaviours promoted by the regional health authorities to control the spread of the disease.The surveys showed that (1) the frequency of some health behaviours - those related to visible control methods - significantly increased with the subjective and objective prevalence of the disease, (2) perceived risk of infection for oneself tended to decrease considerably over time, and (3) the risk reappraisal hypothesis failed to account for this paradoxical trend in the people's response to the risk

2019 Social Science & Medicine

126. Cancer mortality rates among US and foreign-born individuals: United States 2005-2014. (PubMed)

foreign-born individuals. Overall, foreign-born individuals had a 31% lower cancer mortality rate when compared to US-born individuals (Rate Ratio (RR): 0.69 (95% CI: 0.68-0.69)), and similar results were observed when stratifying by sex, race/ethnicity, age, and geographic region. However, foreign-born individuals did have significantly elevated cancer mortality rates for seven cancers sites, of which five were infection-related, including: nasopharynx (RR: 2.01), Kaposi Sarcoma (RR: 1.94), stomach (...) Cancer mortality rates among US and foreign-born individuals: United States 2005-2014. From 1970 to 2010 the foreign-born population in the United States has rapidly increased from 9.6 to 40.0 million individuals. Historically, differences in cancer rates have been observed between US-born and foreign-born individuals. However, comprehensive and up-to-date data on US cancer rates by birth place is lacking. To compare cancer mortality rates among foreign and US-born individuals, population-based

2019 Preventive Medicine

127. HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. (PubMed)

HIV prevalence and risk factors in infants born to HIV positive mothers, measured by dried blood spot real-time PCR assay in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Infants infected during pregnancy or while breastfeeding requires early HIV diagnosis at 6 weeks after birth to identify HIV infection and timely treatment. The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HIV among HIV exposed infants in the Tigray regional state, Northern Ethiopia.A cross-sectional (...) study was conducted on 350 exposed infants born to HIV seropositive mothers from September 01 to December 30, 2016. Convenient consecutive sampling technique was employed to enroll HIV exposed infants from age 6 weeks to 18 months attending prevention of mother to child transmission (PMCT) clinic at Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) site facility in Tigray, Ethiopia. Sociodemographic data and associated risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Dried Blood Spot (DBS) samples were

2019 BMC Pediatrics

128. Case Report: Early Doxycycline Therapy for Potential Rickettsiosis in Critically Ill Patients in Flea-Borne Typhus-Endemic Areas. (PubMed)

when considering the etiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile syndromes. The diagnostic challenges of FBT include the nonspecific and variable nature of both history and physical examination and the lack of diagnostic testing that can provide clinically relevant information early in the course of infection. These barriers perpetuate misdiagnoses in critically ill patients and lead to delay in initiating appropriate antibiotics, which may contribute to preventable morbidity and mortality (...) Case Report: Early Doxycycline Therapy for Potential Rickettsiosis in Critically Ill Patients in Flea-Borne Typhus-Endemic Areas. Flea-borne typhus (FBT), although usually perceived as a self-resolving febrile illness, actually encompasses a wide spectrum of disease severity, including fulminant sepsis with multi-organ failure. In endemic Texas and California, the incidence of FBT has more than doubled over the last decade. Clinicians remain unfamiliar with severe septic presentations of FBT

2019 American Journal of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene

129. Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity Study of Homologous Ad26 Mosaic Vector Vaccine Regimens or Heterologous Ad26 Mosaic and MVA Mosaic Vector Vaccine Regimens With Glycoprotein 140 (gp140) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention

Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity Study of Homologous Ad26 Mosaic Vector Vaccine Regimens or Heterologous Ad26 Mosaic and MVA Mosaic Vector Vaccine Regimens With Glycoprotein 140 (gp140) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity Study of Homologous Ad26 Mosaic Vector Vaccine Regimens or Heterologous Ad26 Mosaic and MVA Mosaic Vector Vaccine Regimens With Glycoprotein 140 (gp140) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention - Full Text (...) (Participant, Investigator) Primary Purpose: Prevention Official Title: A Phase 1/2a Trial to Evaluate the Safety/Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Homologous Ad26 Mosaic Vector Regimens or Ad26 Mosaic and MVA Mosaic Heterologous Vector Regimens, With High-Dose, Low-Dose or no Clade C gp140 Protein Plus Adjuvant for HIV Prevention Actual Study Start Date : December 22, 2014 Actual Primary Completion Date : May 2, 2016 Estimated Study Completion Date : July 18, 2022 Resource links provided by the National

2014 Clinical Trials

130. Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial. Vertical transmission of Hepatitis B virus HBV can result in a state of chronic HBV infection and its complications. HBV vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) prevents transmission of overt infection to the babies. However, whether it also (...) overt but also any infection (both overt and occult) in babies. In addition, high maternal HBV DNA and treatment with vaccine alone were significant factors for overt HBV infection in babies. The current practice of administration of vaccine with HBIG at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers is not effective in preventing occult HBV infection in babies, which may be up to 40%. Because the most important risk factors for mother-to-baby transmission of HBV infection are the replicative status

2013 Journal of viral hepatitis Controlled trial quality: predicted high

131. Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Hepatitis B vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers prevents overt HBV transmission but may not prevent occult HBV infection in babies: a randomized controlled trial. Vertical transmission of Hepatitis B virus HBV can result in a state of chronic HBV infection and its complications. HBV vaccination with or without hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) prevents transmission of overt infection to the babies. However, whether it also (...) overt but also any infection (both overt and occult) in babies. In addition, high maternal HBV DNA and treatment with vaccine alone were significant factors for overt HBV infection in babies. The current practice of administration of vaccine with HBIG at birth to babies born of HBsAg-positive mothers is not effective in preventing occult HBV infection in babies, which may be up to 40%. Because the most important risk factors for mother-to-baby transmission of HBV infection are the replicative status

2013 Journal of viral hepatitis Controlled trial quality: predicted high

132. Challenges and options for disease vector control: The outbreak of Zika virus in South America and increasing insecticide resistance among mosquitoes have rekindled efforts for controlling disease vectors (PubMed)

Hunter Philip P London, UK. eng Journal Article 2016 09 05 England EMBO Rep 100963049 1469-221X IM Animals Culicidae microbiology virology Disease Outbreaks prevention & control Gene Drive Technology Humans Insecticide Resistance Mosquito Control Mosquito Vectors microbiology virology South America epidemiology Wolbachia physiology Zika Virus physiology Zika Virus Infection epidemiology prevention & control transmission virology 2016 9 7 6 0 2018 1 30 6 0 2016 9 7 6 0 ppublish 27596624 embr.201643233 (...) Challenges and options for disease vector control: The outbreak of Zika virus in South America and increasing insecticide resistance among mosquitoes have rekindled efforts for controlling disease vectors 27596624 2018 01 29 2018 11 13 1469-3178 17 10 2016 10 EMBO reports EMBO Rep. Challenges and options for disease vector control: The outbreak of Zika virus in South America and increasing insecticide resistance among mosquitoes have rekindled efforts for controlling disease vectors. 1370-1373

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2016 EMBO reports

133. Ecology of West Nile virus across four European countries: review of weather profiles, vector population dynamics and vector control response (PubMed)

in Greece with 262 clinical human cases and 35 fatalities. Since then, WNV lineage 2 outbreaks have been reported in several European countries including Italy, Serbia and Greece. Understanding the interaction of ecological factors that affect WNV transmission is crucial for preventing or decreasing the impact of future epidemics. The synchronous co-occurrence of competent mosquito vectors, virus, bird reservoir hosts, and susceptible humans is necessary for the initiation and propagation of an epidemic (...) our understanding of WNV ecology is a prerequisite step for appraising and optimizing vector control strategies in Europe with the ultimate goal to minimize the probability of WNV infection.

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2016 Parasites & vectors

134. Origins of truncated supplementary capsid proteins in rAAV8 vectors produced with the baculovirus system. (PubMed)

of VP1/VP2 AAV capsid proteins reduces the infectivity of rAAV vectors but can be prevented by the use of a baculovirus vector with a deletion of the chiA/v-cath locus or by addition of the E64 protease inhibitor during production. Moreover, the codon optimization of AAV cap performed for several serotypes and originally aimed at the removal of potential alternative initiation codons, resulted in incorporation of additional forms of truncated VP1 into the rAAV capsids. (...) Origins of truncated supplementary capsid proteins in rAAV8 vectors produced with the baculovirus system. The ability to produce large quantities of recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) vectors is an important factor for the development of gene therapy-based medicine. The baculovirus/insect cell expression system is one of the major systems for large scale rAAV production. So far, most technological developments concerned the optimization of the AAV rep and cap genes in order

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2018 PLoS ONE

135. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Measles Virus-vectored Chikungunya Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates. (PubMed)

Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Measles Virus-vectored Chikungunya Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can result in chikungunya fever (CHIKF), a self-limited acute febrile illness that can progress to chronic arthralgic sequalae in a large percentage of patients. A new Measles virus-vectored vaccine was developed to prevent CHIKF and we tested it for immunogenicity and efficacy in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model.Nine cynomolgus macaques were immunized and boosted (...) with the Measles virus-vectored chikungunya vaccine or sham-vaccinated. Sera were taken at multiple times during the vaccination phase to assess antibody responses against CHIKV. Macaques were challenged with a dose of CHIKV previously shown to cause fever and viremia, and core body temperature, viremia and blood cell and chemistry panels were monitored.The vaccine was well tolerated in all macaques, and all seroconverted (high neutralizing antibody [PRNT80 titers 40-640] and ELISA titers) after the boost

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2019 Journal of Infectious Diseases

136. What is the evidence supporting universal versus risk-based maternal screening to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns?

What is the evidence supporting universal versus risk-based maternal screening to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns? K KT TA A E Ev vi id de en nc ce e S Su um mm ma ar ry y K KT TA A E Ev vi id de en nc ce e S Su um mm ma ar ry y N No o. . 1 14 4 What is the evidence supporting universal versus risk-based maternal screening to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns? E Ev vi id de en nc ce e S Su um mm ma ar ry y N No o. . 1 14 4 D De ev ve el lo op pe ed d a as s (...) October 2011 What is known about universal versus risk-based maternal screening to prevent group B streptococcal infection in newborns? The objective of this report is to summarize the evidence on the recommended prenatal screening strategy for group B streptococcal (GBS) infection. Its intention is to support efforts that seek to increase rates of universal GBS screening among pregnant women across Ontario. Key Messages ? GBS disease is a leading cause of infant mortality in Canada. Screening

2011 OHRI Knowledge to Action

137. Antiviral Prophylaxis and Infant Vaccination to Prevent Perinatal Hepatitis B Infection

Antiviral Prophylaxis and Infant Vaccination to Prevent Perinatal Hepatitis B Infection Antiviral Prophylaxis and Infant Vaccination to Prevent Perinatal Hepatitis B Infection - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies (...) before adding more. Antiviral Prophylaxis and Infant Vaccination to Prevent Perinatal Hepatitis B Infection The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03343431 Recruitment Status : Recruiting First Posted : November

2017 Clinical Trials

138. Using theory-based messages to motivate U.S. pregnant women to prevent cytomegalovirus infection: results from formative research. (PubMed)

Using theory-based messages to motivate U.S. pregnant women to prevent cytomegalovirus infection: results from formative research. An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women (...) about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U.S. women. Fear appeal theories suggest that message recipients will take action if they feel fear.First, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 32) with women who had young children who tested positive for CMV. Second, we conducted eight focus groups (N = 70) in two phases and two cities (Phase 2: Atlanta, GA; Phase 3: San Diego, CA) with pregnant women and non-pregnant women who had young

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2017 BMC Women's Health

139. Engineering antibody-like inhibitors to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection. (PubMed)

Engineering antibody-like inhibitors to prevent and treat HIV-1 infection. Here we discuss recently developed HIV-1 entry inhibitors that can target multiple epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env), with an emphasis on eCD4-Ig. Some of these inhibitors are more potent and broader than any single antibody characterized to date. We also discuss the use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors as a platform for long-term expression of these inhibitors.Much of the exterior (...) of HIV-1 Env can be targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Recent studies combine the variable regions or Fabs from different bNAbs, often with the receptor-mimetic components, to create broad, potent, and hard-to-escape inhibitors. rAAV vectors can express these inhibitors for years in vivo, highlighting their ability to prevent or treat HIV-1 infection.By targeting multiple epitopes on Env, bispecific and antibody-like inhibitors can be broader and more potent than bNAbs

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2017 Current opinion in HIV and AIDS

140. Strategy and technology to prevent hospital-acquired infections: Lessons from SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa (PubMed)

Strategy and technology to prevent hospital-acquired infections: Lessons from SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are serious problems for healthcare systems, especially in developing countries where public health infrastructure and technology for infection preventions remain undeveloped. Here, we characterized how strategy and technology could be mobilized to improve the effectiveness of infection prevention and control in hospitals during (...) the outbreaks of Ebola, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Asia and West Africa. Published literature on the hospital-borne outbreaks of SARS, Ebola, and MERS in Asia and West Africa was comprehensively reviewed. The results showed that healthcare systems and hospital management in affected healthcare facilities had poor strategies and inadequate technologies and human resources for the prevention and control of HAIs, which led to increased morbidity

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2017 Military Medical Research

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